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## Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Unit Catalogue 2002/03 |

## EE10080: Electrical science |

Credits: 12 |

Level: Certificate |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To understand the fundamentals of electrical science including the areas of basic circuit theory, simple analogue and digital circuits and the concepts of electric and magnetic fields and waves. To be able to demonstrate this knowledge through problem solving exercises and performing experimental work based on both practical equipment and computer simulations. A series of small group 'design and build' projects will also be undertaken. Content: DC circuits, resistors, Kirchoff's Laws, Electrical instrumentation, operation and appreciation of accuracy and errors. AC circuits and transient responses, use of an oscilloscope. Diodes and diode circuits. Ideal operational amplifier operation. Boolean algebra and minimisation of functions. Digital gates, combinational logic and simple digital circuits. Sequential logic, flip-flops and simple counters. Electric and magnetic fields. Coulomb, Gauss, Ampere and Faraday's Laws. Simple magnetic circuits. Properties of waves. |

## EE10081: JAVA application programming |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Certificate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE10086 |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with an opportunity to develop programming and software design skills required to implement simple engineering applications. Content: A number of supervised application design exercises using JAVA . Students will be encouraged to communicate and develop ideas as a team. Supervision if the form of weekly feedback sessions and labs will provide guidance and suggestions to help the students attained the learning objects. |

## EE10082: Electrical systems & control |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Certificate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX80CW20 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To understand the operating principles and characteristics of separately excited d.c. motors. To be able to demonstrate the connection between measured system signals and control system performance, analyse control system performance graphically using Laplace domain pole/zero diagrams, use the concept of feedback to modify system performance, identify system performance criteria such as stability, response speed, damping and steady-state error. Content: DC machines: construction, operating principles and applications. DC motor as a variable speed drive: characteristics, base speed, 4-quadrant operation, regenerative braking and power supplies. Transducers & intelligent instrumentation. Performance of simple first and second order dynamic systems: natural frequency of oscillation and damping performance measures, system performance representation using the Laplace operator, pole/zero diagrams. Concepts of open loop and closed loop systems. Closed loop control for system performance modification, root locus diagrams. |

## EE10086: Introduction to programming in JAVA |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Certificate |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: CW50EX50 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To introduce programming in Java.
Objectives:
At the end of this unit students should be able to: solve basic problems using the JAVA programming language; understand and apply the basic concepts of object oriented programming.
Content: Compiling and running Java programmes. Primitive data types. Expressions. Statements. Operators. Control. Loops. Iteration. Procedural use of JAVA. File input and output. Strings. Object orientation. Objects. Classes. Methods. Constructors. References. Arrays. Inheritance. Polymorphism. Graphics. Events. Vectors. |

## EE10089: Electronic systems & communications |

Credits: 12 |

Level: Certificate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW50EX50 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: to introduce students to the principles and importance of three areas of systems engineering; signals and systems theory, communications systems and microprocessor systems.
Objectives:
At the end of this modules students will be able to: (i) distinguish between different types of generic signals, construct mathematical models of signals and systems and apply these models to predict the response of a linear system to a specified stimulus. (ii) explain the functions of the peripheral components of a communications system, describe the information content of natural languages and the origin (and technological role) of redundancy, state the Shannon-Hartley law and apply it in the context of trade-offs between fundamental communications resources, (iii) describe the use of modern microprocessor devices as embedded sub-systems within engineering applications, identify and explain the function of the subsystems that make up a microprocessor and demonstrate an understanding of the fundamentals of machine code.
Content: Signals and systems theory: Signals: review of signal types, phasors, Fourier series. Linear systems: inpluse response, convolution, frequency response, convolution theorm. Communication Systems: Introduction to modern telecommunications networks, services and signals. Information theory and source coding. Communication channels and noise. Communication resourses and the Shannon-Hartley law. Microprocessor Systems: Microprocessor hardware: registers, ALUs, special function units, control unit and CPU. Unit communication and synchronisation. Interfacing embedded microprocessors to external devices. External bus structures and protocols. RAM, timers, parallel and serial ports, mass storage devices. |

## EE10077: Electronics & electrical drives |

Credits: 5 |

Level: Certificate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

This unit is available to students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering only. Aims & Learning Objectives: To develop the basic techniques of circuit analysis and explain the concept of alternating currents in electrical circuits. To introduce the method of operation and application of semi-conductor devices. To give an understanding of the basic principles of electromagnetism. To provide an overall view of the methods of converting electrical energy to linear or rotary mechanical energy. To give an understanding of how the characteristics of a drive system can depend upon the combination of the electromagnetic device, the electronic drive circuit and the control technique. After taking this unit the student should be able to: Solve simple electrical circuit problems. Appreciate the essential features of operation of semi-conductor devices, and their use in simple digital and analogue circuits. Understand simple operational amplifier techniques. Select appropriate drives for simple applications. Understand the basic operation of DC motors and three phase induction motors, including speed control and starting methods. Content: Direct and alternating voltages and currents. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's laws and Thevenin's theorem. Resistance, capacitance and inductance, concept of impedance, power and reactive power. Balanced three phase systems. Basic characteristics of diodes, zener diodes, light emitting diodes, photosensitive devices and transistors. The application of semi-conductor devices in simple analogue and digital circuits. Introduction to operational amplifiers. Electromagnetic induction, Faraday's and Ampere's laws. Operating characteristics of shunt, series, compound DC motors and three phase induction motors. Calculation of simple speed-torque-power relationships. Starting and speed control of motors, stepper motors and their indexing techniques. Concepts of motor control circuits including the thyristor. |

## EE20004: Electronic devices & circuits |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX80CW20 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE10080 |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To introduce students to the electrical properties of semiconductor materials, based on atomic and crystal structure. To develop the behaviour of electronic components formed from the semiconductor materials and to provide the design techniques for incorporating these devices into electronic circuits. At the end of this unit students should be able to understand and explain the basis of electrical conduction in materials and devices and use this to explain the circuit behaviour of semiconductor devices; to be able to design simple practical circuits based on these devices, such as BJT and FET amplifiers. Content: Atomic theory: atoms, crystals, energy band structure and diagrams, electrical conduction in solids. Semiconductors: intrinsic, p & n type doping, extrinsic semiconductors, conduction processes (drift and diffusion). Devices: p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor junctions, bipolar junction transistors, field effect transistors, p-n-p-n devices. Circuits: CE and CS amplifiers; biasing, load line and the Q-point and its stability; other amplifiers configurations. General principles of amplification: small signal equivalent circuits and frequency response. Operational amplifier characteristics, bandwidth, slew rate and compensation. |

## EE20016: Mechanical science |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To model and analyse some mechanical problems that are relevant to various fields of electrical engineering.
After completing this unit it should be possible to: set up and solve equations that represent static and dynamic systems; perform calculations on rotating systems with unbalance.
Content: Force systems and solution of problems in two and three dimensional statics, and dynamics including effects of friction. Dynamic problems to be solved using force-mass-acceleration, work-energy or impulse-momentum approaches. Examples of translational and rotational motion of rigid bodies; motion of self-propelled vehicles, drives incorporating gears and flywheels. Control of vibration; balancing of rotating machinery. |

## EE20017: Communication principles |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX80PR20 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To introduce students to the basic principles of communications and to provide a good understanding of the techniques used in modern electronic communication systems. At the end of this module students should be able to explain and analyse the basic methods of generation and detection of modulated signals; calculate the available power of a modulated signal; analyse the operation of first and second order phase locked loops; understand the function of source, channel and line coders in digital transmission systems and the limitations imposed by restricted bandwidth and signal to noise ratio; describe the characteristics and relative performance of the various digital modulation schemes.
Content: Communication systems and channels, media characteristics, amplitude and phase distortion, non-linear distortion. Physical sources and statistical properties of electrical noise. Evaluation of noise: signal-to-noise ratio, noise figure, noise temperature. Analogue modulation systems: methods of generating amplitude modulated signals, qualitative introduction to angle modulation. Phase lock loops. Radio transmitter and receiver architecture. Functional elements of a digital communications system. Source entropy and coding. PCM and quantisation noise. Bandwidth, signalling rate and multi-level signals. Information rate, symbol rate and bandwidth efficiency. Noise and error probability, the Shannon-Hartley theorem, SNR bandwidth trade-off, BER and error control. Spectrum shaping and intersymbolic interference. Digital signal formats, spectral properties, clock encoding and recovery. Digital modulation generation and detection of ASK, FSK, PSK, DPSK and QPSK. |

## EE20021: Digital electronics |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX80PR20 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE10080 |

Aims & learning objectives:
The course provides a foundation for the design of combinational and sequential logic circuits using formal design methods. The implementation of sequential logic is extended to microprocessors and the aim is to enable students understand the architecture of microprocessors and to design and implement simple real-time microprocessor systems. Students should be able to design a wide range of asynchronous logic circuits using finite state-machine methods. They should be able to describe the operation of a microprocessor in terms of its general architecture and understand how microprocessors can be programmed and used in a variety of real-time applications.
Content: Applications of combinational logic, synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits: finite state machine description; primitive flow tables; internal state reduction, merging and row assignment problems; essential hazards and races. Computer architecture: the Von Neuman architecture, CPU, volatile and non-volatile memory (ROM, SRAM, DRAM, EPROM etc.), peripheral devices. General purpose microprocessors: architecture, arithmetic and logic units, program control sequences, microcode, register organization. Control: exception processing, interupts, resets and CPU initialisation, software traps. Bus control: synchronous/asynchronous bus timing diagrams, multiplexed bus. Real-time microprocessor systems: machine code programming; address decode-read/write operations, etc.; analogue and digital input/output; interupt driven I/O vs polled I/O; case studies of various 8/16 bit microprocessors. |

## EE20062: Industrial placement |

Credits: 60 |

Level: Intermediate |

Academic Year |

Assessment: OT100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide practical experience in the application and usefulness of knowledge and skills gained at the University, by working in a relevant industrial environment. Content: The content varies from placement to placement. In choosing the placement, the University will try to ensure that the project offers adequate opportunities for the student to demonstrate competence in a least six of the eleven assessed categories: application of academic knowledge; practical ability; computational skill; analytical and problem solving skill; innovation and originality; time management; writing skills; oral expression; interpersonal skills; reliability; and development potential. |

## EE20083: Signal processing I |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX80CW20 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE10089 and take ME10138 and take ME10139 |

or equivalent.
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To introduce students to the fundamentals of signal processing and provide illustrations of their practical applications.Objectives:
At the end of this unit students should be able to: (i) explain the sampling theorem and appreciate the implications of aliasing distortion, (ii) use the DFT and its fast implementation in the form of the FFT for spectral analysis, (iii) describe the reasons for spectral leakage and utilise windowing techniques for its mitigation, (iv) explain the types of ideal filter and how prescribed functions are used for their approximation, (v) employ FIR design techniques to implement linear phase and Fourier transform filters, (vi) design simple IIR digital filters and exploit different structures for their realisation, (vii) exploit pole-zero diagrams in the implementation of filters, (viii) describe the key components of a multirate filter and their role in sample rate conversion.
Content: Review: sampling theorem and aliasing distortion, spectra and spectral descriptions.Digital spectral analysis: principles of DFT and FFT, effect of finite time window, spectral leakage and its reduction with prescribed windows. Analogue filters: approximation functions, Butterworth/Chebyshev/Bessel/Elliptic implementations. Digital filtering: z-transforms, FIR filters, properties, linear phase and Fourier transforms, design techniques; IIR filters, properties, allpass filters, realisations; pole-zero diagrams, minimum/maximum phase, stability. Multirate filtering: decimation, interpolation, polyphase realisation. Applications: signal analysis, filtering and sample rate conversion. |

## EE20084: UNIX & C programming |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX80PR20 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To introduce students to the ANSI C programming language. To develop their skills in writing good quality software using the C programming language. To provide an appreciation of the importance of good software structure and documentation. To introduce students to the UNIX operation system. To enable students to gain practical experience with programming under the UNIX environment. After completing the unit, students should be able to (i) design, implement, test and debug C language functions and programs according to a given specification, (ii) to locate and correct semantic and syntactic errors in a given C language program, (iii) to explain various aspects of the C languages such as scope or type conversion rules and so on, (iv) to write well structured software documented with appropriate comments, (v) to understand the basic concepts of the UNIX operation system and to gain experience in using UNIX and (vi) to develop software under the programming environment of the UNIX operation system. Content: Fundamentals: identifiers, keywords, fundamental data types, constants, variables, arrays, declarations, operators, expressions and statements. Conditional and looping controls. Functions: defining, accessing and passing arguments to functions. Prototypes. Modular programming. Use of the C standard library functions for data input/output. Arrays: defing, processing and passing arrays to functions. Multidimensional arrays. Strings and string processing. Pointers: declaring and passing pointers to functions. Relationship between pointers and arrays. Dynamic memory allocation. Structures: defining and accessing structures. Self-referential structures. User defined data types. Unions. Bit fields. C pre-processor directives. Data structures: stacks, queues. Linked lists and trees. UNIX: system architecture, basic commands, file system structure, shells. Use of editors, compilers, debuggers and other utilities. |

## EE20085: Electromagnetics |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX80CW20 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE10080 and take ME10138 and take ME10139 |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide a fundamental understanding of the behaviour of electromagnetic fields with particular emphasis on the low frequency limit of Maxwell's equations. To introduce the mathematics which allows the fields to be visualised and employed in the design of useful devices. To provide an introduction to some of the CAD tools for designing electromagnetic devices. Traditional lectures will be augmented by a series of pictures and animations which will be available on the net so that students will gain a good visual understanding of fields.
Content: Electrostatics: Basic concepts will be reviewed, charge, potential, electrostatic energy, force, effects of dielectric materials. Magnetostatics: Current sources of magnetic fields, magnetic field strength, magnetic flux density. Effects of magnetic materials. Interface conditions, magnetic field energy, forces. Time varying current and fields in conductors: Faraday's Law. Eddy currents. Lenz's Law, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic Devices: Very basic action of transformers, motors and actuators. Mathematics: The necessary mathematics will be introduced as required throughout the course, grad, div, curl. |

## EE20090: Electromagnetics for communications |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX80CW20 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE10080 |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To give students an understanding of how electromagnetic waves propagate in typical communication engineering problems. To introduce the basic concepts behind the description of electromagnetic waves in free space, simple dielectrics and on transmission lines. To illustrate the convergence between field and circuit concepts through the understanding of simple modes of transmission on lines. After completion of this unit students should be able to determine the propagation constants for waves on TEM transmission lines using circuit concepts and to illustrate the fields occurring in the simple transmission modes for parallel conductors and coaxial lines. Students should also be able to apply solutions of the EM wave equation for plane waves to propagation in dielectric and conducting media. They should be able to characterise reflections on loss-less transmission lines and for plane waves in free space at normal incidence. They should also have a qualitative understanding of reflection and diffraction effects at simple obstacles and be able to calculate the power budget for simple radiating transmission and radar systems. Content: Transmission lines: basic concepts; derivation of wave equation, propagation constant for loss-less lines, characteristic impedance and phase velocity from circuit concepts. Voltage, current, impedance and power flow on transmission lines; reflection and transmission, VSWR and return loss. Electromagnetic waves in free space, scalar wave equation. Propagation of plane waves, Huygens wavelets; qualitative illustration of diffraction. IEEE definition of wave polarisation. The impedance of free space. Refractive index. Propagation in dielectrics, lossy dielectrics and conductors; skin depth. Statement of boundary conditions, reflection and transmission at a boundary (normal incidence only). Antennas: antenna modelling parameters, gain and beamwidth in terms of scalar concepts (isotrope and solid angle). Derivation of the Friis formula for link power budget characterization in free space. Extension to the radar equation for point targets. Radar cross section. |

## EE20099: Electrical systems & power electronics |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX80PR20 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide a basic understanding of the way in which a.c. electrical machines, power systems andpower electronic devices operate. On completion of the unit students should be able to: describe the structure of a modern power system and its major components, perform simple 3-phase calculations, explain the need for, and provision of, control in a power system; describe the construction, action and characteristics of the principal types of a.c. machine and perform simple analyses; explain the basic operating principles and perform simple analyses of common power-electronic systems including line-frequency rectifiers, d.c. to d.c. converters and d.c. to a.c. inverters. Content: Single and 3-phase transformers: construction, operation, connections, models. Three-phase induction machines: construction, operation, equivalent circuits, characteristics. Three-phase synchronous machines: construction operation and action of round rotor, type; equivalent circuits, phasor diagrams. Simple power system economics, the need for transmission and distribution systems, energy conversion, energy consumption, introduction to 3-phase theory, power engineering conductors and insulators, power system control, faults and protection systems. Power semiconductor devices; introduction to the conduction, switching characteristics and drive requirements of diodes, thyristors and power transistors. Line frequency power converters; introduction to single and three-phase rectifier circuits operating with resistive and inductive loads. d.c. to d.c. power converters; introduction to switched mode power supplies and the principles of operation of step-down and step-up converters. |

## EE20100: Electronic control system design |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Intermediate |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE10082 |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To introduce students to the design processes by taking a requirement through to a prototype device. To give students a basic understanding of a wide range of both analogue and digital control system design techniques.After completing this unit, students should be able to: write a design specification for a product; carry out a top-down systematic design; identify and specify interface requirements for sub-systems; design forward path and feedback path analogue control systems; design unity feedback discrete time digital controllers; demonstrate an appreciation of how assumptions about the system model can affect the effectiveness of the design solution. Content: Product design: Preparation of specifications; definition of systems and sub-systems.Reliability methods: FMEA, FTA, reliability estimating.Design exercise: Working in groups to produce a prototype of a small system using electronics for monitoring, control, measurement and signal processing.Control design techniques: system modelling for controller design; graphical design methods for analogue control systems; discrete time controller design methods. Hardware & Software design issues. |

## XX30141: Signal processing 2 |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE20083 |

or equivalent.
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To introduce students to algorithms and techniques for processing random signals, together with the hardware for their practical realisation.Objectives:
At the end of this unit students should be able to: (i) explain the concepts of ensemble average, statistical stationarity, wide-sense stationarity and ergodicity, (ii) interpret autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions and utilise these to explain the operation of linear systems excited by wide-sense stationary random signals, (iii) use auto and cross power spectral densities in typical instrumentation applications, (iv) exploit the averaged periodogram and Blackman-Tukey conventional spectrum estimation techniques, (v) design the coefficients of a minimum mean squared error based linear predictor, (vi) derive the Wiener filter, (vii) develop the LMS algorithm from the method of steepest descent, (viii) apply adaptive signal processing in noise cancellation, equalisation and acoustic echo cancellation for handsfree communications, (viii) describe the key issues involved in the selection of a DSP configuration.
Content: Review: digital filtering and deterministic spectral estimation. Random signals: amplitude properties, cdf, pdf, variance and general moments, stationarity, ergodicity and independence. Auto and cross correlation functions, effect of linear systems, Wiener-Kinchine theorem, auto and cross power spectral densities, role in system identification. Spectral estimation: bias-variance trade-off resolution, periodogram, averaged periodogram and Blackman-Tukey estimators, application to spectrum analyser. Model-based methods, linear prediction, application to speech coding. Adaptive signal processing: Wiener filtering, method of steepest descent, LMS algorithm, properties, applications, RLS family. DSP architectures: DSP devices, precision, structures and performance. |

## EE30028: Software & computing 3 |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX75CW25 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To give students an understanding of the most important concepts and principles of the development of large software systems (programming 'in the large'). To enable students to modularise problems using the object-oriented approach, and to write formal software specifications. To enable students to write object-oriented software modules in C++. After completing this course, the student should be able to: Explain the stages in the software development cycle. Determine procedures for testing a given specification or implementation of software. Given a description of a problem, modularise the problem and identify the data abstractions that would be required to solve this problem. Given a suitable problem description, generate the corresponding formal specification. Explain the concepts and principles underlying the design of software for real-time (reactive) systems. Explain the concept and importance of safety-critical software. Explain the concepts underlying the object-oriented programming paradigm. Use object-oriented methods to develop C++ language programs.
Content: The software life cycle. Formal specification. Modularisation. Real-time systems. Safety-critical systems. Software testing. Object-oriented programming in C++. |

## EE30029: Digital networks & protocols |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To give users an understanding of the principles and current practice employed in digital information networks. To indicate the directions of future development in network technology. To enable a network user to estimate performance.
Students should be able to: understand the broad principles of the ISO 7-layer model of a network and be able to apply it: compare the different forms of network topology and means of multiple access; compare the characteristics and application areas of WANs, LANs, and MANs; describe the broad operation of V24, X25, TCP/IP, ISDN, ATM network protocols; appreciate the complex demands of internet working and some current solutions; discuss the need for network management structures and signalling networks (CSS7) and describe some simple ones; describe the operation and evaluate broad performance measures of contention and token-passing LAN protocols over ring and bus topologies; calculate the performance of various ARQ data link control strategies; calculate the performance of simple queuing structures as applied to digital network nodes.
Content: Overview: Applications and services, sources of information, transmission media. The ISO 7-layer model. Switching (circuit, message, packet), network structures (WAN, MAN, LAN). WANs: The PSTN, access networks, trunks & multiplexing, V24 modem access, X25 packet network, ISDN developments, BISDN and ATM. Network supervision and management, CSS7 control network. LANs: Characteristics, topologies, Ethernet, token-passing, performance calculations. Interworking: Hubs, bridges, switches, routers and gateways. MANs: Characteristics, FDDI, DQDB. Data Link Control: Synchronism, error detection, frame protocols, ARQ operation, performance comparisons of stop-and-wait, go-back-N, selective repeat. Traffic Analysis: Poisson arrival statistics, the Erlang. Simple queuing models, M/M/1,M/D/1, M/G/1. Application to packet switch and simple network. |

## EE30031: Digital communications |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To introduce students to more advanced topics in digital communication systems. On completion of the course, the student should be able to understand the main operating features of digital communication systems, including the relative performance of the various modulation methods, the efficiency of error detection and correction methods and the security of encryption systems.
Content: Digital modulation techniques: review of binary modulation and demodulation; QPSK, OQPSK, MSK; QAM and trellis coded modulation. Channel coding: linear block codes for error detection and correction; cyclic codes and shift register generation and detection; Hamming, BCH, RS and Golay codes. Convolution coding: definition, generation and distance properties of convolution codes; Viterbi decoding with hard and soft decisions; sequential and feedback decoding; interleaving. Spread spectrum techniques: overview and pseudonoise sequences; direct sequence and frequency hopping systems; synchronisation. Encryption and decryption: cipher systems and secrecy; practical security; stream encryption; public key cryptosystems. |

## EE30032: Microwave engineering |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: This course introduces students to the engineering techniques and approaches required at microwave and millimetre wave frequencies (1-100 GHz). This includes circuit design concepts using matrix formulations and in particular the scattering matrix representation. The different transmission line technologies which are available at these frequencies are examined and the advantages/disadvantages and applications of each are discussed. Passive and active components are introduced and the use of each in microwave sub-system design is outlined. Examples of such sub-systems are amplifiers, phase shifters, detectors, mixers, filters, etc., suitable for use in MICs and MMICs. After completing this unit the student should be able to appreciate the various technologies available for high frequency design and circuit realisation and be able to select the appropriate technology for a particular application. In addition the student should be able to design a variety of circuit elements and sub-systems, analyse the performance of these and be able to meet the engineering specifications for particular sub-system and system design. Content: Matrix description of microwave circuits: ABCD or chain matrix, Z and Y matrix, scattering matrix; circuit conditions of reciprocity, symmetry and losslessness. Transmission line technologies: waveguides and discontinuities; planar transmission lines (microstrip, coplanar line, slotline, etc.) and discontinuities; dielectric lines; applications of different types of line. Couplers and hybrids: waveguide couplers (2-hole and multi-hole); parallel microstrip line couplers; branch line, rat-race and power divider structures. Passive devices: lumped impedance elements; microwave filters-transmission line and quasi-lumped element types; bias networks. Diodes: device equivalent circuits; detector diode current sensitivity, tangential signal sensitivity; mixer circuits - single diode, balanced and image rejection. Control circuits: limiters, attenuators, switches, phase shifters - reflective diode and switched path, switched filter. Amplifiers: reflection amplifier, transistor amplifier; gain, stability and matching networks. |

## EE30033: Power electronics |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: to analyse examples of high-frequency switched-mode power electronic systems and introduce control methods and applications. Objectives:
after completing this unit, students should be able to explain the operation of a range of power-converter circuits and discuss typical applications; model and analyse power converters to characterise steady-state and dynamic performance; compare attributes of different converter operating modes and control methods; and identify salient limitations imposed on converter operation by practical component imperfections.
Content: Power semiconductor devices: salient device imperfections, application at high switching-frequency. Unisolated DC-to-DC switched -mode converters: common circuits their characteristics and applications, continuous and discontinuous modes of operation. Isolated DC-to-DC switched-mode converters: common circuits their characteristics and applications, transformer model and reset requirement. DC-to-DC converter dynamic modelling and control: small signal modelling, closed-loop controller design. Active power-factor correction systems: limitations of passive methods, examples of active correction circuits. |

## EE30034: Electrical machines & drives |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To understand the operation of stepping motor and switched-reluctance drives and the design of windings used in induction motor drives. To appreciate the essential features of electrical machine design. To understand the way in which electrical machines and power supplies interact in variable-speed industrial and traction drives and to appreciate the constraints imposed by each of the components. To be able to perform calculations to assess the design and performance of typical industrial and traction drive systems. Content: Stepping motors: types, construction and action, static and dynamic characteristics and development of models. Switched reluctance motors: construction and action, torque calculation, rotor position sensing and power supplies. Three-phase induction machines: types of windings and design aspects. Rating of machines for industrial drives: heating effects, duty cycles. Outline the design of electrical machines: output equation, specific loadings and other constraints. Vehicle motion and traction duty cycles: description of electrical traction, dynamics of vehicle motion and vehicle movements. Traction motors: d.c., induction and synchronous machines; requirements peculiar to traction and comparison of types. D.C. drives: description, d.c. to d.c. and a.c. to d.c. drives. A.C. drives: description, induction and synchronous machine drives using voltage-source and current-source invertors, d.c. fed invertor traction drives. |

## EE30035: Design exercise |

Credits: 12 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with an opportunity to use the latest CAD facilities in areas of their interest and to engage in design using these facilities. On completion of the unit, students should be able to use the particular CAD suite with ease to carry out design and analysis exercises. Content: The detailed programme will vary to suit the needs of the different programmes of study and the interests of the particular students. Each student will be given one or more designs to evaluate and improve using in-house CAD facilities and either in-house or commercial software as appropriate. |

## EE30036: Project - 3rd year (Sem 1) |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with an opportunity to develop further their ability to define, plan and execute a technical project under limited supervision, but with individual responsibility for the outcome. On completion of the unit students should be able to accept responsibility for delegated tasks within a project area, plan a scheme of work and complete it to a standard expected of a young professional engineer. The student should be able to develop innovative solutions to problems and produce designs which meet the requirements of the project. Content: Students will choose a title from a list of topics offered by the department. The project solution may be implemented in hardware or software or a combination of both. Students will be expected to follow through the accepted problem solving route beginning with the identification and specification of the problem and proceeding to proposals for solution, analysis of alternatives, implementation of chosen solution and final proving and acceptance testing. The production of a planned timetable of goals and milestones will be expected and the final report should contain evidence that the plan has been adhered to, or modified, as necessary. An early viva will be conducted by the internal examiner, who is not the project supervisor, and an end-of-project viva will be conducted by two other members of academic staff. A written report on the background to the project, together with a project plan and literature review, will be submitted part way through the project and then incorporated into the main project report which will be submitted on completion of the project. |

## EE30037: Computer graphics including multimedia applications |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with a theoretical and practical knowledge of 2D and 3D computer graphics. To enable them to apply such knowledge in computer aided design, multimedia environments and scientific visualisation. After completing this module, students should be able to: Describe algorithms for constructing 2D and 3D graphics primitives on a raster device and also explain the underlying principles; use matrices to transform objects in 2D and 3D space; explain and describe ways of projecting 3D objects onto a 2D screen; compare and contrast 3D rendering and shading techniques; describe and compare various standard graphic file formats used in multimedia environments. Content: Two-dimensional graphics: Low level line-drawing, polygon-filling, circle-drawing, curve-drawing algorithms. Clipping. 2D transformations: translation, rotation, scaling, reflection. Three-dimensional graphics: 3D object representation. Homogeneous coordinate system. 3D transformations: translation, rotation, scaling, reflection. Parallel and perspective projections. 3D clipping. Rendering three-dimensional objects: Hidden surface algorithms. Lighting models, shading algorithms. Anti-aliasing. Graphics in multimedia environments: Study of various graphics file formats used in multimedia applications. |

## EE30038: Principles of optoelectronics |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To present and explain: the physical principles of a range of optical materials and devices; the concepts and analysis of optical waveguides and some guided wave passive and active optical devices such as modulators, couplers, switches, LEDs and lasers, leading to the elements of integrated optical circuits. To prepare students to cope readily with the complexities and details of ''real'' and advanced devices. After completing the unit the student should have: a clear understanding of modal propagation of optical signals in cylindrical (fibre) and dielectric slab optical waveguides relating to passive and active semiconductor optical devices; a good knowledge of the ideas and rules of stimulated and spontaneous; emission/absorption (with emphasis on semiconductor media) that form the basis for lasers and optical detectors; a working knowledge of typical semiconductor lasers and LEDs and a familiarity with the operation of recent, advanced device structures. Content: Overview of optical communication systems. Review of the laws of reflection and refraction. Representation of optical gain/loss as a medium with complex refractive index. Waveguide couplers and optical spatial switches; mirrors and modal reflectivity; high and antireflection coatings. Analysis of the Fabry-Perot resonator in the context of passive and active optical devices. Review of semiconductor theory: energy band diagrams; carrier transport; recombination processess; p-n junctions, Fermi and quasi-Fermi levels. Principles of laser action: emission and absorption of radiation; inversion population in discrete atomic systems and in semiconductors; concepts relating to quantum well material. Semiconductor lasers and LEDs; heterojunction material and device structure; operational principles and typical characteristics. Schemes for direct and indirect modulation. Optical detectors: photon absorption and photoconductivity; diode photodetectors and improved structures - PIN and avalanche photodiode; quantum efficiency and responsivity; introduction to noise in detectors. Description of advanced devices introduction to integrated optical circuits. |

## EE30039: Power system analysis |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with an insight into, and a basic understanding of, analytic methods applied to power system analysis. After completing this unit, students should be able to: perform a multi-node load flow analysis and exercise an informed choice over the solution technique; explain the techniques of dc power transmission including its benefits compared to ac transmission and demonstrate an understanding of the use of dc transmission worldwide; conduct a simple stability study and explain the influence of AVR and governor types on system stability; analyse transients on power systems caused by switching operations or faults for both single and multi-phase situations, and hence be able to specify insulation requirements. Content: Load flow analysis: network matrix representation, Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson solution techniques. AC/DC conversion: converter types, dc transmission, advantages compared to AC transmission. Basic stability considerations: machine inertia, equal area criterion, effect of AVRs and governors. Overvoltages: switching and fault overvoltages, Bewley Lattice diagrams, switchgear principles, current chopping, insulation coordination. Modal component theory: wave propagation in multiphase networks. |

## EE30040: Power system protection |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with an insight into, and a basic understanding of, power system protection applications and modern digital relaying techniques. After completing this module, students should be able to: divide a power system network into manageable units suitable for protection; design a non-unit protection scheme for distribution feeders and determine appropriate relay settings; explain the characteristics and limitations of protection primary transducers; design a distance protection scheme for transmission line circuits; explain the design and operation of digital transmission line protection. Content: The protection overlay: Protection and metering transducers. Fuses. Overcurrent protection: relay types, operating characteristics and equations, grading, applications. Differential protection: voltage balance and circulating current schemes, biased characteristics and high impedance schemes. Applications to the protection of transformers, feeders and busbars. Distance protection: basic principle, block average comparator, zones of protection, residual compensation, power swing blocking. Digital Protection: Relay hardware. Digital signal processing in protection relays. Digital distance protection. Digital differential protection. |

## EE30041: Control engineering |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide an understanding of the design of closed loop controllers in the time domain and their practical implementation. To introduce students to the practical issues involved in the design and implementation of discrete time controllers using microprocessors and z-domain design techniques. After completing this module, students should be able to: calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of any linear continuous time plant, use the above to determine the observability and controllability of plant dynamic modes and design controllers to change the modal frequencies. describe any linear continuous time system that is to be controlled using a discrete time controller in the z-domain. design unity feedback discrete time controllers to meet a range of performance specifications for step and ramp input functions. Content: Design of linear systems in the time domain, observability and controllability. Simple modal synthesis. Digital control methods, micro controllers and their application. Real time computational methods in control. |

## EE30042: Project engineering |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide students with an understanding of project management and to define the projects objectives, plan the enterprise, execute it and bring it to a successful conclusion for all parties involved.
After completing this module, students should be able to: define the projects objectives and the roles of the key participants; produce a project plan; design and control management procedures; and explain the procedures required to bring that project to a successful conclusion.
Content: Project definition: Principal types of project. Project outline. Roles of key participants. Defining objectives. Project planning: Defining sub-projects. Time scheduling. Costings. Defining resource requirements. Standard planning techniques. Computer planning techniques. Risk assessment and analysis. Project control: Quality standards. Setting milestones. Progress monitoring. Management information systems. Variance analysis. Communications handling. Changes to specification. Corrective action. Project completion: Customer acceptance. Project audits. Final reports. |

## EE30060: Project - 3rd year (Sem 2) |

Credits: 12 |

Level: Honours |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE30036 |

A continuation of EE30036. |

## EE40043: Fundamentals of electromagnetic compatibility |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide an introduction to the fundamentals of EMC.
After completing this module students should be able to: demonstrate and understand the terminology used in EMC; explain the cause of interference in terms of the interaction of charges, currents and fields; identify interference problems and suggest solutions; demonstrate the use of EMC principles for interference free design.
Content: Revision of electromagnetic field theory. EMC terminology, electromagnetic emissions (EME), electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS), electromagnetic interference (EMI). Sources of disturbances, man made sources, natural sources. Levels of EMC, component, circuit, device, system. Coupling paths, common impedance, capacitive coupling, inductive coupling, radiation, electric dipole (small), magnetic dipole (small), radiation through an aperture. Common mode and differential mode signals, filtering. Properties of conductors, DC and AC current flow, skin depth, AC resistance, inductance (internal and external). Shielding. Inductive crosstalk, capacitive crosstalk, near end crosstalk. Effect of nearby conducting plane. Parasitic effects in components, resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers. Protective earth and signal reference, earth loops. Effect of ESD. Choice of signal reference and cabling. Testing, regulations. Measuring the electromagnetic environment. |

## EE40044: An introduction to intelligent systems engineering |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To provide the fundamental principles of various artificial intelligent techniques and insights of how to apply these techniques to solve practical problems. In particular, the course provides in depth knowledge of one of the most popular artificial intelligent technique - neural network, with detailed practical implementation procedure and extensive application examples.
Objectives:
After completing this module, students should be able to: distinguish the differences between intelligent techniques and conventional techniques; be aware of the opportunities where intelligent techniques might be most beneficial; be able to construct simple intelligent systems to solve practical problems; be able to further enhance the performances of intelligent techniques.
Content: Neural Networks (NNS): artificial neurons and neural networks; learning process: Error-correction learning, Hebbian learning, Boltzmann learning, competitive learning, supervised/unsupervised learning; Perception and multilayer perception; self-organising Kohonen networks, Kohonen feature maps; Hopfield neural networks; practical implementation and applications: the electronic nose, fault diagnosis/classification in engineering networks. Expert Systems (ES): major characteristics of expert systems; knowledge representation techniques; inference techniques; rule-based expert systems; applications in power systems. Fuzzy Logic (FL): fuzzy set theory; fuzzy inference; fuzzy logic system; fuzzy control; applications on power systems. Genetic Algorithms (GA): adaptation and evolution; genetic operators; a simple genetic algorithm; genetic algorithms in optimisation and learning. |

## EE30047: Design & realisation of integrated circuits |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
This course covers all aspects of the realisation of integrated circuits, including both digital, analogue and mixed-signal implementations. Consideration is given to the original specification for the circuit which dictates the optimum technology to be used also taking account of the financial implications. The various technologies available are described and the various applications, advantages and disadvantages of each are indicated. The design of the circuit building blocks for both digital and analogue circuits are covered. Computer aided design tools are described and illustrated and the important aspects of testing and design for testability are also covered.
After completing this module the student should be able to take the specification for an IC and, based on all the circuit, technology and financial constraints, be able to determine the optimum design approach. The student should have a good knowledge of the circuit design approaches and to be able to make use of the computer aided design tools available and to understand their purposes and limitations. The student should also have an appreciation of the purposes of IC testing and the techniques for including testability into the overall circuit design.
Content: Design of ICs: the design cycle, trade-offs, floorplanning, power considerations, economics. IC technologies: Bipolar, nMOS, CMOS, BiCMOS, analogue, high frequency. Transistor level design: digital gates, analogue components, sub-circuit design. IC realisation: ASICs, PLDs, gate arrays, standard cell, full custom. CAD: schematic capture, hardware description languages, device and circuit modelling, simulation, layout, circuit extraction. Testing: types of testing, fault modelling, design for testability, built in self test, scan-paths. |

## EE40049: Optical communication systems |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE30038 |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide a background to current practices in the design and specification of optical (fibre) based communication systems, sub-systems and key components. The student should gain an understanding of the main types of optical communication system and the decisions that must be taken by the engineer for the most appropriate selection of components in the development of (i) a very high capacity trunk network, (ii) a metropolitan area network and (iii) an optical fibre local area network.
Content: Overview of optical communication systems. Basic components and modulation methods. LEDs vs lasers, attenuation and dispersion, detector responsivity. Optical Sources: LEDs and lasers, review of the development of laser structures. Structures for single wavelength operation. Modulation response of lasers. Optical Fibres: Types of fibre. Simple ray model, numerical aperture, number of modes, intermodal dispersion and fibre bandwidth. Chromatic and waveguide dispersion - causes and effect on fibre bandwidth. Fibre manufacturing methods; attenuation and dispersion characteristics of modern fibre - impact on the choice of optical source and detector. Fibre jointing and interconnections. Optical Detector Principles: Structure and operation of: p-n junction photodetectors, p-i-n detectors, avalanche photo-detectors, detectors for operation at 1.3~S109~m and 1.55~S109~m wavelengths, heterostructure detectors. Quantum limit. Responsivity and noise of p-i-n and APD detectors. Optical receiver structures, noise figures and bandwidths. Non-coherent detector systems. Noise performance of heterodyne and homodyne receivers - effect of modulation method. System Design: Point-to-point link analysis. Bit-error-rate calculations due to receiver noise, power budget analysis. Real-time budget analysis. Simple passively coupled optical fibre LANS - effect of coupling losses on power budget. Optical Network Standards: SDH and SONET standards for trunklinks, FDDI local area network standard and DQDB metropolitan area network standard - optical standards and network protocols. |

## EE40050: Radio communication and radar systems |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE30032 |

Aims & learning objectives:
To give students an understanding of the key parameters and trade-offs needed to set up a wireless link in a variety of applications (e.g. Fixed wireless links, mobile links and radar systems). To introduce the basic concepts of the antenna as a system element and the inclusion of propagation factors.
After completion, students should be able to:
understand the main factors influencing the propagation of radio waves in terrestrial and space systems;
understand the operation and use of antennas;
calculate power and noise budgets for radio and radar links in various environments;
appreciate the various types of signal fading and appropriate methods for reducing the effects of fading;
calculate the basic operating parameters of pulse and CW radar systems, and appreciate the methods to improve radar resolution.
Content: Introductory concepts, plane and spherical waves, the isotropic radiator. Antenna properties; gain, beam-pattern or gain-function, polarisation. Transmitting and receiving definitions of antenna gain; solid angle, effective aperture, aperture efficiency. Gain-beamwidth approximation for focused systems. Free-space path loss or spreading loss, link power budgets. Antenna temperature and noise power budgets. Calculation of system noise temperature including antenna noise. Example signal and noise power budgets in radiocommunications. Brief review of the properties of the radio spectrum from ELF to EHF. Summary of environmental influences from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Characterisation of the Earth's surface in terms of dielectric properties and roughness. Characterisation of the Earth's atmosphere in terms of temperature, ionisation and composition. Radiowave propagation: propogation in the earth's atmosphere, tropospheric refraction, reflection and scintillation, gaseous absorption, scattering and absorption from hydrometers. Effects of ionosphere. Propagation over the Earth's surface, reflection and diffraction, the Fresnel equations. Clearance criteria, Fresnel zones. Fading channels, representation of fading channels, the Rayleigh phasor, Ricean and log-normal fading, physical origins. Systems availability and outage. Use of diversity. Introduction to radar systems: The radar equation for point and volume targets. Radar cross section. Operation of pulse, doppler, CW and FMCW systems. Introduction to radar signal processing. Ambiguity functions and false alarm rates. |

## EE40051: Satellite and mobile communications systems |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide an overview of the evolution and current status of satellite and terrestrial links in the provision of integrated communications services in the digital era. To illustrate with examples drawn from satellite and terrestrial networks, techniques for network access and network management.
On completion the student should be able to understand the main operating features of digital satellite and digital terrestrial cellular radio systems; be able to carry out simple capacity calculations and appreciate the key differences between TDMA and CDMA multiple access methodologies. The student should also have an insight into emerging technologies for the provision of a range of integrated digital services via radio networks.
Content: Overview of developments in digital radio networks for fixed and mobile services. Convergence between broadcast systems and other fixed services. Integrated service provision, generic service classes. Introduction to satellite systems for fixed and mobile services. Orbits and converage, satellite and payload design, Earth and satellite geometry, propagation factors, interference, antennas, modulation, coding and multiple-access techniques, including FDMA, TDMA, CDMA. Link budgets, including use of on-board processing. Frequencey re-use in multiple-spot-beams. Introduction to terrestrial systems, including cellular mobile systems and wireless LANs. Developments in the use of high altitude platforms for multi-media services. Frequency re-use in cellular mobile systems, modulation, multiplexing and multiple-access schemes. Cellular Radio Interfaces: AMPS, GSM and IS54 TDMA systems, IS95 CDMA spread-spectrum systems. Message formats and network access protocols. |

## EE40052: Project - 4th year (Sem 1) |

Credits: 12 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To develop further the skills of practical project engineering and where possible to give students experience of working on realistic engineering problems in small groups.
On completion of the unit students should be able to accept responsibility for delegated tasks within a project area, plan a scheme of work and complete it to a standard expected of a young professional engineer. The student should be able to develop innovative solutions to problems and produce designs which meet the requirements of the project.
Content: Students will choose a title from a list of topics offered by the department. The project solution may be implemented in hardware or software or a combination of both. Students will be expected to follow through the accepted problem solving route beginning with the identification and specification of the problem and proceeding to proposals for solution, analysis of alternatives, implementation of chosen solution and final proving and acceptance testing. The production of a planned timetable of goals and milestones will be expected and the final report should contain evidence that the plan has been adhered to, or modified, as necessary. An early viva will be conducted by the internal examiner, who is not the project supervisor, and an end-of-project viva will be conducted by two other members of academic staff. A written report on the background to the project, together with a project plan and literature review, will be submitted part way through the project and then incorporated into the main project report which will be submitted on completion of the project. |

## EE40053: Digital video & audio |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX75CW25 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE30031 |

Aims & learning objectives:
To introduce the theory and practice of digital video and audio in Information Processing Networks. After completion of the unit students should be able to: understand the representation of digital video signals, and the compression and communications techniques for digital video in networks; write software for the processing of digital video in Multimedia Applications; understand the effects of system performance on the Quality of Service of a digital video system; understand the basic principles of human auditory perception, and its influence on digital audio processing; understand current technologies for sampling, representation and reconstruction of audio information; understand and apply methods for digital audio compression.
Content: Digital Video: Concepts and standards, broadcast requirements and standards. Compression techniques for multimedia: Motion JPEG and other intraframe techniques, H32X, MPEG, motion prediction, interpolation and other interframe techniques. Emerging technologies: Object based coding, motion analysis, multiresolution techniques, video description languages, software codecs, MPEG-IV. Quality of Service issues: Redundancy, intra/inter coding, data loss and error correction. Human Auditory Perception: Bandwidth and dynamic range, temporal and frequency masking, critical bands. Speech and audio signals. Current digital audio technologies: companding, sampling, error correction and interpolation. Audio Compression methods and standards. Audio with video in Information Processing Networks - synchronization, delay and Quality of Service. |

## EE40054: Digital image processing |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX75CW25 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE30031 |

Aims & learning objectives:
The aim of this unit is to introduce the theory and practice of digital image processing.
After completing this unit, students should be able to:
* Explain the elements of the human vision system including monochrome and colour vision and perception.
* Describe the components of a digital image processing system and the digital representation of monochrome and colour images.
* Understand and apply a range of image enhancement techniques, including linear, non-linear and temporal filters.
* Implement both first and second order edge detection algorithms and explain their relative merits.
* Describe the operation of a variety of feature extraction techniques.
* Understand the main properties of various image transforms and explain transform domain filtering.
* Explain the role of relaxation labelling in image interpretation.
Content: Images and image sensors: Monochrome and The human vision system: monochrome and colour vision, perception. Digital imaging systems: system model, sampling and quantisation. Image enhancement: point operators and neighbourhood operators, linear and non-linear filters, spatio-temporal filtering. Image interpretation: edge detection, feature extraction and classification. Transforms: transform properties and uses, specific transforms including the two-dimensional Fourier and cosine, Karhunen-Loeve, Walsh and Wavelet transforms. Colour: full and pseudo-colour image processing, colour models. Scene labelling: discrete and probabilistic relaxation. |

## EE40056: Power system control |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE30039 |

Aims & learning objectives:
To introduce the main methods used in power system control and the issues involved in the control of extended power systems. To introduce some modern control techniques. After completing this module, students should be able to: apply modern control methods in power systems.
Content: Application of modern control methods in power systems; digital and fuzzy control techniques. hierarchical and decentralised methods. The concept of automatic generation control in large systems, economical dispatch and load/frequency control. |

## EE40057: Power electronics & drives |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE30034 |

Aims & learning objectives:
To understand the operation of the types of power-electronic supplies which are currently used in d.c. and a.c. drive systems. To study the use of permanent-magnet and induction machines in industrial and traction drives. To gain an appreciation of the remote electromagnetic effects that are caused by switching converters. To be able to perform calculations to assess the overall performance of typical drive systems and to estimate their electromagnetic effects on the environment.
Content: Converter power supplies: rectification and inversion, effect of transformer impedance, regulation and overlap. PWM power supplies: variable frequency converter types, analysis of waveforms and spectra. Practical aspects of inverter implementation, managing sources of distortion, control circuits, power stage design. Small-scale machine and drive systems: brushless d.c. machines and their use for computer peripheral drives and vehicle drives. Steady state and transient analysis of machines and power converters. Field oriented control schemes. Review of electromagnetic interference from power electronic converter fed drives. Power converter modulation and analysis of supply current harmonics in converter-fed drives. |

## EE40058: Numerical methods in cad |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To introduce students to numerical methods used to simulate engineering problems. After completing this unit, students should be able to: use the numerical methods covered in the unit to solve example applications; design programs to implement numerical algorithms.
Content: Solution of linear equations: Gauss-Jordan elimination. Pivoting. Gaussian elimination. Back-substitution. LU decomposition. Sparse linear systems. Skyline solvers. Iterative methods. Steepest descent. Conjugate gradient method. Pre-conditioned conjugate gradients. Non-linear systems of equations: root finding; one dimensional functions; bisection; secant method; Newton-Raphson; multidimensional Newton-Raphson. Time dependent problems: single step time marching schemes; forward difference, backward difference, midpoint difference, general theta scheme. Stiff systems. Stability. Application of time stepping schemes to circuit modelling. Optimisation (minimization or maximization of functions): one dimensional search. Downhill simplex method in multi-dimensions. Simulated annealing. Evolutionary models. |

## EE40059: Finite element analysis |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must (take EE20085 OR take EE20090) |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide students with an understanding of some of the finite element methods for solving common partial differential equations, with particular regard to electromagnetics.
To enable them to use finite element computer packages with some understanding and to develop their own methods when necessary.
Content: The trial solution method and its relationship with finite element methods. The collocation, subdomain collocation, least squares and Galerkin methods of optimisation. One and two dimensional shape functions. One and two dimensional finite element methods. Deriving and using magnetic scalar and magnetic vector potentials in representing magnetic field problems. How symmetry may be exploited in 2D electromagnetic field problems. How quantities of engineering interest such as force and inductance can be derived from the potential solution. How a simple 2D finite element package works. |

## EE40061: Project - 4th year (Sem 2) |

Credits: 12 |

Level: Master's |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |
Before taking this unit you must take EE40052 |

A continuation of EE40052. |

## EE40063: MEng year abroad |

Credits: 60 |

Level: Master's |

Academic Year |

Assessment: OT100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: To assist the student develop personal and interpersonal communication skills and to develop the ability to work and interact effectively in a group environment in which cultural norms and ways of operating may be very different from those previously familiar. To develop an understanding of the stresses that occur in working in a different culture from the UK, and to learn to cope with those stresses and work efficiently. To develop the self-confidence and maturity to operate effectively with people from a different cultural background. To develop the ability to operate at a high scientific level in the language of the country concerned; this would include oral communication and comprehension as well as reading and writing. Content: It is assumed that the student abroad will accomplish work equivalent to 60 University of Bath credits (10 units). Details of these are necessarily left to negotiation with individual University, students and the Bath Director of Studies. A project should be completed either abroad or during the Summer semester/term at Bath. |

## EE50064: Basic power system engineering |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX80CW20 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide provide a thorough understanding of the operation and design of the principal types of a.c. machines and to provide models for the calculation of machine performance. To develop the fundamental concepts of power system operation and analysis.
After completing this unit, students should be able to:
Calculate the performance of 3 phase transformers, induction machines and synchronous machines; carry out analyses of symmetrical and assymetrical fault conditions in power systems; explain the structure of a modern power system; predict the performance of generators and transmission lines through the use of operating charts.
Content: The per-unit notation. Single and 3-phase transformers: construction, operation, connections, relevant calculations, harmonics. Three-phase induction machines: construction, operation, equivalent circuits, characteristics, starting methods, transients. Three-phase synchronous machines: construction operation and action of round rotor, salient pole and reluctance types; equivalent circuits, phasor diagrams; elementary treatment of transients. Structure of a modern power system. Operating charts Voltage control. Matrix representation of transmission lines. Two port network representation of transmission lines, per unit system, fault analysis: symmetrical components and phase-frame analysis; introduction to power system protection. |

## EE50066: Power system operation |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To give students an understanding of the current and future methods used to successfully operate a large power network.
After completing this module, students should be able to: Explain the need for constraints within power system operation; explain the place for scheduling and economic dispatch; describe the basic components within an energy management system; carry out simple calculations on the level of dynamic, transient, thermal and voltage security within a given power system; describe the need for 'artificial intelligence' methods within the control room; carry out simple calculations to balance load and generation taking into account economy and security.
Content: The Energy Management System: the basic component blocks of the EMS and its connection to the power system via the SCADA data acquisition system. Constraint management: constraint groups and boundaries, transfer limits. Security analysis: off-line and on-line security analysis methods using time domain simulation and AI techniques, contingencies and contingency ranking. Scheduling and dispatch: pricing, merit order and economic operation of the power system to meet demand. |

## EE50068: Distribution system engineering |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To give students an understanding of the design and industrial and distribution systems. After completing this module, students should be able to: Apply modern design methods to industrial and distribution systems.
Content: General distribution/industrial systems. Substation Design Voltage Control Distribution Economics Private Power Plant |

## EE50071: Foundations of digital communications |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
Aims:To review fundamental principles underlying digital media technologies for Information Processing Networks
Objectives:
By the end of this unit a student should be able to:
(a) Understand the representation of digital signals and apply digital filtering techniques for digital data in the time and frequency domains.
(b) Understand the theory and application of discrete orthogonal transformations.
(c) Understand the modulation and transmission of digital data by analogue carriers.
(d) Understand the concepts of redundancy in a digital signal and apply lossless coding to reduce entropy in a digitally coded symbol stream.
(e) Understand the use of error correction in a digital communications system.
Content: Signal Processing: Analogue signals and the Fourier transform, linear filtering in the time and frequency domain, sampled signals and aliasing, the discrete Fourier transform, digital filtering in the time and frequency domain, orthogonal transforms in the time and frequency domain, Parseval's theorem and the significance of digital data. Information theory: Modulation for digital transmission, information content and redundancy in digital signals, entropy, lossless coding of digital signals by Huffman and artihmetic coding, noise and error correction in digital transmission. |

## EE50073: Project dissertation |

Credits: 42 |

Level: Masters |

Academic Year |

Assessment: DS100 |

Requisites: |

No Description Available |

## EE50090: Digital image sensors & displays |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: CW25EX75 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To introduce the techniques, technologies and applications associated with modern image sensors and displays.
After successfully completing this unit students will be:
i) conversant with modern sensor and display technologies
ii) able to select appropriate technologies for a specified application
iii) appreciative of the cost/performance trade-off of different technologies and systems
Content: Passive sensors: Charge coupled devices and CMOS technology for visible and infra-red bands Active sensors: Ultrasonic and laser sensors. Active optical systems (UV and IR). Bar code systems Displays: Generic display techniques and specific technology examples. Two-and three-dimensional displays. Applications to still and moving images. |

## EE50091: Digital broadcasting |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
Aims: To introduce the fundamental concepts, techniques and technologies employed in modern digital broadcasting systems.
Objectives:
After successfully completing this unit students will be able to: explain the principles of digital communications, demonstrate familiarity with the digital signal format standards employed in practice, explain the principles of source coding and describe how these principles are applied in practical MPEG standards, describe digital studio techniques and practice, make detailed link budget calculations and explain how these relate to practical coverage prediction and planning in both satellite and terrestrial systems, describe the different requirements of modulation and coding in terrestrial and satellite systems and explain how these requirements are met, describe and explain terrestrial and satellite receiver technologies, discuss likely future demands for advanced multi-media and interactive services and show how these demands can be met by satellite and terrestrial technologies.
Content: Review: sampling, A-to-D conversion, aliasing, filtering. Fourier transform, digital modulation techniques, PSK, QAM. Signal formats: Baseband formats, RGB, picture grades, SDTV, HDTV, SNR requirements, subjective testing. Source encoding: review of general principles, history leading up to MPEG, alternatives. MPEG video and MPEG audio. MPEG data: Data broadcasting, Pay-TV and SI, encryption, multiplexing. Digital studio techniques: technology of mixing and editing. Distribution techniques, OB and ENG: Faster than real-time distribution techniques, technology for OB and ENG. Terrestrial transmission and coverage: link budgets, propagation effects, diffraction, ducting, ITU-R techniques, availability requirements, coverage planning. Satellite transmission and coverage: power and noise link budgets, propagation effects, rain, clear-air, ITU-R techniques, availability requirements, coverage planning. Terrestrial system modulation and channel coding: OFDM, error correction, immunity to multipath, mobile use. Satellite system modulation and coding: QPSK, FEC, MF-TDMA, on-board multiplexing. Terrestrial frequency planning: frequency assignments, delivering the digital multiplex, mutual interference with analogue systems, noise and interference constraints. Terrestrial receiver technology: add-on and integrated systems, existing examples, moves to interactive and multi-media systems, advances in display technologies. Satellite receiver technology: technology review from antenna to video output, Ku and Ka band systems. Satellite return-path systems: cables and radio return paths, principles and emerging standards. Future directions: MPEG4 and &, multi-media and mobile. |

## EE50092: Wireless networks |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: EX70CW30 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
Aims: To consider network concepts, topologies and protocols in the context of wireless implementations and to examine the special constraints that these implementations put on architecture and performance.
Objectives:
After successfully completing this unit students will be able to: describe and classify networks in terms of form, function and size, explain the impact of the wireless physical layer on network architectures and the protocol stack, describe the performance measures and performance requirements of wireless networks, demonstrate awareness of professional tools used in the simulation and design of wireless networks, describe the technological implementation of a selection of modern wireless network systems.
Content: Network taxonomy: broadcast and switched networks, bus and ring networks, connection oriented and connectionless networks, physical and logical network topologies. Review of network concepts: circuit, message and packet switching, queuing theory, routing, flow control, data link control, error control (link-by-link and end-to-end), fast packet switching and ATM, TCP/IP, W-ATM and WAP. Standards of performance: grade of service, quality of service, severely errored seconds, availability, throughput, capacity, latency. Physical layer considerations: link budgets, frequency allocations, multiple-access techniques, MODEMs and CODECs, network impact of fading channels. Propagation impairments: long-term and short-term fading processes, narrow and broadband fading, fade mitigation techniques and equalisation. Network simulation: simulation philosophies, introduction to professional design software (OPNET or equivalent). Wireless network technologies: high altitude platforms, satellite networks, cellular networks, broadcast networks, wireless local loop, broadband radio access, HiperLAN, IEEE 802.11 WLAN, Bluetooth, optical wireless networks. |

## EE50093: Project planning |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
Aims: To provide an experience of project planning and reporting as close as possible to that likely to be encountered in UK industry.
Objectives:
After successful completion of this unit students will be able to:
write a requirements specification, write a technical specification, act autonomously in constructing a project work-plan, define appropriate milestones and deliverables, undertake and report a detailed critical literature review demonstrating a systematic understanding of the background body of knowledge pertinent to the project.
Content: Students may choose a title from a departmental list or may propose a title originating with themselves or their company. In the latter case students must provide a one-page summary of the project giving aims, an anticipated methodology and the resources required. The proposal must be submitted to the Projects Coordinator who will determine its academic suitability obtaining the advice of other members of departmental staff as necessary and appropriate. Proposals found to be academically sound will be approved providing that both the required resources and a supervising member of staff with appropriate expertise are available. A small number of formal lectures relating to the formulation and presentation of project documents and literature search techniques will be offered. Students will keep personal log-books for their project work in which they will record the day-to-day details of their work and informal notes of meetings with supervisors. The notes of meetings will be agreed and initialed by supervisors. Students will submit a requirements specification and a project plan by the end of week 5, semester 1 and a detailed critical literature review of the technical field by the end of week 12, semester 1. |

## EE50094: Project implementation |

Credits: 18 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
Aims: To provide an experience of project execution, management and reporting as close as possible to that likely to be encountered in UK industry.
Objectives:
After successful completion of this unit students will be able to:
demonstrate a systematic approach to project work and a commitment to attaining the milestones and deliverable that the plan contains, write technical project progress reports, deliver oral executive reports, respond confidently to questions arising from their written and oral reports, demonstrate initiative and the willingness to take personal responsibility.
Content: Students will execute their project following closely the plan submitted in week 12 of Semester 1. Students will be allowed to propose modifications of the plan but a closely argued case for such modifications must be submitted to the project supervisor. If the modifications are approved by the supervisor then the modified work plan will supersede the original plan and all subsequent progress will be judged against it. An Interim Report, describing progress to date will be submitted by students at the end of week 12, Semester 2. The written case(s) for any modifications and the modified work plan will be incorporated into an appendix of the Interim Report. A 15 minute oral presentation in the form of an executive summary of the projects aims, methodology, progress to date and plan-to-completion will be delivered by students at the end of Semester 2. |

## EE50095: Project completion |

Credits: 30 |

Level: Masters |

Academic Year |

Assessment: CW100 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
Aims: To provide an experience of project execution, management and reporting as close as possible to that likely to be encountered in UK industry.
Objectives:
After successful completion of this unit students will be able to:
demonstrate a critical awareness of the principal problems limiting progress/performance in the technical area of the project, outline the range of technique/solutions currently being brought to bear on these problem, explain the way in which their chosen approach builds on or compliments the current techniques/solutions, make where necessary engineering judgements in the face of incomplete information, demonstrate self direction and originality in tackling and solving problems.
Content: The most demanding project objectives will be addressed that result in some contribution (e.g. new results, theory, software or hardware) to the field of study. A written Final Report will be submitted in September and a detailed oral report (30 minutes) appropriate to a technical meeting will be delivered. |

## EE50096: Power system analysis |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX80CW20 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide students with an insight into, and a basic understanding of, analytic methods applied to power system analysis.
After completing this unit, students should be able to:
perform a multi-node load flow analysis and exercise an informed choice over the solution technique; explain the techniques of dc power transmission including its benefits compared to ac transmission and demonstrate an understanding of the use of dc transmission worldwide; conduct a simple stability study and explain the influence of AVR and governor types on system stability; analyse transients on power systems caused by switching operations or faults for both single and multi-phase situations, and hence be able to specify insulation requirements.
Content: Load flow analysis: network matrix representation, Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson solution techniques. AC/DC conversion: converter types, dc transmission, advantages compared to AC transmission. Basic stability considerations: machine inertia, equal area criterion, effect of AVRs and governors. Overvoltages: switching and fault overvoltages, Bewley Lattice diagrams, switchgear principles, current chopping, insulation coordination. Modal component theory: wave propagation in multiphase networks. |

## EE50097: Project engineering |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX80CW20 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide students with an understanding of project management and to define the projects objectives, plan the enterprise, execute it and bring it to a successful conclusion for all parties involved.
After completing this module, students should be able to:
define the projects objectives and the roles of the key participants.
produce a project plan.
design and control and management procedures.
explain the procedures required to bring that project to a successful conclusion.
Content: Project definition: Principal types of project. Project outline. Roles of key participants. Defining objectives. Project planning: Defining sub-projects. Time scheduling. Costings. Defining resource requirements. Standard planning techniques. Computer planning techniques. Risk assessment and analysis. Project control: Quality standards. Setting milestones. Progress monitoring. Management information systems. Variance analysis. Communications handling. Changes to specification. Corrective action. Project completion: Customer acceptance. Project audits. Final reports. |

## EE50098: An introduction to intelligent systems engineering |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: EX80PR20 |

Requisites: |

Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To provide the fundamental principles of various artificial intelligent techniques and insights of how to apply these techniques to solve practical problems. In particular, the course provides in depth knowledge of one of the most popular artificial intelligent technique - neural network, with detailed practical implementation procedure and extensive application examples.
Objectives:
After completing this module, students should be able to: distinguish the differences between intelligent techniques and conventional techniques; be aware of the opportunities where intelligent techniques might be most beneficial; be able to construct simple intelligent systems to solve practical problems; be able to further enhance the performances of intelligent techniques.
Content: Neural Networks (NNS): artificial neurons and neural networks; learning process: Error-correction learning, Hebbian learning, Boltzmann learning, competitive learning, supervised/unsupervised learning; Perception and multilayer perception; self-organising Kohonen networks, Kohonen feature maps; Hopfield neural networks; practical implementation and applications: the electronic nose, fault diagnosis/classification in engineering networks. Expert Systems (ES): major characteristics of expert systems; knowledge representation techniques; inference techniques; rule-based expert systems; applications in power systems. Fuzzy Logic (FL): fuzzy set theory; fuzzy inference; fuzzy logic system; fuzzy control; applications on power systems. Genetic Algorithms (GA): adaptation and evolution; genetic operators; a simple genetic algorithm; genetic algorithms in optimisation and learning. |

## EE50102: Radio communication and radar systems |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 1 |

Assessment: CW20EX80 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To give students an understanding of the key parameters and trade-offs needed to set up a wireless link in a variety of applications (e.g. Fixed wireless links, mobile links and radar systems). To introduce the basic concepts of the antenna as a system element and the inclusion of propagation factors.
After completion, students should be able to:
understand the main factors influencing the propagation of radio waves in terrestrial and space systems;
understand the operation and use of antennas;
calculate power and noise budgets for radio and radar links in various environments;
appreciate the various types of signal fading and appropriate methods for reducing the effects of fading;
calculate the basic operating parameters of pulse and CW radar systems, and appreciate the methods to improve radar resolution.
Content: Introductory concepts, plane and spherical waves, the isotropic radiator. Antenna properties; gain, beam-pattern or gain-function, polarisation. Transmitting and receiving definitions of antenna gain; solid angle, effective aperture, aperture efficiency. Gain-beamwidth approximation for focused systems. Free-space path loss or spreading loss, link power budgets. Antenna temperature and noise power budgets. Calculation of system noise temperature including antenna noise. Example signal and noise power budgets in radiocommunications. Brief review of the properties of the radio spectrum from ELF to EHF. Summary of environmental influences from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Characterisation of the Earth's surface in terms of dielectric properties and roughness. Characterisation of the Earth's atmosphere in terms of temperature, ionisation and composition. Radiowave propagation: propogation in the earth's atmosphere, tropospheric refraction, reflection and scintillation, gaseous absorption, scattering and absorption from hydrometers. Effects of ionosphere. Propagation over the Earth's surface, reflection and diffraction, the Fresnel equations. Clearance criteria, Fresnel zones. Fading channels, representation of fading channels, the Rayleigh phasor, Ricean and log-normal fading, physical origins. Systems availability and outage. Use of diversity. Introduction to radar systems: The radar equation for point and volume targets. Radar cross section. Operation of pulse, doppler, CW and FMCW systems. Introduction to radar signal processing. Ambiguity functions and false alarm rates. |

## EE50103: Satellite and mobile communications systems |

Credits: 6 |

Level: Masters |

Semester: 2 |

Assessment: CW20EX80 |

Requisites: |

Aims & learning objectives:
To provide an overview of the evolution and current status of satellite and terrestrial links in the provision of integrated communications services in the digital era. To illustrate with examples drawn from satellite and terrestrial networks, techniques for network access and network management.
On completion the student should be able to understand the main operating features of digital satellite and digital terrestrial cellular radio systems; be able to carry out simple capacity calculations and appreciate the key differences between TDMA and CDMA multiple access methodologies. The student should also have an insight into emerging technologies for the provision of a range of integrated digital services via radio networks.
Content: Overview of developments in digital radio networks for fixed and mobile services. Convergence between broadcast systems and other fixed services. Integrated service provision, generic service classes. Introduction to satellite systems for fixed and mobile services. Orbits and converage, satellite and payload design, Earth and satellite geometry, propagation factors, interference, antennas, modulation, coding and multiple-access techniques, including FDMA, TDMA, CDMA. Link budgets, including use of on-board processing. Frequencey re-use in multiple-spot-beams. Introduction to terrestrial systems, including cellular mobile systems and wireless LANs. Developments in the use of high altitude platforms for multi-media services. Frequency re-use in cellular mobile systems, modulation, multiplexing and multiple-access schemes. Cellular Radio Interfaces: AMPS, GSM and IS54 TDMA systems, IS95 CDMA spread-spectrum systems. Message formats and network access protocols. |

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