Department of Biology & Biochemistry
ed_feil

Professor of Microbial Evolution

3 South 0.27

Email: e.feil@bath.ac.uk

Tel: +44 (0) 1225 383021

 

Professor Ed Feil 

Profile

Research Interests

My research interests lie in using sequence data to study bacterial pathogens, both from a point of view of managing infections (molecular epidemiology) but also in terms of understanding fundamental evolutionary dynamics. The early part of my research career was spent generating and interpreting multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data for numerous species. I developed the BURST algorithm to help visualise these datasets (J Bacteriol. 186(5):1518-30). More recently, I have focussed on whole genome sequence (WGS) data, and was joint lead author on the first demonstration of WGS data for molecular epidemiology (Science 327: 5964 469-474). I am currently a PI on a large CRCUK project, headed by Prof Sharon Peacock, looking at implementing this technology into routine epidemiological surveillance, and was previously a work package leader on the FP7 Project TROCAR, headed by Prof Jordi Villa, which aimed to characterise and manage high risk antibiotic resistant clones in Europe.

I also have a strong interest in using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to understand and manage the spread of bacterial pathogens in animals. I was a PI on consortium funded under the insect pollinator initiative looking at the epidemiology of European Foul Brood in honeybees, and am currently PI on the BBSRC/NERC funded project wgs-aqua.net, which aims to deploy WGS to manage bacterial pathogens of aquaculture (in collaboration with Cefas, Weymouth, the University of Stirling and the Centre for Genomic Pathogen Surveillance, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute).

In addition to molecular epidemiology, WGS data of bacterial pathogens can shed light on basic evolutionary questions concerning diversification; mutation, recombination and selection. Research questions include the strength of selection on intergenic sites, codon bias, context dependant mutation, the maintenance of GC content, INDEL formation, and gene essentiality.

I was awarded the Zoological Society of London Scientific Medal in 2010, and am an ISI highly cited researcher for 2015.

Publications

Senghore, M., Bayliss, S. C., Kwambana-Adams, B. A., Foster-Nyarko, E., Manneh, J., Dione, M., Badji, H., Ebruke, C., Doughty, E. L., Thorpe, H. A., Jasinska, A. J., Schmitt, C. A., Cramer, J. D., Turner, T. R., Weinstock, G., Freimer, N. B., Pallen, M. J., Feil, E. J. and Antonio, M., 2016. Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus from humans to green monkeys in the Gambia as revealed by whole-genome sequencing. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82 (19), pp. 5910-5917.

Feil, E., Bayliss, S., senghore, M., Kwambana-Adams, B., Foster-Nyarko, E., Menneh, J., Dione, M., Badji, H., Ebruke, C., Doughty, E., Thorpe, H. A. F. W., Jasinska, A., Schmitt, C., Cramer, J., Turner, T., Weinstock, G., Freimer, N., Pallen, M. and Antonio, M., 2016. Forthcoming. Whole-genome sequencing reveals anthroponotic transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to African Green monkeys in The Gambia:Human to monkeys Staphylococcus aureus transmission. Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Numminen, E., Gutmann, M., Shubin, M., Marttinen, P., Méric, G., van Schaik, W., Coque, T. M., Baquero, F., Willems, R. J. L., Sheppard, S. K., Feil, E. J., Hanage, W. P. and Corander, J., 2016. The impact of host metapopulation structure on the population genetics of colonizing bacteria. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 396, pp. 53-62.

Feil, E., Aanensen, D. M., Holden, M. T. G., Dordel, J., Castillo-Ramirez, S., Parkhill, J., Bentley, S. D., Spratt, B. G. and Grundmann, H., 2016. Whole-genome sequencing for routine pathogen surveillance in Public Health:a population snapshot of invasive staphylococcus aureus in Europe. mBio, 7 (3), e00444-16.

Gebhard, S. and Feil, E., 2016. ‘Resistance-proof’ antibiotics may never exist – but there are some promising alternatives. [Non-academic press]

Chang, H. H., Dordel, J., Donker, T., Worby, C. J., Feil, E. J., Hanage, W. P., Bentley, S. D., Huang, S. S. and Lipsitch, M., 2016. Identifying the effect of patient sharing on between-hospital genetic differentiation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Genome Medicine, 8 (18).

Reuter, S., Estee Torok, M., Holden, M. T. G., Reynolds, R., Raven, K. E., Blane, B., Donker, T., Bentley, S. D., Aanensen, D. M., Grundmann, H., Feil, E. J., Spratt, B. G., Parkhill, J. and Peacock, S. J., 2016. Building a genomic framework for prospective MRSA surveillance in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Genome Research, 26 (2), pp. 263-270.

Mechai, S., Margos, G., Feil, E. J., Barairo, N., Lindsay, L. R., Michel, P. and Ogden, N. H., 2016. Evidence for host-genotype associations of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. PLoS ONE, 11 (2), e0149345.

Senn, L., Clerc, O., Zanetti, G., Basset, P., Prod'hom, G., Gordon, N., Sheppard, A., Crook, D., James, R., Thorpe, H. A. F. W., Feil, E. and Blanc, D., 2016. The stealthy superbug:the role of asymptomatic enteric carriage in maintaining a long-term hospital outbreak of ST228 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. mBio, 7 (1), e02039-15.

Feil, E. J., 2015. Toward a synthesis of genotypic typing and phenotypic inference in the genomics era. Future Microbiology, 10 (12), pp. 1897-1899.

Ogden, N. H., Feil, E. J., Leighton, P. A., Lindsay, L. R., Margos, G., Mechai, S., Michel, P. and Moriarty, T. J., 2015. Evolutionary aspects of emerging lyme disease in Canada. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81 (21), pp. 7350-7359.

Tovar-Corona, J. M., Castillo-Morales, A., Chen, L., Olds, B. P., Clark, J. M., Reynolds, S. E., Pittendrigh, B. R., Feil, E. J. and Urrutia, A. O., 2015. Alternative splice in alternative lice. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32 (10), pp. 2749-2759.

Laabei, M., Uhlemann, A. C., Lowy, F. D., Austin, E. D., Yokoyama, M., Ouadi, K., Feil, E., Thorpe, H. A., Williams, B. G., Perkins, M., Peacock, S. J., Clarke, S. R., Dordel, J., Holden, M., Votintseva, A. A., Bowden, R., Crook, D. W., Young, B. C., Wilson, D. J., Recker, M. and Massey, R. C., 2015. Evolutionary trade-offs underlie the multi-faceted virulence of staphylococcus aureus. PLoS Biology, 13 (9), e1002229.

Méric, G., Miragaia, M., de Been, M., Yahara, K., Pascoe, B., Mageiros, L., Mikhail, J., Harris, L. G., Wilkinson, T. S., Rolo, J., Lamble, S., Bray, J. E., Jolley, K. A., Hanage, W. P., Bowden, R., Maiden, M. C. J., Mack, D., de Lencastre, H., Feil, E. J., Corander, J. and Sheppard, S. K., 2015. Ecological overlap and horizontal gene transfer in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Genome Biology and Evolution, 7 (5), pp. 1313-1328.

Mechai, S., Margos, G., Feil, E. J., Lindsay, L. R. and Ogden, N. H., 2015. Complex population structure of Borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern and south central Canada as revealed by phylogeographic analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81 (4), pp. 1309-1318.

Budge, G. E., Shirley, M. D. F., Jones, B., Quill, E., Tomkies, V., Feil, E. J., Brown, M. A. and Haynes, E. G., 2014. Molecular epidemiology and population structure of the honey bee brood pathogen Melissococcus plutonius. ISME Journal, 8, pp. 1588-1597.

Laabei, M., Recker, M., Rudkin, J. K., Aldeljawi, M., Gulay, Z., Sloan, T. J., Williams, P., Endres, J. L., Bayles, K. W., Fey, P. D., Yajjala, V. K., Widhelm, T., Hawkins, E., Lewis, K., Parfett, S., Scowen, L., Peacock, S. J., Holden, M., Wilson, D., Read, T. D., Van Den Elsen, J., Priest, N. K., Feil, E. J., Hurst, L. D., Josefsson, E. and Massey, R. C., 2014. Predicting the virulence of MRSA from its genome sequence. Genome Research, 24 (5), pp. 839-849.

Brynildsrud, O., Feil, E. J., Bohlin, J., Castillo-Ramirez, S., Colquhoun, D., McCarthy, U., Matejusova, I. M., Rhodes, L. D., Wiens, G. D. and Verner-Jeffreys, D. W., 2014. Microevolution of Renibacterium salmoninarum:evidence for intercontinental dissemination associated with fish movements. ISME Journal, 8, pp. 746-756.

Dinnis, R. E., Seelig, F., Bormane, A., Donaghy, M., Vollmer, S. A., Feil, E. J., Kurtenbach, K. and Margos, G., 2014. Multilocus sequence typing using mitochondrial genes (mtMLST) reveals geographic population structure of Ixodes ricinus ticks. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases, 5 (2), pp. 152-160.

Vanbergen, A. J., Baude, M., Biesmeijer, J. C., Britton, N. F., Brown, M. J. F., Bryden, J., Budge, G. E., Bull, J. C., Carvell, C., Challinor, A. J., Connolly, C. N., Evans, D. J., Feil, E. J., Garratt, M. P., Greco, M. K., Heard, M. S., Jansen, V. A. A., Keeling, M. J., Kunin, W. E., Marris, G. C., Memmott, J., Murray, J. T., Nicolson, S. W., Osborne, J. L., Paxton, R. J., Pirk, C. W. W., Polce, C., Potts, S. G., Priest, N. K., Raine, N. E., Roberts, S., Ryabov, E. V., Shafir, S., Shirley, M. D. F., Simpson, S. J., Stevenson, P. C., Stone, G. N., Termansen, M. and Wright, G. A., 2013. Threats to an ecosystem service:Pressures on pollinators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11 (5), pp. 251-259.

Shepheard, M.A., Fleming, V.M., Connor, T.R., Corander, J., Feil, E.J., Fraser, C. and Hanage, W.P., 2013. Historical zoonoses and other changes in host tropism of Staphylococcus aureus, identified by phylogenetic analysis of a population dataset. PLoS ONE, 8 (5), 62369.

Mechai, S., Feil, E. J., Gariepy, T. D., Gregory, T. R., Lindsay, L. R., Millien, V. and Ogden, N. H., 2013. Investigation of the population structure of the tick vector of lyme disease Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) in Canada using mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene sequences. Journal of Medical Entomology, 50 (3), pp. 560-570.

Theethakaew, C., Feil, E. J., Castillo-Ramírez, S., Aanensen, D. M., Suthienkul, O., Neil, D. M. and Davies, R. L., 2013. Genetic relationships of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical, human carrier, and environmental sources in Thailand, determined by multilocus sequence analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79 (7), pp. 2358-2370.

Vollmer, S.A., Feil, E.J., Raper, S.L., Kurtenbach, K., Chu, C.-Y., Cao, W.-C. and Margos, G., 2013. Spatial spread and demographic expansion of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes in Eurasia. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 14, pp. 147-155.

Wellington, E.M.H., Boxall, A.B.A., Cross, P., Feil, E.J., Gaze, W.H., Hawkey, P.M., Johnson-Rollings, A.S., Jones, D.L., Lee, N.M., Otten, W., Thomas, C.M. and Williams, A.P., 2013. The role of the natural environment in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13 (2), pp. 155-165.

Boonsilp, S., Thaipadungpanit, J., Amornchai, P., Wuthiekanun, V., Bailey, M.S., Holden, M.T.G., Zhang, C., Jiang, X., Koizumi, N., Taylor, K., Galloway, R., Hoffmaster, A.R., Craig, S., Smythe, L.D., Hartskeerl, R.A., Day, N.P., Chantratita, N., Feil, E.J., Aanensen, D.M., Spratt, B.G. and Peacock, S.J., 2013. A Single Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) Scheme for Seven Pathogenic Leptospira Species. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7 (1), 1954.

Greco, M. K., Lang, J., Gallmann, P., Priest, N., Feil, E. and Crailsheim, K., 2013. Sugar concentration influences decision making in Apis mellifera L. workers during early-stage honey storage behaviour. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 3 (3), pp. 210-218.

Priest, N. K., Rudkin, J. K., Feil, E. J., Van Den Elsen, J. M. H., Cheung, A., Peacock, S. J., Laabei, M., Lucks, D. A., Recker, M. and Massey, R. C., 2012. From genotype to phenotype: can systems biology be used to predict Staphylococcus aureus virulence? Nature Reviews Microbiology, 10 (11), pp. 791-797.

Feil, E. J., 2012. The emergence and spread of dysentery. Nature Genetics, 44 (9), pp. 964-965.

Mcadam, P. R., Templeton, K. E., Edwards, G. F., Holden, M. T. G., Feil, E. J., Aanensen, D. M., Bargawi, H. J. A., Spratt, B. G., Bentley, S. D., Parkhill, J., Enright, M. C., Holmes, A., Girvan, E. K., Godfrey, P. A., Feldgarden, M., Kearns, A. M., Rambaut, A., Robinson, D. A. and Fitzgerald, J. R., 2012. Molecular tracing of the emergence, adaptation, and transmission of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (23), pp. 9107-9112.

Ros, V. I. D., Fleming, V. M., Feil, E. J. and Breeuwer, J. A. J., 2012. Diversity and recombination in Wolbachia and Cardinium from Bryobia spider mites. BMC Microbiology, 12 (Supplement 1), S13.

Castillo-ramirez, S., Corander, J., Marttinen, P., Aldeljawi, M., Hanage, W. P., Westh, H., Boye, K., Gulay, Z., Bentley, S. D., Parkhill, J., Holden, M. T. and Feil, E. J., 2012. Phylogeographic variation in recombination rates within a global clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Genome Biology, 13 (12), R126.

Lobova, T. I., Feil, E. J. and Popova, L. Y., 2011. Multiple antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Siberian lakes subjected to differing degrees of anthropogenic impact. Microbial Drug Resistance, 17 (4), pp. 583-591.

Charneski, C. A., Honti, F., Bryant, J. M., Hurst, L. D. and Feil, E. J., 2011. Atypical AT skew in firmicute genomes results from selection and not from mutation. Plos Genetics, 7 (9), e1002283.

Willems, R. J. L., Hanage, W. P., Bessen, D. E. and Feil, E. J., 2011. Population biology of Gram-positive pathogens: high-risk clones for dissemination of antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 35 (5), pp. 872-900.

Castillo-Ramirez, S., Harris, S. R., Holden, M. T. G., He, M., Parkhill, J., Bentley, S. D. and Feil, E. J., 2011. The Impact of recombination on dN/dS within recently emerged bacterial clones. PLoS Pathogens, 7 (7), e1002129.

Ogden, N. H., Margos, G., Aanensen, D. M., Drebot, M. A., Feil, E. J., Hanincova, K., Schwartz, I., Tyler, S. and Lindsay, L. R., 2011. Investigation of Genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected during Surveillance in Canada. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77 (10), pp. 3244-3254.

Vollmer, S. A., Bormane, A., Dinnis, R. E., Seelig, F., Dobson, A. D. M., Aanensen, D. M., James, M. C., Donaghy, M., Randolph, S. E., Feil, E. J., Kurtenbach, K. and Margos, G., 2011. Host migration impacts on the phylogeography of Lyme Borreliosis spirochaete species in Europe. Environmental Microbiology, 13 (1), pp. 184-192.

Holt, D. C., Holden, M. T. G., Tong, S. Y. C., Castillo-Ramirez, S., Clarke, L., Quail, M. A., Currie, B. J., Parkhill, J., Bentley, S. D., Feil, E. J. and Giffard, P. M., 2011. A Very Early-Branching Staphylococcus aureus Lineage Lacking the Carotenoid Pigment Staphyloxanthin. Genome Biology and Evolution, 3, pp. 881-895.

Ahmed, A., Thaipadungpanit, J., Boonsilp, S., Wuthiekanun, V., Nalam, K., Spratt, B. G., Aanensen, D. M., Smythe, L. D., Ahmed, N., Feil, E. J., Hartskeerl, R. A. and Peacock, S. J., 2011. Comparison of two multilocus sequence based genotyping schemes for Leptospira species. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5 (11), e1374.

Rocha, E. P. C. and Feil, E. J., 2010. Mutational patterns cannot explain genome composition: Are there any neutral sites in the genomes of bacteria? Plos Genetics, 6 (9), e1001104.

Sonthayanon, P., Peacock, S. J., Chierakul, W., Wuthiekanun, V., Blacksell, S. D., Holden, M. T. G., Bentley, S. D., Feil, E. J. and Day, N. P. J., 2010. High rates of homologous recombination in the mite endosymbiont and opportunistic human pathogen orientia tsutsugamushi. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4 (7), e752.

Robinson, D. A., Falush, D. and Feil, E.J., eds., 2010. Bacterial Population Genetics in Infectious Disease. Wiley.

Elbir, H., Feil, E. J., Drancourt, M., Roux, V., El Sanousi, S. M., Eshag, M., Colque-Navarro, P., Kühn, I. and Flock, J. I., 2010. Ovine clone ST1464:A predominant genotype of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius isolated from sheep in Sudan. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 4 (4), pp. 235-238.

Arvand, M., Raoult, D. and Feil, E. J., 2010. Multi-locus sequence typing of a geographically and temporally diverse sample of the highly clonal human pathogen bartonella quintana. PLoS ONE, 5 (3), e9765.

Harris, S. R., Feil, E. J., Holden, M. T. G., Quail, M. A., Nickerson, E. K., Chantratita, N., Gardete, S., Tavares, A., Day, N., Lindsay, J. A., Edgeworth, J. D., de Lencastre, H., Parkhill, J., Peacock, S. J. and Bentley, S. D., 2010. Evolution of MRSA during hospital transmission and intercontinental spread. Science, 327 (5964), pp. 469-474.

Sim, B. M. Q., Chantratita, N., Ooi, W. F., Nandi, T., Tewhey, R., Wuthiekanun, V., Thaipadungpanit, J., Tumapa, S., Ariyaratne, P., Sung, W.-K., Sem, X. H., Chua, H. H., Ramnarayanan, K., Lin, C. H., Liu, Y., Feil, E. J., Glass, M. B., Tan, G., Peacock, S. J. and Tan, P., 2010. Genomic acquisition of a capsular polysaccharide virulence cluster by non-pathogenic Burkholderia isolates. Genome Biology, 11 (8), R89.

Wuthiekanun, V., Limmathurotsakul, D., Chantratita, N., Feil, E. J., Day, N. P. J. and Peacock, S. J., 2009. Burkholderia pseudomallei is genetically diverse in agricultural land in Northeast Thailand. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3 (8), e496.

Ros, V. I. D., Fleming, V. M., Feil, E. J. and Breeuwer, J. A. J., 2009. How diverse is the genus Wolbachia? Multiple-gene sequencing reveals a putatively new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75 (4), pp. 1036-1043.

Fan, J., Shu, M., Zhang, G., Zhou, W., Jiang, Y., Zhu, Y., Chen, G., Peacock, S. J., Wan, C., Pan, W. and Feil, E. J., 2009. Biogeography and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS ONE, 4 (7), e6216.

Ruimy, R., Armand-Lefevre, L., Barbier, F., Ruppe, E., Cocojaru, R., Mesli, Y., Maiga, A., Benkalfat, M., Benchouk, S., Hassaine, H., Dufourcq, J. -B., Nareth, C., Sarthou, J. -L., Andremont, A. and Feil, E. J., 2009. Comparisons between geographically diverse samples of carried Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Bacteriology, 191 (18), pp. 5577-5583.

Hay, S. I., Aanensen, D. M., Huntley, D. M., Feil, E. J., al-Own, F.'a. and Spratt, B. G., 2009. EpiCollect: linking smartphones to web applications for epidemiology, ecology and community data collection. PLoS ONE, 4 (9), e6968.

Smyth, D. S., Feil, E. J., Meaney, W. J., Hartigan, P. J., Tollersrud, T., Fitzgerald, J. R., Enright, M. C. and Smyth, C. J., 2009. Molecular genetic typing reveals further insights into the diversity of animal-associated Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 58 (10), pp. 1343-1353.

Xu, B. L., Zhang, G., Ye, H. F., Feil, E. J., Chen, G. R., Zhou, X. M., Zhan, X. M., Chen, S. M. and Pan, W. B., 2009. Predominance of the Hungarian clone (ST 239-III) among hospital-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered throughout mainland China. Journal of Hospital Infection, 71 (3), pp. 245-255.

Balbi, K. J., Rocha, E. P. C. and Feil, E. J., 2009. The Temporal Dynamics of Slightly Deleterious Mutations in Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26 (2), pp. 345-355.

Sim, S. H., Yu, Y., Lin, C. H., Karuturi, R. K. M., Wuthiekanun, V., Tuanyok, A., Chua, H. H., Ong, C., Paramalingam, S. S., Tan, G., Tang, L., Lau, G., Ooi, E. E., Woods, D., Feil, E., Peacock, S. J. and Tan, P., 2008. The core and accessory Genomes of Burkholderia pseudomallei:Implications for human melioidosis. PLoS Pathogens, 4 (10), e1000178.

Tumapa, S., Holden, M. T. G., Vesaratchavest, M., Wuthiekanun, V., Limmathurotsakul, D., Chierakul, W., Feil, E. J., Currie, B. J., Day, N. P. J., Nierman, W. C. and Peacock, S. J., 2008. Burkholderia pseudomallei genome plasticity associated with genomic island variation. BMC Genomics, 9 (190).

Feil, E. J., Nickerson, E. K., Chantratita, N., Wuthiekanun, V., Srisomang, P., Cousins, R., Pan, W., Zhang, G., Xu, B., Day, N. P. J. and Peacock, S. J., 2008. Rapid detection of the pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST 239, a dominant strain in Asian hospitals. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 46 (4), pp. 1520-1522.

Atkins, K. L., Burman, J. D., Chamberlain, E. S., Cooper, J. E., Poutrel, B., Bagby, S., Jenkins, T. A., Feil, E. J. and van den Elsen, J. M. H., 2008. S. aureus IgG-binding proteins SpA and Sbi: host specificity and mechanisms of immune complex formation. Molecular Immunology, 45 (6), pp. 1600-1611.

Chantratita, N., Wuthiekanun, V., Limmathurotsakul, D., Vesaratchavest, M., Thanwisai, A., Amornchai, P., Tumapa, S., Feil, E. J., Day, N. P. and Peacock, S. J., 2008. Genetic Diversity and Microevolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Environment. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2 (2), e182.

Vitorino, L. R., Margos, G., Feil, E. J., Collares-Pereira, M., Zé-Zé, L. and Kurtenbach, K., 2008. Fine-scale phylogeographic structure of Borrelia lusitaniae revealed by multilocus sequence typing. PLoS ONE, 3 (12), e4002.

Margos, G., Gatewood, A. G., Aanensen, D. M., Hanincova, K., Terekhova, D., Vollmer, S. A., Cornet, M., Piesman, J., Donaghy, M., Bormane, A., Hurn, M. A., Feil, E., Fish, D., Casjens, S., Wormser, G. P., Schwartz, I. and Kurtenbach, K., 2008. MLST of housekeeping genes captures geographic population structure and suggests a European origin of Borrelia burgdorferi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (25), pp. 8730-8735.

Ruimy, R., Maiga, A., Armand-Lefevre, L., Maiga, I., Diallo, A., Koumare, A. K., Ouattara, K., Soumare, S., Gaillard, K., Lucet, J. C., Andremont, A. and Feil, E. J., 2008. The carriage population of Staphylococcus aureus from Mali is composed of a combination of pandemic clones and the divergent Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive genotype ST152. Journal of Bacteriology, 190 (11), pp. 3962-3968.

This list was generated on Fri Dec 2 18:59:32 2016 GMT.

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