Department of Biology & Biochemistry


Professor Emeritus

3 South 1.11


Tel: +44 (0) 1225 385116 


Prof Stuart Reynolds


I’m now retired and have an Emeritus Chair. This means that my research lab has closed, and I am unable to accept research students or postdocs. But I continue to do collaborative research.

Current Research

Insects and Microbes

I’m interested in specific interactions between insects and microbes. Millions of years of natural selection have enabled insect-specific pathogens to overcome insect defences, often using insect-specific immunotoxins, which may be useful in crop protection. Because most animals are insects, this research can tell us a lot about how microbes cause disease in any kind of animal (including humans) as well as yielding fundamental understanding of how immune systems work.

Other microbes are obligate or facultative endosymbionts of insects, and constitute an important enabling mechanism for the fantastic diversification of insects. We know very little about how insects are able to tolerate and even encourage the presence of endosymbiotic microorganisms while simultaneously defending themselves against potential pathogens. Better understanding of this will shed light on the evolutionary history of the immune system.

Agriculture, Population and Biodiversity

I am concerned about how the Earth’s growing human population will be fed in the future. This raises all sorts of questions, but one obvious one is how to manage the competition between people and insects for food. Knowledge about insect infection and immunity is likely to be useful in devising safer, more effective ways of controlling insect pests of agricultural crops and vectors of human disease. Another question is how the almost inevitable extensification of agriculture (i.e. using more land) will impact on the conservation of global biodiversity, and how this can be alleviated through agricultural and development policy. I am interested in both science and policy in this area: I am a member of the All-party Parliamentary Group on Biodiversity.


Tovar-Corona, J. M., Castillo-Morales, A., Chen, L., Olds, B. P., Clark, J. M., Reynolds, S. E., Pittendrigh, B. R., Feil, E. J. and Urrutia, A. O., 2015. Alternative splice in alternative lice. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32 (10), pp. 2749-2759.

Reynolds, S. E., 2013. Ecology. Immunity and invasive success. Science, 340 (6134), pp. 816-817.

Garbutt, J. S., Bellés, X., Richards, E. H. and Reynolds, S. E., 2013. Persistence of double-stranded RNA in insect hemolymph as a potential determiner of RNA interference success: Evidence from Manduca sexta and Blattella germanica. Journal of Insect Physiology, 59 (2), pp. 171-178.

Garbutt, J. S. and Reynolds, S. E., 2012. Induction of RNA interference genes by double-stranded RNA; implications for susceptibility to RNA interference. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42 (9), pp. 621-628.

Harding, C. R., Schroeder, G. N., Reynolds, S., Kosta, A., Collins, J. W., Mousnier, A. and Frankel, G., 2012. Legionella pneumophila Pathogenesis in the Galleria mellonella Infection Model. Infection and Immunity, 80 (8), pp. 2780-2790.

Castillo, J. C., Reynolds, S. E. and Eleftherianos, I., 2011. Insect immune responses to nematode parasites. Trends in Parasitology, 27 (12), pp. 537-547.

Horodyski, F. M., Verlinden, H., Filkin, N., Vandersmissen, H. P., Fleury, C., Reynolds, S. E., Kai, Z. P. and Broeck, J. V., 2011. Isolation and functional characterization of an allatotropin receptor from Manduca sexta. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 41 (10), pp. 804-814.

Senior, N. J., Bagnall, M. C., Champion, O. L., Reynolds, S. E., La Ragione, R. M., Woodward, M. J., Salguero, F. J. and Titball, R. W., 2011. Galleria mellonella as an infection model for Campylobacter jejuni virulence. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 60 (5), pp. 661-669.

Eleftherianos, I., Ffrench-Constant, R. H., Clarke, D. J., Dowling, A. J. and Reynolds, S. E., 2010. Dissecting the immune response to the entomopathogen Photorhabdus. Trends in Microbiology, 18 (12), pp. 552-560.

Vlisidou, I., Eleftherianos, I., Dorus, S., Yang, G., Ffrench-Constant, R. H., Reynolds, S. E. and Waterfield, N. R., 2010. The KdpD/KdpE two-component system of Photorhabdus asymbiotica promotes bacterial survival within M. sexta hemocytes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 105 (3), pp. 352-362.

Eleftherianos, I., Joyce, S., Ffrench-Constant, R. H., Clarke, D. J. and Reynolds, S. E., 2010. Probing the tri-trophic interaction between insects, nematodes and Photorhabdus. Parasitology, 137 (11), pp. 1695-1706.

Kaufman, W. R., Flynn, P. C. and Reynolds, S. E., 2010. Cuticular plasticization in the tick, Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae): possible roles of monoamines and cuticular pH. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 213 (16), pp. 2820-2831.

Watson, R. J., Millichap, P., Joyce, S. A., Reynolds, S. and Clarke, D. J., 2010. The role of iron uptake in pathogenicity and symbiosis in Photorhabdus luminescens TT01. BMC Microbiology, 10, 177.

Orledge, G. M., Smith, P. A. and Reynolds, S. E., 2010. The non-pest Australasian fungivore Cis bilamellatus Wood (Coleoptera: Ciidae) in northern Europe: spread dynamics, invasion success and ecological impact. Biological Invasions, 12 (3), pp. 515-530.

Pauchet, Y., Wilkinson, P., Vogel, H., Nelson, D. R., Reynolds, S. E., Heckel, D. G. and Ffrench-Constant, R. H., 2010. Pyrosequencing the Manduca sexta larval midgut transcriptome: messages for digestion, detoxification and defence. Insect Molecular Biology, 19 (1), pp. 61-75.

Rolff, J. and Reynolds, S. E., eds., 2009. Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution Ecology and Mechanisms. Oxford University Press.

Eleftherianos, I., Waterfield, N. R., Bone, P., Boundy, S., Ffrench-Constant, R. H. and Reynolds, S. E., 2009. A single locus from the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens inhibits activated Manduca sexta phenoloxidase. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 293 (2), pp. 170-176.

Eleftherianos, I., Felföldi, G., ffrench-Constant, R. H. and Reynolds, S. E., 2009. Induced nitric oxide synthesis in the gut of Manduca sexta protects against oral infection by the bacterial pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens. Insect Molecular Biology, 18 (4), pp. 507-516.

Reynolds, S. E., Brown, A. M., Seth, R. K., Riddiford, L. M. and Hiruma, K., 2009. Induction of supernumerary larval moulting in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta: interaction of bisacylhydrazine ecdysteroid agonists with endogenous Juvenile Hormone. Physiological Entomology, 34 (1), pp. 30-38.

Eleftherianos, I., Xu, M., Yadi, H., Ffrench-Constant, R. H. and Reynolds, S. E., 2009. Plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP) plays a central role in insect cellular immune defenses against bacterial infection. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 212 (12), pp. 1840-1848.

Waterfield, N. R., Sanchez-Contreras, M., Eleftherianos, I., Dowling, A., Yang, G., Wilkinson, P., Parkhill, J., Thomson, N., Reynolds, S. E., Bode, H., Dorus, S. and Ffrench-Constant, R., 2008. Rapid Virulence Annotation (RVA): identification of virulence factors using a bacterial genome library and multiple invertebrate hosts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (41), pp. 15967-15972.

Reynolds, S. E. and Rolff, J., 2008. Immune function keeps endosymbionts under control. Journal of Biology, 7 (8), p. 28.

Phalaraksh, C., Reynolds, S. E., D Wilson, I., M Lenz, E., K Nicholson, J. and C Lindon, J., 2008. A metabonomic analysis of insect development: 1H-NMR spectroscopic characterization of changes in the composition of the haemolymph of larvae and pupae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. ScienceAsia, 34 (3), pp. 279-286.

Eleftherianos, I., Baldwin, H., Ffrench-Constant, R. H. and Reynolds, S. E., 2008. Developmental modulation of immunity: Changes within the feeding period of the fifth larval stage in the defence reactions of Manduca sexta to infection by Photorhabdus. Journal of Insect Physiology, 54 (1), pp. 309-318.

This list was generated on Wed Jan 18 23:13:51 2017 GMT.

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