Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Unit Catalogue 2003/04 
EE10077: Electronics & electrical drives 
Credits: 5 
Level: Certificate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
This unit is available to students in the Department
of Mechanical Engineering only. Aims & Learning Objectives: To develop the basic techniques of circuit analysis and explain the concept of alternating currents in electrical circuits. To introduce the method of operation and application of semiconductor devices. To give an understanding of the basic principles of electromagnetism. To provide an overall view of the methods of converting electrical energy to linear or rotary mechanical energy. To give an understanding of how the characteristics of a drive system can depend upon the combination of the electromagnetic device, the electronic drive circuit and the control technique. After taking this unit the student should be able to: Solve simple electrical circuit problems. Appreciate the essential features of operation of semiconductor devices, and their use in simple digital and analogue circuits. Understand simple operational amplifier techniques. Select appropriate drives for simple applications. Understand the basic operation of DC motors and three phase induction motors, including speed control and starting methods. Content: Direct and alternating voltages and currents. Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's laws and Thevenin's theorem. Resistance, capacitance and inductance, concept of impedance, power and reactive power. Balanced three phase systems. Basic characteristics of diodes, zener diodes, light emitting diodes, photosensitive devices and transistors. The application of semiconductor devices in simple analogue and digital circuits. Introduction to operational amplifiers. Electromagnetic induction, Faraday's and Ampere's laws. Operating characteristics of shunt, series, compound DC motors and three phase induction motors. Calculation of simple speedtorquepower relationships. Starting and speed control of motors, stepper motors and their indexing techniques. Concepts of motor control circuits including the thyristor. 
EE10080: Electrical science 
Credits: 12 
Level: Certificate 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To understand the fundamentals of electrical science including the areas of basic circuit theory, simple analogue and digital circuits and the concepts of electric and magnetic fields and waves. To be able to demonstrate this knowledge through problem solving exercises and performing experimental work based on both practical equipment and computer simulations. A series of small group 'design and build' projects will also be undertaken. Content: DC circuits, resistors, Kirchoff's Laws, Electrical instrumentation, operation and appreciation of accuracy and errors. AC circuits and transient responses, use of an oscilloscope. Diodes and diode circuits. Ideal operational amplifier operation. Boolean algebra and minimisation of functions. Digital gates, combinational logic and simple digital circuits. Sequential logic, flipflops and simple counters. Electric and magnetic fields. Coulomb, Gauss, Ampere and Faraday's Laws. Simple magnetic circuits. Properties of waves. 
EE10081: JAVA application programming 
Credits: 6 
Level: Certificate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE10086 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with an opportunity to develop programming and software design skills required to implement simple engineering applications. Content: A number of supervised application design exercises using JAVA . Students will be encouraged to communicate and develop ideas as a team. Supervision if the form of weekly feedback sessions and labs will provide guidance and suggestions to help the students attained the learning objects. 
EE10082: Electrical systems & control 
Credits: 6 
Level: Certificate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX80CW20 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To understand the operating principles and characteristics of separately excited d.c. motors. To be able to demonstrate the connection between measured system signals and control system performance, analyse control system performance graphically using Laplace domain pole/zero diagrams, use the concept of feedback to modify system performance, identify system performance criteria such as stability, response speed, damping and steadystate error. Content: DC machines: construction, operating principles and applications. DC motor as a variable speed drive: characteristics, base speed, 4quadrant operation, regenerative braking and power supplies. Transducers & intelligent instrumentation. Performance of simple first and second order dynamic systems: natural frequency of oscillation and damping performance measures, system performance representation using the Laplace operator, pole/zero diagrams. Concepts of open loop and closed loop systems. Closed loop control for system performance modification, root locus diagrams. 
EE10086: Introduction to programming in JAVA 
Credits: 6 
Level: Certificate 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: CW50EX50 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To introduce programming in Java. Objectives: At the end of this unit students should be able to: solve basic problems using the JAVA programming language; understand and apply the basic concepts of object oriented programming. Content: Compiling and running Java programmes. Primitive data types. Expressions. Statements. Operators. Control. Loops. Iteration. Procedural use of JAVA. File input and output. Strings. Object orientation. Objects. Classes. Methods. Constructors. References. Arrays. Inheritance. Polymorphism. Graphics. Events. Vectors. 
EE10089: Electronic systems & communications 
Credits: 12 
Level: Certificate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW50EX50 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: to introduce students to the principles and importance of three areas of systems engineering; signals and systems theory, communications systems and microprocessor systems. Objectives: At the end of this modules students will be able to: (i) distinguish between different types of generic signals, construct mathematical models of signals and systems and apply these models to predict the response of a linear system to a specified stimulus. (ii) explain the functions of the peripheral components of a communications system, describe the information content of natural languages and the origin (and technological role) of redundancy, state the ShannonHartley law and apply it in the context of tradeoffs between fundamental communications resources, (iii) describe the use of modern microprocessor devices as embedded subsystems within engineering applications, identify and explain the function of the subsystems that make up a microprocessor and demonstrate an understanding of the fundamentals of machine code. Content: Signals and systems theory: Signals: review of signal types, phasors, Fourier series. Linear systems: inpluse response, convolution, frequency response, convolution theorm. Communication Systems: Introduction to modern telecommunications networks, services and signals. Information theory and source coding. Communication channels and noise. Communication resourses and the ShannonHartley law. Microprocessor Systems: Microprocessor hardware: registers, ALUs, special function units, control unit and CPU. Unit communication and synchronisation. Interfacing embedded microprocessors to external devices. External bus structures and protocols. RAM, timers, parallel and serial ports, mass storage devices. 
EE20004: Electronic devices & circuits 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX80CW20 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE10080 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To introduce students to the electrical properties of semiconductor materials, based on atomic and crystal structure. To develop the behaviour of electronic components formed from the semiconductor materials and to provide the design techniques for incorporating these devices into electronic circuits. At the end of this unit students should be able to understand and explain the basis of electrical conduction in materials and devices and use this to explain the circuit behaviour of semiconductor devices; to be able to design simple practical circuits based on these devices, such as BJT and FET amplifiers. Content: Atomic theory: atoms, crystals, energy band structure and diagrams, electrical conduction in solids. Semiconductors: intrinsic, p & n type doping, extrinsic semiconductors, conduction processes (drift and diffusion). Devices: pn junctions, metalsemiconductor junctions, bipolar junction transistors, field effect transistors, pnpn devices. Circuits: CE and CS amplifiers; biasing, load line and the Qpoint and its stability; other amplifiers configurations. General principles of amplification: small signal equivalent circuits and frequency response. Operational amplifier characteristics, bandwidth, slew rate and compensation. 
EE20016: Mechanical science 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & learning objectives: To
model and analyse some mechanical problems that are relevant to various
fields of electrical engineering. After completing this unit it should be
possible to: set up and solve equations that represent static and dynamic
systems; perform calculations on rotating systems with unbalance. Content: Force systems and solution of problems in two and three dimensional statics, and dynamics including effects of friction. Dynamic problems to be solved using forcemassacceleration, workenergy or impulsemomentum approaches. Examples of translational and rotational motion of rigid bodies; motion of selfpropelled vehicles, drives incorporating gears and flywheels. Control of vibration; balancing of rotating machinery. 
EE20017: Communication principles 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX80PR20 
Requisites: 
Aims & learning objectives: To
introduce students to the basic principles of communications and to provide
a good understanding of the techniques used in modern electronic communication
systems. At the end of this module students should be able to explain and
analyse the basic methods of generation and detection of modulated signals;
calculate the available power of a modulated signal; analyse the operation
of first and second order phase locked loops; understand the function of
source, channel and line coders in digital transmission systems and the
limitations imposed by restricted bandwidth and signal to noise ratio; describe
the characteristics and relative performance of the various digital modulation
schemes. Content: Communication systems and channels, media characteristics, amplitude and phase distortion, nonlinear distortion. Physical sources and statistical properties of electrical noise. Evaluation of noise: signaltonoise ratio, noise figure, noise temperature. Analogue modulation systems: methods of generating amplitude modulated signals, qualitative introduction to angle modulation. Phase lock loops. Radio transmitter and receiver architecture. Functional elements of a digital communications system. Source entropy and coding. PCM and quantisation noise. Bandwidth, signalling rate and multilevel signals. Information rate, symbol rate and bandwidth efficiency. Noise and error probability, the ShannonHartley theorem, SNR bandwidth tradeoff, BER and error control. Spectrum shaping and intersymbolic interference. Digital signal formats, spectral properties, clock encoding and recovery. Digital modulation generation and detection of ASK, FSK, PSK, DPSK and QPSK. 
EE20021: Digital electronics 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX80PR20 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE10080 
Aims & learning objectives: The
course provides a foundation for the design of combinational and sequential
logic circuits using formal design methods. The implementation of sequential
logic is extended to microprocessors and the aim is to enable students understand
the architecture of microprocessors and to design and implement simple realtime
microprocessor systems. Students should be able to design a wide range of
asynchronous logic circuits using finite statemachine methods. They should
be able to describe the operation of a microprocessor in terms of its general
architecture and understand how microprocessors can be programmed and used
in a variety of realtime applications. Content: Applications of combinational logic, synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits: finite state machine description; primitive flow tables; internal state reduction, merging and row assignment problems; essential hazards and races. Computer architecture: the Von Neuman architecture, CPU, volatile and nonvolatile memory (ROM, SRAM, DRAM, EPROM etc.), peripheral devices. General purpose microprocessors: architecture, arithmetic and logic units, program control sequences, microcode, register organization. Control: exception processing, interupts, resets and CPU initialisation, software traps. Bus control: synchronous/asynchronous bus timing diagrams, multiplexed bus. Realtime microprocessor systems: machine code programming; address decoderead/write operations, etc.; analogue and digital input/output; interupt driven I/O vs polled I/O; case studies of various 8/16 bit microprocessors. 
EE20062: Industrial placement 
Credits: 60 
Level: Intermediate 
Academic Year 
Assessment: OT100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide practical experience in the application and usefulness of knowledge and skills gained at the University, by working in a relevant industrial environment. Content: The content varies from placement to placement. In choosing the placement, the University will try to ensure that the project offers adequate opportunities for the student to demonstrate competence in a least six of the eleven assessed categories: application of academic knowledge; practical ability; computational skill; analytical and problem solving skill; innovation and originality; time management; writing skills; oral expression; interpersonal skills; reliability; and development potential. 
EE20083: Signal processing I 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX80CW20 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE10089 and take ME10138 and take ME10139 or equivalent. 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To introduce students to the fundamentals of signal processing and provide illustrations of their practical applications. Objectives: At the end of this unit students should be able to: (i) explain the sampling theorem and appreciate the implications of aliasing distortion, (ii) use the DFT and its fast implementation in the form of the FFT for spectral analysis, (iii) describe the reasons for spectral leakage and utilise windowing techniques for its mitigation, (iv) explain the types of ideal filter and how prescribed functions are used for their approximation, (v) employ FIR design techniques to implement linear phase and Fourier transform filters, (vi) design simple IIR digital filters and exploit different structures for their realisation, (vii) exploit polezero diagrams in the implementation of filters, (viii) describe the key components of a multirate filter and their role in sample rate conversion. Content: Review: sampling theorem and aliasing distortion, spectra and spectral descriptions.Digital spectral analysis: principles of DFT and FFT, effect of finite time window, spectral leakage and its reduction with prescribed windows. Analogue filters: approximation functions, Butterworth/Chebyshev/Bessel/Elliptic implementations. Digital filtering: ztransforms, FIR filters, properties, linear phase and Fourier transforms, design techniques; IIR filters, properties, allpass filters, realisations; polezero diagrams, minimum/maximum phase, stability. Multirate filtering: decimation, interpolation, polyphase realisation. Applications: signal analysis, filtering and sample rate conversion. 
EE20084: UNIX & C programming 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX80PR20 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To introduce students to the ANSI C programming language. To develop their skills in writing good quality software using the C programming language. To provide an appreciation of the importance of good software structure and documentation. To introduce students to the UNIX operation system. To enable students to gain practical experience with programming under the UNIX environment. After completing the unit, students should be able to (i) design, implement, test and debug C language functions and programs according to a given specification, (ii) to locate and correct semantic and syntactic errors in a given C language program, (iii) to explain various aspects of the C languages such as scope or type conversion rules and so on, (iv) to write well structured software documented with appropriate comments, (v) to understand the basic concepts of the UNIX operation system and to gain experience in using UNIX and (vi) to develop software under the programming environment of the UNIX operation system. Content: Fundamentals: identifiers, keywords, fundamental data types, constants, variables, arrays, declarations, operators, expressions and statements. Conditional and looping controls. Functions: defining, accessing and passing arguments to functions. Prototypes. Modular programming. Use of the C standard library functions for data input/output. Arrays: defing, processing and passing arrays to functions. Multidimensional arrays. Strings and string processing. Pointers: declaring and passing pointers to functions. Relationship between pointers and arrays. Dynamic memory allocation. Structures: defining and accessing structures. Selfreferential structures. User defined data types. Unions. Bit fields. C preprocessor directives. Data structures: stacks, queues. Linked lists and trees. UNIX: system architecture, basic commands, file system structure, shells. Use of editors, compilers, debuggers and other utilities. 
EE20085: Electromagnetics 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX80CW20 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE10080 and take ME10138 and take ME10139 
Aims & learning objectives: To
provide a fundamental understanding of the behaviour of electromagnetic
fields with particular emphasis on the low frequency limit of Maxwell's
equations. To introduce the mathematics which allows the fields to be visualised
and employed in the design of useful devices. To provide an introduction
to some of the CAD tools for designing electromagnetic devices. Traditional
lectures will be augmented by a series of pictures and animations which
will be available on the net so that students will gain a good visual understanding
of fields. Content: Electrostatics: Basic concepts will be reviewed, charge, potential, electrostatic energy, force, effects of dielectric materials. Magnetostatics: Current sources of magnetic fields, magnetic field strength, magnetic flux density. Effects of magnetic materials. Interface conditions, magnetic field energy, forces. Time varying current and fields in conductors: Faraday's Law. Eddy currents. Lenz's Law, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic Devices: Very basic action of transformers, motors and actuators. Mathematics: The necessary mathematics will be introduced as required throughout the course, grad, div, curl. 
EE20090: Electromagnetics for communications 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX80CW20 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE10080 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To give students an understanding of how electromagnetic waves propagate in typical communication engineering problems. To introduce the basic concepts behind the description of electromagnetic waves in free space, simple dielectrics and on transmission lines. To illustrate the convergence between field and circuit concepts through the understanding of simple modes of transmission on lines. After completion of this unit students should be able to determine the propagation constants for waves on TEM transmission lines using circuit concepts and to illustrate the fields occurring in the simple transmission modes for parallel conductors and coaxial lines. Students should also be able to apply solutions of the EM wave equation for plane waves to propagation in dielectric and conducting media. They should be able to characterise reflections on lossless transmission lines and for plane waves in free space at normal incidence. They should also have a qualitative understanding of reflection and diffraction effects at simple obstacles and be able to calculate the power budget for simple radiating transmission and radar systems. Content: Transmission lines: basic concepts; derivation of wave equation, propagation constant for lossless lines, characteristic impedance and phase velocity from circuit concepts. Voltage, current, impedance and power flow on transmission lines; reflection and transmission, VSWR and return loss. Electromagnetic waves in free space, scalar wave equation. Propagation of plane waves, Huygens wavelets; qualitative illustration of diffraction. IEEE definition of wave polarisation. The impedance of free space. Refractive index. Propagation in dielectrics, lossy dielectrics and conductors; skin depth. Statement of boundary conditions, reflection and transmission at a boundary (normal incidence only). Antennas: antenna modelling parameters, gain and beamwidth in terms of scalar concepts (isotrope and solid angle). Derivation of the Friis formula for link power budget characterization in free space. Extension to the radar equation for point targets. Radar cross section. 
EE20099: Electrical systems & power electronics 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX80PR20 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide a basic understanding of the way in which a.c. electrical machines, power systems andpower electronic devices operate. On completion of the unit students should be able to: describe the structure of a modern power system and its major components, perform simple 3phase calculations, explain the need for, and provision of, control in a power system; describe the construction, action and characteristics of the principal types of a.c. machine and perform simple analyses; explain the basic operating principles and perform simple analyses of common powerelectronic systems including linefrequency rectifiers, d.c. to d.c. converters and d.c. to a.c. inverters. Content: Single and 3phase transformers: construction, operation, connections, models. Threephase induction machines: construction, operation, equivalent circuits, characteristics. Threephase synchronous machines: construction operation and action of round rotor, type; equivalent circuits, phasor diagrams. Simple power system economics, the need for transmission and distribution systems, energy conversion, energy consumption, introduction to 3phase theory, power engineering conductors and insulators, power system control, faults and protection systems. Power semiconductor devices; introduction to the conduction, switching characteristics and drive requirements of diodes, thyristors and power transistors. Line frequency power converters; introduction to single and threephase rectifier circuits operating with resistive and inductive loads. d.c. to d.c. power converters; introduction to switched mode power supplies and the principles of operation of stepdown and stepup converters. 
EE20100: Electronic control system design 
Credits: 6 
Level: Intermediate 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE10082 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To introduce students to the design processes by taking a requirement through to a prototype device. To give students a basic understanding of a wide range of both analogue and digital control system design techniques.After completing this unit, students should be able to: write a design specification for a product; carry out a topdown systematic design; identify and specify interface requirements for subsystems; design forward path and feedback path analogue control systems; design unity feedback discrete time digital controllers; demonstrate an appreciation of how assumptions about the system model can affect the effectiveness of the design solution. Content: Product design: Preparation of specifications; definition of systems and subsystems.Reliability methods: FMEA, FTA, reliability estimating.Design exercise: Working in groups to produce a prototype of a small system using electronics for monitoring, control, measurement and signal processing.Control design techniques: system modelling for controller design; graphical design methods for analogue control systems; discrete time controller design methods. Hardware & Software design issues. 
EE30029: Digital networks & protocols 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE10089 and take EE20017 
Aims: To give users an understanding
of the principles and current practice employed in digital information networks.
To indicate the directions of future development in network technology.
To enable a network user to estimate performance. Learning Outcomes: Students successfully completing this unit will be able to: understand the broad principles of the OSI 7layer model of a network and apply it, compare the different forms of network technology and means of multiple access, compare the characteristics and application areas of WANs, MANs, LANs and PANs, appreciate the complex demands of internetworking and some current solutions, discuss the need for network management structures and signalling networks and describe some simple ones, describe the operation and evaluate broad performance measures of contention and token passing LAN protocols implemented on ring and bus topologies, calculate the performance of various ARQ data link control strategies. Skills: Protocol performance analysis. Network topology and protocol selection  Taught, facilitated and assessed. Content: Network classification (broadcast versus switched), WANs, MANs and LANs. Generic switching philosophies (circuit, message, packet). Generic network topologies (star, tree, mesh, bus ring). Transmission media. Network applications. Layered networks and the OSI 7layer reference model. Role of service primitives in layered networks. Interconnected networks: bridges, switches, routers, gateways. Network protocols: error control (stop and wait, gobackN and selective repeat ARQ), flow control, routing, congestion control, connection oriented and connectionless protocols, X.25 and IP/TCP. WANs: connectivity and capacity, circuit switched and packet switched public networks, multiplexing (SDH), switching, signalling (CCS7), BISDN and ATM, broadband local loop (e.g. xDSL, FTTx, cable, HFC). LANs: topologies, Ethernet, tokenpassing, performance calculations, WLANs (e.g. IEEE 802.11, HiperLAN). Home and personal area networks (e.g. HomePlug, HomePNA, HomeRF, Bluetooth). MANs (e.g. FDDI, DQDB). 
EE30031: Digital communications 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & learning objectives: To
introduce students to more advanced topics in digital communication systems.
On completion of the course, the student should be able to understand the
main operating features of digital communication systems, including the
relative performance of the various modulation methods, the efficiency of
error detection and correction methods and the security of encryption systems.
Content: Digital modulation techniques: review of binary modulation and demodulation; QPSK, OQPSK, MSK; QAM and trellis coded modulation. Channel coding: linear block codes for error detection and correction; cyclic codes and shift register generation and detection; Hamming, BCH, RS and Golay codes. Convolution coding: definition, generation and distance properties of convolution codes; Viterbi decoding with hard and soft decisions; sequential and feedback decoding; interleaving. Spread spectrum techniques: overview and pseudonoise sequences; direct sequence and frequency hopping systems; synchronisation. Encryption and decryption: cipher systems and secrecy; practical security; stream encryption; public key cryptosystems. 
EE30035: Design exercise 
Credits: 12 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW60PR40 
Requisites: 
Aims: To provide students with
exposure to the use of CAD tools within a team working environment. Students
should gain an understanding of the benefits and constraints of using computer
aided design techniques as well as an appreciation of the issues surrounding
teamworking practices. Learning Outcomes: On completion of the unit, students should be able to use the particular CAD suite with ease to carry out design and analysis exercises. In addition, students should be able to use a revision control system, produce a realistic plan for a piece of design work and assess their own progress effectively. Skills: The major skills gained are an understanding of CAD tool usage and team work. These are taught to a very basic level and the students are allowed to gain practical experience in these issues. Both skill areas are assessed. Content: Students will be grouped into teams of 4 or 5. The teams will be expected to plan and execute a hardware design task as a group using appropriate CAD tools. Teams will use revision control systems to allow the work to be subdivided and wil be expected to hold regular minuted meetings. Chairing and minute taking at meetings will be rotated around the individuals in a group. Plans will include task allocations, timescales and deliverables. Teams will be expected to monitor and report on their own progress throughout the exercise via meeting minutes and team leaders meetings. The final report will be a team deliverable, but will have sections with identified authors to allow individual assessment. 
EE30036: Project  3rd year (Sem 1) 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with an opportunity to develop further their ability to define, plan and execute a technical project under limited supervision, but with individual responsibility for the outcome. On completion of the unit students should be able to accept responsibility for delegated tasks within a project area, plan a scheme of work and complete it to a standard expected of a young professional engineer. The student should be able to develop innovative solutions to problems and produce designs which meet the requirements of the project. Content: Students will choose a title from a list of topics offered by the department. The project solution may be implemented in hardware or software or a combination of both. Students will be expected to follow through the accepted problem solving route beginning with the identification and specification of the problem and proceeding to proposals for solution, analysis of alternatives, implementation of chosen solution and final proving and acceptance testing. The production of a planned timetable of goals and milestones will be expected and the final report should contain evidence that the plan has been adhered to, or modified, as necessary. An early viva will be conducted by the internal examiner, who is not the project supervisor, and an endofproject viva will be conducted by two other members of academic staff. A written report on the background to the project, together with a project plan and literature review, will be submitted part way through the project and then incorporated into the main project report which will be submitted on completion of the project. 
EE30037: Computer graphics including multimedia applications 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide students with a theoretical and practical knowledge of 2D and 3D computer graphics. To enable them to apply such knowledge in computer aided design, multimedia environments and scientific visualisation. After completing this module, students should be able to: Describe algorithms for constructing 2D and 3D graphics primitives on a raster device and also explain the underlying principles; use matrices to transform objects in 2D and 3D space; explain and describe ways of projecting 3D objects onto a 2D screen; compare and contrast 3D rendering and shading techniques; describe and compare various standard graphic file formats used in multimedia environments. Content: Twodimensional graphics: Low level linedrawing, polygonfilling, circledrawing, curvedrawing algorithms. Clipping. 2D transformations: translation, rotation, scaling, reflection. Threedimensional graphics: 3D object representation. Homogeneous coordinate system. 3D transformations: translation, rotation, scaling, reflection. Parallel and perspective projections. 3D clipping. Rendering threedimensional objects: Hidden surface algorithms. Lighting models, shading algorithms. Antialiasing. Graphics in multimedia environments: Study of various graphics file formats used in multimedia applications. 
EE30041: Control engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To provide an understanding of the design of closed loop controllers in the time domain and their practical implementation. To introduce students to the practical issues involved in the design and implementation of discrete time controllers using microprocessors and zdomain design techniques. After completing this module, students should be able to: calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of any linear continuous time plant, use the above to determine the observability and controllability of plant dynamic modes and design controllers to change the modal frequencies. describe any linear continuous time system that is to be controlled using a discrete time controller in the zdomain. design unity feedback discrete time controllers to meet a range of performance specifications for step and ramp input functions. Content: Design of linear systems in the time domain, observability and controllability. Simple modal synthesis. Digital control methods, micro controllers and their application. Real time computational methods in control. 
EE30042: Project engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & learning objectives: To
provide students with an understanding of project management and to define
the projects objectives, plan the enterprise, execute it and bring it to
a successful conclusion for all parties involved. After completing this
module, students should be able to: define the projects objectives and the
roles of the key participants; produce a project plan; design and control
management procedures; and explain the procedures required to bring that
project to a successful conclusion. Content: Project definition: Principal types of project. Project outline. Roles of key participants. Defining objectives. Project planning: Defining subprojects. Time scheduling. Costings. Defining resource requirements. Standard planning techniques. Computer planning techniques. Risk assessment and analysis. Project control: Quality standards. Setting milestones. Progress monitoring. Management information systems. Variance analysis. Communications handling. Changes to specification. Corrective action. Project completion: Customer acceptance. Project audits. Final reports. 
EE30060: Project  3rd year (Sem 2) 
Credits: 12 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE30036 
A continuation of EE30036. 
EE30119: Basic power system engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims: * To provide a thorough understanding of the operation and design of the principal types of AC plants and to provide models for the calculation of plant performance. * To develop the fundamental concepts of power system operation, analysis and fault diagnosis. Learning Outcomes: After completing this unit, students should be able to: * Calculate the performance of transformers and synchronous machines. * Carry out analyses of symmetrical and asymmetrical fault conditions in power systems. * Predict the performance of generators and transmission lines thorough the use of operating charts. * Have a knowledge of the fundamental concepts of power system protection used in fault diagnosis in plant. Skills: The programme should instil some ability to think in terms of engineering systems, rather than within the traditional boundaries. To this end students should be able to: * recognise the principal subsystems of a modern power network. * recognise and explain the functional purpose of each subsystem. Content: Transformers: construction, operation, connections, relevant calculations. Threephase synchronous machines: construction operation and action of round rotor, equivalent circuits, phasor diagrams; Structure of a modern power system: Operating charts Voltage control Matrix representation of transmission lines. Two port network representation of transmission lines, per unit system, fault analysis: symmetrical components and phaseframe analysis: introduction to power system protection. 
EE30120: Wireless transmission 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE20090 
Aims: To give students an understanding
of the key parameters involved in the wave propagation aspects of a wireless
transmission link such as fixed wireless links, mobile links and radar systems.
To introduce the basic concepts of the antenna as a system element and the
inclusion of propagation factors. Learning Outcomes: After completion, students should be able to: understand the main features of plane wave propagation in dielectrics, conductors and the lower atmosphere; the influence of plane boundaries and corners on wave propagation; understand propagation models for typical environments; understand the operation of basic antennas, arrays and apertures. Skills: Students will learn the principles behind currently used techniques for describing and analysing the transmission of wireless signals. Taught, facilitated and assessed. Content: Radio Spectrum: Review of frequency bands & gaseous absorption properties. Wave Propagation: Plane waves in dielectrics & conductors. The Doppler effect. Reflection and Refraction at oblique incidence. Knife Edge diffraction and Fresnel Zones. Propagation Effects: Layered atmosphere and layered media. Plane Earth propagation. Propagation in irregular environments. Introduction to fading. Antennas: Review of link power budgets. Hertzian dipole. Phased array of sources. Aperture antennas. 
EE30121: Microelectronics 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims: This course covers all aspects
of the realisation of integrated circuits, including digital, analogue and
mixedsignal implementations. Consideration is given to the original specification
for the circuit which dictates the optimum technology to be used also taking
account of the financial implications. The various technologies available
are described and the various applications, advantages and disadvantages
of each are indicated. The design of the circuit building blocks for both
digital and analogue circuits are covered. Computer aided design tools are
described and illustrated and the important aspect of testing is also covered.
Learning Outcomes: After completing this module the student should be able to take the specification for an IC and, based on all the circuit, technology and financial constraints, be able to determine the optimum design approach. The student should have a good knowledge of the circuit design approaches and to be able to make use of the computer aided design tools available and to understand their purposes and limitations. The student should also have an appreciation of the purposes and methods of IC testing. Skills: Students will learn the principle and techniques of modern integrated circuit design and realisation and be able to demonstrate these skills through simple circuit design and analysis examples. Taught, facilitated and tested. Content: Design of ICs: the design cycle, tradeoffs, floor planning, power considerations, economics. IC technologies: Bipolar, nMOS, CMOS, BiCMOS, analogue. Transistor level design: digital gates, analogue components, subcircuit design. IC realisation: ASICs, PLDs, ROM, PLA & PAL structures, gate arrays, with particular emphasis on FPGAs, standard cell, full custom. CAD: schematic capture, hardware description languages, device and circuit modelling, simulation, layout, circuit extraction. Delineation of design flows between digital and analogue. Testing: types of testing, fault modelling. 
EE30122: Optical communications 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims: To describe the fundamentals
of optical (fibre) communications systems and key components. Learning Outcomes: After completing the unit the student should have a clear understanding of: * the characteristics of the optical fibre; * the basic principles of operation of optical communications systems and components; * the design rules for (i) a high capacity trunk optical network, (ii) a metropolitan area fibre network and (iii) an optical local area network. Skills: Intellectual skills: basic maths, electromagnetic waves and semiconductor devices. Content: Overview of optical communications systems and basic components. Optical Fibres: types of fibre, simple ray model, Snell's Law, numerical aperture, number of modes, intermodal dispersion and fibre bandwidth, chromatic dispersion, waveguide dispersion and their effect on fibre bandwidth. Attenuation and dispersion characteristics of fibre  impact of choice of optical source wavelength and detector. Fibre jointing and interconnections. Optical sources: LEDs and lasers, review of the development of laser structures. Gain curve. Structures for single wavelength operation. Modulation response of lasers (simple analysis using rate equations). Description of basic principles of operation of DFB lasers. Coupling of input signal to optical fibre. Optical Transmitters: requirements for stable pulsed laser operation, relaxation oscillations, chirp, use of optical modulators. Optical Receivers: principles of photodiode operation, requirements for high speed photodetection, optical design of PIN photodiodes, signaltonoise performance of photoreceivers, simple relationship between bit error rate and receiver signaltonoise performance. Performance of Optical Fibre Links: power budget, timing budget, effect of chirp and polarisation on system bandwidth, requirements of (i) high data rate links, (ii) wavelength division multiplexing, (iii) metropolitan area networks and (iv) local area networks and optical Ethernet. 
EE30123: Power electronics & drives 1 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims: To introduce and analyse
electrical machines and switchedmode powerelectronic converters which
make up the low to mediumpower machinedrive systems that are widely used
for motion control, automated manufacturing, and in aerospace and automotive
applications. Learning Outcomes: After completing this unit, students should be able to: (i) explain the construction, action and operation of a number of types of dc and ac machines; model and analyse the machines to characterise steadystate and quasi steadystate performance; analyse the requirements of typical loads in terms of torque, speed and dutycycle, and relate these requirements to the selection of a particular machine. (ii) recognise and explain the operation of a number of power converter topologies commonly used for machine and actuator control; model and analyse the power converters to characterise steadystate and dynamic performance; compare different control methods; and identify salient performance limitations imposed by such factors as powersemiconductordevice, powersource and machine characteristics. Skills: Application of the information, techniques and methods discussed in the lectures, to the proposal and carrying through of appropriate solutions to engineering problems in power electronics and drives. Taught, facilitated and tested. Content: Electrical machines: construction, action and variable speed operational characteristics of conventional and brushless dc machines, polyphase induction machines and dc and ac servomotors and transducers. Application of machines: analysis of load torque and speed requirements, gearing, regeneration and braking, dutycycle and rating. Power converters: DCtoDC choppers, single and threephase inverters, basic design calculations, review of control methods, provisional controller design, and assessment of steadystate and dynamic performance. Power semiconductor devices: power MOSFET, IGBT, fastrecovery diode, salient device characteristics, basic sizing calculations, application at high switchingfrequency. 
EE30124: RF & microwave circuits 
Credits: 6 
Level: Honours 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims: This course introduces students
to the engineering techniques and approaches required at radiofrequency
(RF) and microwave frequencies. This includes circuit design concepts using
matrix formulations and in particular the scattering matrix representation
(Sparameters). The concept of matching is introduced to reduce reflections
within high frequency circuits and design approaches using the Smith chart
are described. Modern circuit realisation using stripline technologies are
outlined. High frequency amplifer design and applications to digital radio
are introduced. Learning Outcomes: After completion of the Unit the student should: be able to design simple microwave networks using matrix approaches; be able to use the Smith chart to design matching networks; have an appreciation of stripline realisation of high frequency circuits; be able to design amplifier circuits and compensate for such nonidealities as mismatching and distortion; have a knowledge of the architecture and components of digital radio systems. Skills: Students will learn the techniques and design and analysis approaches suitable for high frequency devices and circuits. These skills will be demonstrated by the design and analysis of typical devices and circuits. Taught, facilitated and tested. Content: Matrix description of highfrequency circuits, ABCD and Sparameters, examples of circuits. Smith chart formulation and use; lumped element, single stub and doublestub matching techniques. Stripline technology; microstrip components, crosstalk (coupling) effects. High frequency amplifier design; matching, stability and oscillation conditions, 3rd order intercept point, feedback and feedforward distortion control. Digital radio techniques; receiver architecture, frequency synthesis, direct digital synthesis, software radio. 
EE40043: Fundamentals of electromagnetic compatibility 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & learning objectives: To
provide an introduction to the fundamentals of EMC. After completing this
module students should be able to: demonstrate and understand the terminology
used in EMC; explain the cause of interference in terms of the interaction
of charges, currents and fields; identify interference problems and suggest
solutions; demonstrate the use of EMC principles for interference free design.
Content: Revision of electromagnetic field theory. EMC terminology, electromagnetic emissions (EME), electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS), electromagnetic interference (EMI). Sources of disturbances, man made sources, natural sources. Levels of EMC, component, circuit, device, system. Coupling paths, common impedance, capacitive coupling, inductive coupling, radiation, electric dipole (small), magnetic dipole (small), radiation through an aperture. Common mode and differential mode signals, filtering. Properties of conductors, DC and AC current flow, skin depth, AC resistance, inductance (internal and external). Shielding. Inductive crosstalk, capacitive crosstalk, near end crosstalk. Effect of nearby conducting plane. Parasitic effects in components, resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers. Protective earth and signal reference, earth loops. Effect of ESD. Choice of signal reference and cabling. Testing, regulations. Measuring the electromagnetic environment. 
EE40044: An introduction to intelligent systems engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To provide the fundamental principles of various artificial intelligent techniques and insights of how to apply these techniques to solve practical problems. In particular, the course provides in depth knowledge of one of the most popular artificial intelligent technique  neural network, with detailed practical implementation procedure and extensive application examples. Objectives: After completing this module, students should be able to: distinguish the differences between intelligent techniques and conventional techniques; be aware of the opportunities where intelligent techniques might be most beneficial; be able to construct simple intelligent systems to solve practical problems; be able to further enhance the performances of intelligent techniques. Content: Neural Networks (NNS): artificial neurons and neural networks; learning process: Errorcorrection learning, Hebbian learning, Boltzmann learning, competitive learning, supervised/unsupervised learning; Perception and multilayer perception; selforganising Kohonen networks, Kohonen feature maps; Hopfield neural networks; practical implementation and applications: the electronic nose, fault diagnosis/classification in engineering networks. Expert Systems (ES): major characteristics of expert systems; knowledge representation techniques; inference techniques; rulebased expert systems; applications in power systems. Fuzzy Logic (FL): fuzzy set theory; fuzzy inference; fuzzy logic system; fuzzy control; applications on power systems. Genetic Algorithms (GA): adaptation and evolution; genetic operators; a simple genetic algorithm; genetic algorithms in optimisation and learning. 
EE40049: Optical communication systems 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE30038 
Aims & learning objectives: To
provide a background to current practices in the design and specification
of optical (fibre) based communication systems, subsystems and key components.
The student should gain an understanding of the main types of optical communication
system and the decisions that must be taken by the engineer for the most
appropriate selection of components in the development of (i) a very high capacity trunk network, (ii) a metropolitan area network and (iii) an optical fibre local area network. Content: Overview of optical communication systems. Basic components and modulation methods. LEDs vs lasers, attenuation and dispersion, detector responsivity. Optical Sources: LEDs and lasers, review of the development of laser structures. Structures for single wavelength operation. Modulation response of lasers. Optical Fibres: Types of fibre. Simple ray model, numerical aperture, number of modes, intermodal dispersion and fibre bandwidth. Chromatic and waveguide dispersion  causes and effect on fibre bandwidth. Fibre manufacturing methods; attenuation and dispersion characteristics of modern fibre  impact on the choice of optical source and detector. Fibre jointing and interconnections. Optical Detector Principles: Structure and operation of: pn junction photodetectors, pin detectors, avalanche photodetectors, detectors for operation at 1.3m and 1.55m wavelengths, heterostructure detectors. Quantum limit. Responsivity and noise of pin and APD detectors. Optical receiver structures, noise figures and bandwidths. Noncoherent detector systems. Noise performance of heterodyne and homodyne receivers  effect of modulation method. System Design: Pointtopoint link analysis. Biterrorrate calculations due to receiver noise, power budget analysis. Realtime budget analysis. Simple passively coupled optical fibre LANS  effect of coupling losses on power budget. Optical Network Standards: SDH and SONET standards for trunklinks, FDDI local area network standard and DQDB metropolitan area network standard  optical standards and network protocols. 
EE40050: Radio communication and radar systems 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE30032 
Aims & learning objectives: To
give students an understanding of the key parameters and tradeoffs needed
to set up a wireless link in a variety of applications (e.g. Fixed wireless
links, mobile links and radar systems). To introduce the basic concepts
of the antenna as a system element and the inclusion of propagation factors.
After completion, students should be able to: understand the main factors
influencing the propagation of radio waves in terrestrial and space systems;
understand the operation and use of antennas; calculate power and noise
budgets for radio and radar links in various environments; appreciate the
various types of signal fading and appropriate methods for reducing the
effects of fading; calculate the basic operating parameters of pulse and
CW radar systems, and appreciate the methods to improve radar resolution.
Content: Introductory concepts, plane and spherical waves, the isotropic radiator. Antenna properties; gain, beampattern or gainfunction, polarisation. Transmitting and receiving definitions of antenna gain; solid angle, effective aperture, aperture efficiency. Gainbeamwidth approximation for focused systems. Freespace path loss or spreading loss, link power budgets. Antenna temperature and noise power budgets. Calculation of system noise temperature including antenna noise. Example signal and noise power budgets in radiocommunications. Brief review of the properties of the radio spectrum from ELF to EHF. Summary of environmental influences from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Characterisation of the Earth's surface in terms of dielectric properties and roughness. Characterisation of the Earth's atmosphere in terms of temperature, ionisation and composition. Radiowave propagation: propogation in the earth's atmosphere, tropospheric refraction, reflection and scintillation, gaseous absorption, scattering and absorption from hydrometers. Effects of ionosphere. Propagation over the Earth's surface, reflection and diffraction, the Fresnel equations. Clearance criteria, Fresnel zones. Fading channels, representation of fading channels, the Rayleigh phasor, Ricean and lognormal fading, physical origins. Systems availability and outage. Use of diversity. Introduction to radar systems: The radar equation for point and volume targets. Radar cross section. Operation of pulse, doppler, CW and FMCW systems. Introduction to radar signal processing. Ambiguity functions and false alarm rates. 
EE40052: Project  4th year (Sem 1) 
Credits: 12 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Aims & learning objectives: To
develop further the skills of practical project engineering and where possible
to give students experience of working on realistic engineering problems
in small groups. On completion of the unit students should be able to accept
responsibility for delegated tasks within a project area, plan a scheme
of work and complete it to a standard expected of a young professional engineer.
The student should be able to develop innovative solutions to problems and
produce designs which meet the requirements of the project. Content: Students will choose a title from a list of topics offered by the department. The project solution may be implemented in hardware or software or a combination of both. Students will be expected to follow through the accepted problem solving route beginning with the identification and specification of the problem and proceeding to proposals for solution, analysis of alternatives, implementation of chosen solution and final proving and acceptance testing. The production of a planned timetable of goals and milestones will be expected and the final report should contain evidence that the plan has been adhered to, or modified, as necessary. An early viva will be conducted by the internal examiner, who is not the project supervisor, and an endofproject viva will be conducted by two other members of academic staff. A written report on the background to the project, together with a project plan and literature review, will be submitted part way through the project and then incorporated into the main project report which will be submitted on completion of the project. 
EE40053: Digital video & audio 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX75CW25 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE30031 
Aims & learning objectives: To
introduce the theory and practice of digital video and audio in Information
Processing Networks. After completion of the unit students should be able
to: understand the representation of digital video signals, and the compression
and communications techniques for digital video in networks; write software
for the processing of digital video in Multimedia Applications; understand
the effects of system performance on the Quality of Service of a digital
video system; understand the basic principles of human auditory perception,
and its influence on digital audio processing; understand current technologies
for sampling, representation and reconstruction of audio information; understand
and apply methods for digital audio compression. Content: Digital Video: Concepts and standards, broadcast requirements and standards. Compression techniques for multimedia: Motion JPEG and other intraframe techniques, H32X, MPEG, motion prediction, interpolation and other interframe techniques. Emerging technologies: Object based coding, motion analysis, multiresolution techniques, video description languages, software codecs, MPEGIV. Quality of Service issues: Redundancy, intra/inter coding, data loss and error correction. Human Auditory Perception: Bandwidth and dynamic range, temporal and frequency masking, critical bands. Speech and audio signals. Current digital audio technologies: companding, sampling, error correction and interpolation. Audio Compression methods and standards. Audio with video in Information Processing Networks  synchronization, delay and Quality of Service. 
EE40054: Digital image processing 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX75CW25 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE30031 
Aims & learning objectives: The
aim of this unit is to introduce the theory and practice of digital image
processing. After completing this unit, students should be able to: * Explain the elements of the human vision system including monochrome and colour vision and perception. * Describe the components of a digital image processing system and the digital representation of monochrome and colour images. * Understand and apply a range of image enhancement techniques, including linear, nonlinear and temporal filters. * Implement both first and second order edge detection algorithms and explain their relative merits. * Describe the operation of a variety of feature extraction techniques. * Understand the main properties of various image transforms and explain transform domain filtering. * Explain the role of relaxation labelling in image interpretation. Content: Images and image sensors: Monochrome and The human vision system: monochrome and colour vision, perception. Digital imaging systems: system model, sampling and quantisation. Image enhancement: point operators and neighbourhood operators, linear and nonlinear filters, spatiotemporal filtering. Image interpretation: edge detection, feature extraction and classification. Transforms: transform properties and uses, specific transforms including the twodimensional Fourier and cosine, KarhunenLoeve, Walsh and Wavelet transforms. Colour: full and pseudocolour image processing, colour models. Scene labelling: discrete and probabilistic relaxation. 
EE40056: Power system control 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE30039 
Aims & learning objectives: To
introduce the main methods used in power system control and the issues involved
in the control of extended power systems. To introduce some modern control
techniques. After completing this module, students should be able to: apply
modern control methods in power systems. Content: Application of modern control methods in power systems; digital and fuzzy control techniques. hierarchical and decentralised methods. The concept of automatic generation control in large systems, economical dispatch and load/frequency control. 
EE40057: Power electronics & drives 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & learning objectives: To
introduce the students to power semiconductors, powerconverter circuits,
machines, and control methods used in motordrive and powerelectronic systems.
To examine the operation, capabilities and merits of the different systems
and their control methods. After taking this unit the student should be
able to: Appreciate the characteristics and limitations of commonly used
power semiconductors, motor drive and power electronics systems, and a number
of control methods. Be able to make a provisional assessment to establish
which type of system best suits a given motordrive or powerelectronics
application. Undertake the sizing of motor drive and power electronics systems
for given applications, and make an assessment of the performance and level
of input and output harmonics produced in a number of systems. Content: Converter power supplies: rectification and inversion, effect of transformer impedance, regulation and overlap. PWM control for power converters: variable frequency converter types, analysis of waveforms and spectra. Practical aspects of inverter implementation, managing sources of distortion, control circuits, powerstage design. Machine and drive systems including brushless DC machines and their applications. Steadystate and transient analysis of systems. High performance control schemes for synchronous and induction machines. 
EE40058: Numerical methods in cad 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & learning objectives: To
introduce students to numerical methods used to simulate engineering problems.
After completing this unit, students should be able to: use the numerical
methods covered in the unit to solve example applications; design programs
to implement numerical algorithms. Content: Solution of linear equations: GaussJordan elimination. Pivoting. Gaussian elimination. Backsubstitution. LU decomposition. Sparse linear systems. Skyline solvers. Iterative methods. Steepest descent. Conjugate gradient method. Preconditioned conjugate gradients. Nonlinear systems of equations: root finding; one dimensional functions; bisection; secant method; NewtonRaphson; multidimensional NewtonRaphson. Time dependent problems: single step time marching schemes; forward difference, backward difference, midpoint difference, general theta scheme. Stiff systems. Stability. Application of time stepping schemes to circuit modelling. Optimisation (minimization or maximization of functions): one dimensional search. Downhill simplex method in multidimensions. Simulated annealing. Evolutionary models. 
EE40059: Finite element analysis 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must (take EE20085 or take EE20090) 
Aims & learning objectives: To
provide students with an understanding of some of the finite element methods
for solving common partial differential equations, with particular regard
to electromagnetics. To enable them to use finite element computer packages
with some understanding and to develop their own methods when necessary.
Content: The trial solution method and its relationship with finite element methods. The collocation, subdomain collocation, least squares and Galerkin methods of optimisation. One and two dimensional shape functions. One and two dimensional finite element methods. Deriving and using magnetic scalar and magnetic vector potentials in representing magnetic field problems. How symmetry may be exploited in 2D electromagnetic field problems. How quantities of engineering interest such as force and inductance can be derived from the potential solution. How a simple 2D finite element package works. 
EE40061: Project  4th year (Sem 2) 
Credits: 12 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE40052 
A continuation of EE40052. 
EE40125: Satellite & broadcast networks 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
While taking this unit you must take EE30031 
Aims: To provide an overview of
the evolution, current status and possible future development of satellite
communications and broadcasting systems. Learning Outcomes: After successful completion of this unit students will be able to (i) describe the main features of a digital satellite communications system, (ii) describe the main features of satellite and terrestrial digital broadcasting systems, explain the requirement for, and function of, these features, (iii) make first order link budget/coverage calculations for each type of system, (iv) describe the deleterious effects of the atmosphere on the performance of each type of system and where appropriate quantify the performance degradation. Skills: Elementary system planning skills e.g. link budgets, BER calculations, modulation/accessing scheme selection etc.  taught, facilitated and assessed. Content: Satellite Communications: Overview of developments in digital radio networks for fixed and mobile services. Convergence between broadcast systems and other fixed services. Integrated service provision, generic service classes. Introduction to satellite systems for fixed and mobile services. Orbits mechanics and coverage. Satellite and payload design. Earth and satellite geometry, propagation factors, interference, antennas, modulation, coding and multiple access techniques including FDMA, TDMA and CDMA. Link budgets including onboard processing. Frequency reuse in multiple spot beams. Broadcasting: Baseband signal formats, RGB, picture grades, SDTV, HDTV, SNR requirements, subjective testing. Source encoding: MPEG video and audio. MPEG data: Data broadcasting, PayTV and SI, encryption, multiplexing. Terrestrial transmission and coverage: link budgets, propagation effects, diffraction, ducting, availability requirements, coverage planning. DBS transmission and coverage. Terrestrial system modulation and channel coding: OFDM, error correction, immunity to multipath, mobile use. DBS modulation and coding: QPSK, FEC, MFTDMA, onboard multiplexing. Terrestrial frequency planning: frequency assignments, delivering the digital multiplex, noise and interference constraints. Terrestrial and satellite receiver technology. Satellite returnpath systems: cables and radio return paths, principles and emerging standards. Future directions: MPEG4, multimedia and mobile. 
EE40126: Terrestrial personal mobile & wireless access 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
While taking this unit you must take EE30031 
Aims: To provide an overview of
the evolution, current status and possible future development of terrestrial
mobile, local and personal area wireless access systems. Learning Outcomes: After successful completion of this unit students will be able to (i) describe the basic operation of 2nd and 3rd generation cellular phone systems, (ii) describe the possible parameters and architecture of 4th generation cellular systems, (iii) describe a selection of wireless local and personal area network technologies, (iv) describe selected broadband fixed wireless access technologies, (v) comment on the possible interworking/integration/convergence of all the preceding technologies to provide seamless and ubiquitous access with a range of available bandwidths determined by user location and motion, (vi) demonstrate insight into emerging technologies for the provision of a range of integrated digital services via radio networks. Skills: Elementary system planning skills  taught, facilitated and assessed. Content: Overview: Development in wireless access systems (fixed, portable and mobile). Channel characteristics and impact: Slow fading and fast fading: origin and statistics. Time dispersion (multipath) and frequency selectivity. Frequency dispersion (Doppler) and time selectivity. Intersymbol interference and interchannel interference. Fading mitigation. Variation of channel characteristics with application (mobile, portable, fixed) and environment (rural, suburban, urban). Principles of cellular mobile systems: Frequency reuse. Nearfar problem, power control. Modulation, multiple access, speech coding, channel coding, mobility management. Principles of WLAN and WPAN systems: Infrastructure and adhoc modes. Modulation, multiple access. Principles of BFWA systems: Star and mesh network implementations. Possible implementations including terrestrial networks and high altitude platforms. Modulation and multipleaccess. 
Postgraduate Units: 
EE50064: Basic power system engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX80CW20 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To
provide provide a thorough understanding of the operation and design of
the principal types of a.c. machines and to provide models for the calculation
of machine performance. To develop the fundamental concepts of power system
operation and analysis. After completing this unit, students should be able
to: Calculate the performance of 3 phase transformers, induction machines
and synchronous machines; carry out analyses of symmetrical and assymetrical
fault conditions in power systems; explain the structure of a modern power
system; predict the performance of generators and transmission lines through
the use of operating charts. Content: The perunit notation. Single and 3phase transformers: construction, operation, connections, relevant calculations, harmonics. Threephase induction machines: construction, operation, equivalent circuits, characteristics, starting methods, transients. Threephase synchronous machines: construction operation and action of round rotor, salient pole and reluctance types; equivalent circuits, phasor diagrams; elementary treatment of transients. Structure of a modern power system. Operating charts Voltage control. Matrix representation of transmission lines. Two port network representation of transmission lines, per unit system, fault analysis: symmetrical components and phaseframe analysis; introduction to power system protection. 
EE50066: Power system operation 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To
give students an understanding of the current and future methods used to
successfully operate a large power network. After completing this module,
students should be able to: Explain the need for constraints within power
system operation; explain the place for scheduling and economic dispatch;
describe the basic components within an energy management system; carry
out simple calculations on the level of dynamic, transient, thermal and
voltage security within a given power system; describe the need for 'artificial
intelligence' methods within the control room; carry out simple calculations
to balance load and generation taking into account economy and security.
Content: The Energy Management System: the basic component blocks of the EMS and its connection to the power system via the SCADA data acquisition system. Constraint management: constraint groups and boundaries, transfer limits. Security analysis: offline and online security analysis methods using time domain simulation and AI techniques, contingencies and contingency ranking. Scheduling and dispatch: pricing, merit order and economic operation of the power system to meet demand. 
EE50068: Distribution system engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To
give students an understanding of the design and industrial and distribution
systems. After completing this module, students should be able to: Apply
modern design methods to industrial and distribution systems. Content: General distribution/industrial systems. Substation Design Voltage Control Distribution Economics Private Power Plant 
EE50071: Signals & information 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:To
review fundamental principles underlying digital media technologies for
Information Processing Networks Objectives: By the end of this unit a student
should be able to: (a) Understand the representation of digital signals and apply digital filtering techniques for digital data in the time and frequency domains. (b) Understand the theory and application of discrete orthogonal transformations. (c) Understand the modulation and transmission of digital data by analogue carriers. (d) Understand the concepts of redundancy in a digital signal and apply lossless coding to reduce entropy in a digitally coded symbol stream. (e) Understand the use of error correction in a digital communications system. Content: Signal Processing: Analogue signals and the Fourier transform, linear filtering in the time and frequency domain, sampled signals and aliasing, the discrete Fourier transform, digital filtering in the time and frequency domain, orthogonal transforms in the time and frequency domain, Parseval's theorem and the significance of digital data. Information theory: Modulation for digital transmission, information content and redundancy in digital signals, entropy, lossless coding of digital signals by Huffman and artihmetic coding, noise and error correction in digital transmission. 
EE50073: Project unit 2 
Credits: 30 
Level: Masters 
Dissertation period 
Assessment: DS100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To
provide an experience of project execution, management and reporting as
close as possible to that likely to be encountered in the Electrical Supply
Industry. After successful completion of this unit students should be able
to: * Demonstrate a critical awareness of the principal problems limiting progress/performance in the technical area of the project. * Outline the range of technique/solutions currently being brought to bear on these problems. * Explain the way in which their chosen approach builds on or compliments the current techniques/solutions. * Make where necessary engineering judgements in the fact of incomplete information. * Demonstrate self direction and originality in tackling and solving problems. Content: In the Summer period, the most demanding project objectives will be addressed which will result in contribution (e.g. new results, theory, software or hardware) to the field of study. A written Final Report will be submitted in September and a detailed oral report (20 minutes) appropriate to a technical meeting will be delivered. 
EE50096: Power system analysis 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX80CW20 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To
provide students with an insight into, and a basic understanding of, analytic
methods applied to power system analysis. After completing this unit, students
should be able to: perform a multinode load flow analysis and exercise
an informed choice over the solution technique; explain the techniques of
dc power transmission including its benefits compared to ac transmission
and demonstrate an understanding of the use of dc transmission worldwide;
conduct a simple stability study and explain the influence of AVR and governor
types on system stability; analyse transients on power systems caused by
switching operations or faults for both single and multiphase situations,
and hence be able to specify insulation requirements. Content: Load flow analysis: network matrix representation, GaussSeidel and NewtonRaphson solution techniques. AC/DC conversion: converter types, dc transmission, advantages compared to AC transmission. Basic stability considerations: machine inertia, equal area criterion, effect of AVRs and governors. Overvoltages: switching and fault overvoltages, Bewley Lattice diagrams, switchgear principles, current chopping, insulation coordination. Modal component theory: wave propagation in multiphase networks. 
EE50097: Project engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX80CW20 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To
provide students with an understanding of project management and to define
the projects objectives, plan the enterprise, execute it and bring it to
a successful conclusion for all parties involved. After completing this
module, students should be able to: define the projects objectives and the
roles of the key participants. produce a project plan. design and control
and management procedures. explain the procedures required to bring that
project to a successful conclusion. Content: Project definition: Principal types of project. Project outline. Roles of key participants. Defining objectives. Project planning: Defining subprojects. Time scheduling. Costings. Defining resource requirements. Standard planning techniques. Computer planning techniques. Risk assessment and analysis. Project control: Quality standards. Setting milestones. Progress monitoring. Management information systems. Variance analysis. Communications handling. Changes to specification. Corrective action. Project completion: Customer acceptance. Project audits. Final reports. 
EE50098: Introduction to artificial intelligence & neural networks 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: EX80PR20 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide the fundamental principles of various artificial intelligent
techniques and insights of how to apply these techniques to solve practical
problems. In particular, the course provides in depth knowledge of one of
the most popular artificial intelligent technique  neural network, with
detailed practical implementation procedure and extensive application examples.
Objectives: After completing this module, students should be able to: distinguish
the differences between intelligent techniques and conventional techniques;
be aware of the opportunities where intelligent techniques might be most
beneficial; be able to construct simple intelligent systems to solve practical
problems; be able to further enhance the performances of intelligent techniques.
Content: Neural Networks (NNS): artificial neurons and neural networks; learning process: Errorcorrection learning, Hebbian learning, Boltzmann learning, competitive learning, supervised/unsupervised learning; Perception and multilayer perception; selforganising Kohonen networks, Kohonen feature maps; Hopfield neural networks; practical implementation and applications: the electronic nose, fault diagnosis/classification in engineering networks. Expert Systems (ES): major characteristics of expert systems; knowledge representation techniques; inference techniques; rulebased expert systems; applications in power systems. Fuzzy Logic (FL): fuzzy set theory; fuzzy inference; fuzzy logic system; fuzzy control; applications on power systems. Genetic Algorithms (GA): adaptation and evolution; genetic operators; a simple genetic algorithm; genetic algorithms in optimisation and learning. 
EE50104: System fundamentals 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide a fundamental understanding of the structure, operation
and analysis of a modern power system. Objectives: After successfully completing
this unit students will be able to: identify factors affecting the pricing
of electricity, describe the advantages of interconnected networks, describe
and analyse transformers, explain the principles of switching, explain and
analyse the operation of a generator and its control systems, predict the
stability of a generator under varying system conditions, explain and apply
methods of load flow analysis, perform balanced and unbalanced fault calculations,
analyse and apply transmission line models, make simple settings calculations
for overcurrent, distance and differential protection. Content: Introduction; Basic Considerations: energy requirements, power system structure, pricing, reliability; Power System Plant: transformers, switchgear; Generation: steadystate operation, simple power systems; Dynamic & Transient Operation of Generators: equal area criterion, electrical transient modes; Load Flow Analysis: Gauss Iterative method, NewtonRaphson method; Fault Calculations: symmetrical components, sequence networks, fault types, transformer networks; Transmission Line Characteristics: transmission line representation, line performance chart; Principles of Protection: types of protection, ring distribution systems, distance protection. 
EE50105: Project Engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide students with an understanding of project management and to define
a project's objectives, plan the enterprise, execute it and bring it to
a successful conclusion for all parties involved. Objectives: After completing
this module, students should be able to: define the projects objectives
and the roles of the key participants; produce a project plan; design and
control and management procedures; and explain the procedures required to
bring that project to a successful conclusion. Content: Project definition: Principal types of project. Project outline. Roles of key participants. Defining objectives. Project planning: Defining subprojects. Time scheduling. Costings. Defining resource requirements. Standard planning techniques. Computer planning techniques. Risk assessment and analysis. Project control: Quality standards. Setting milestones. Progress monitoring. Management information systems. Variance analysis. Communications handling. Changes to specification. Corrective action. Project completion: Customer acceptance. Project audits. 
EE50106: Protection of transmission systems 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide a detailed understanding, in terms of application and
operating principles, of the main types of relay used for the protection
of transmission systems. Objectives: After successfully completing this
unit students will be able to: analyse transducers through their equivalent
circuits, apply and coordinate overcurrent relays, apply distance protection
under varying system conditions, apply current differential protection and
appreciate the communications requirements, calculate the settings for autoreclose
relays, explain the advantages and operation of modern numeric relays. Content: Introduction; Transducers: Voltage transformers, current transformers, capacitor voltage transformers; Overcurrent Relays: IDMTL overcurrent relays, instantaneous overcurrent relays; Distance Protection: impedance measurement, three phase distance protection schemes, directional earth fault schemes; Current Differential Protection: fundamental principles, summation arrangements, phase comparison carrier protection, communications media; Autoreclose for Transmission Systems: main causes of transmission faults, transient and permanent faults, fault clearance, circuit breaker operation, auto reclosing relays; Numeric Protection: microprocessors, relay hardware, digital signal processing, distance protection, differential protection. 
EE50107: Protection of distribution systems 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide a detailed understanding, in terms of application and
operating principles, of the main types of relay used for the protection
of transmission systems. Objectives: After successfully completing this
unit students will be able to describe the requirements of a variety of
protection schemes and to calculate relay settings for a number of typical
distribution network applications. Content: An introduction to the concepts of protection; the protection overlay; nonunit protection; protection transducers; unit protection of feeder circuits; transformer protection; busbar protection; motor protection; protection of embedded generation, autoreclose scheme; and coordinated protection and control. 
EE50108: Power system simulation & analysis 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide a detailed understanding of the basic concepts involved
in the simulation and analysis of power systems networks. Objectives:. Define
the transmission line propagation constant and its characteristic impedance;
demonstrate a clear understanding of some of the fundamental problems of
power transfer over long distance a.c. transmission lines; explain power
flow equations using Gaussian and Nerotonian methods; understand the difference
between stability of single machine and multimachines within a large power
system network. Content: Transmission system simulation: Transmission line model; interpretation of the equations; hyperbolic form of the line equation; simple transient analysis; Long line transmission: Steadystate operation; operation under fault conditions; line protection problems associated with compensated lines. Linear and nonlinear a.c. power flow solutions: Computer aided analysis; the bus admittance matrix; survey of the different power flow techniques; types of buses in a power system; accounting for transformer tap changers and phase angle shifts. Symmetrical shortcircuit analysis for large systems: Tools for power systems network reduction and computer analyses; Korn's formula for the solution of large networks; matrix inversion through factorisation; simulation of disturbances in power system analysis; analysis of threephase short circuits for circuit breaker rating evaluation. Challenges to ensuring transient stability in large power systems: Stability of a synchronous generator/machine connected to an infinite busbar; process of studying multimachine power system stability; the electric centre of a power system; the effect of different fault types on transient stability; computer analysis of transient stability of large power systems. 
EE50109: Control of power systems 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide a detailed understanding of power system control, including
stability control, frequency control and voltage control. Objectives: After
successfully completing this unit students will be able to: explain power
system steadystate stability, dynamic stability and transient stability
on the basis of three operation modes of power systems; understand how to
establish a power system model at steadystate operation mode; perform load
flow calculation of the power system; apply Park's transformation; establish
rotor movement equation of a synchronous generator; understand how to derive
linearized PhillipsHeffron model and state space representation model of
power systems; understand automatic voltage regulation of power systems
and types of exciters; use algebraic method to design a Automatic Voltage
Regulator (AVR); understand damping torque analysis for the study of power
system oscillation stability; use phase compensation method to design a
Power System Stabilizer (PSS); explain the conflict requirement of power
system stability control and improvement of power system transient stability.
Content: Power system modelling: Rotor movement equation of synchronous generator; Park's transformation; steadystate model; simplified dynamic model of a singlemachine infinitebus power system; linearized PhillipsHeffron model; state equation model. Power system control analysis: Power system smallsignal stability analysis; damping torque analysis; transient stability analysis and improvement. Power system control design: AVR design; PSS design. 
EE50110: Operation & management of power systems 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide a detailed understanding of the operational engineering
and management of large complex electrical power systems and the electrical
energy marketplace. Objectives: After successfully completing this unit
students will be able to: Describe the major issues in the operation and
control of modern power systems, explain the role of computers and operational
engineers in power system operations, discuss the major components of an
Energy Management System (EMS), define power system security issues, explain
how stability is ensured in power systems, discuss the impact of free market
reforms within the power industry. Content: Modern power system operations: Power system operation and control, Energy Management Systems; Realtime network modelling: Realtime modelling, network topology processor, network observability, state estimation, external network modelling; Operational planning and scheduling: Economic operation, shortterm forecasting, unit commitment, shortterm hydro scheduling and hydro/thermal coordination; Generation scheduling and control: Scheduling in an EMS, loadfrequency control, economic dispatch, Automatic Generation Control (AGC); Power system stability: Rotor angle stability, reactive power and voltage control, voltage stability and voltage collapse; Power system security: Online security analysis and control, techniques for stability assessment; Commercial operation of deregulated power systems: The electricity marketplace, future developments in the operation of electricity markets. 
EE50111: Power system plant 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide a detailed understanding, in terms of application and
operating principles, of the main types of fundamental power system plant
items. Objectives: After successfully completing this unit students will
be able to: Describe the basic properties and design principles of transformers,
identify the operation and interconnections involved in transformers, list
special features of transformers, calculate basic characteristics of cables,
calculate temperature rises in cables in steady state and transient conditions,
describe the mechanical and electrical design of HV and EHV transmission
lines, describe the operation of electrical insulation, describe and analyse
different methods of power system earthing. Content: Tramsformers: Design principles, transformer operation, threephase transformers, autotransformers, tapchanging transformers, instrument transformers; Cables: Losses in power cables, temperature rise in power cables; Transmission lines: Transmission line design considerations, transmission line design principles, electrical properties of transmission lines, High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission; Electrical insulation: Controlling electrical fields, electrical breakdown in gases, electrical breakdown in solids; System earthing: Definitions and methods of earthing, earthing equipment, power system voltages and currents during system disturbances, special systems, unbalanced star load in distribution systems, summary of established practice in power system earthing. 
EE50112: Transient & overvoltage phenomena 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide a detailed understanding of the basic concepts associated
with the behaviour of high voltage plants under disturbances. Objectives:
Explain why a distributed parameter model is required to describe wave behaviour
under disturbances in overhead lines and underground cables; ascertain the
corrective measures that should be taken to mitigate excessive transients;
explain the basic operation of circuit breakers. Content: Switching transient studies: Wave propagation on a single phase line; wave propagation on multiconductor lines. Temporary overvoltage: Causes of overvoltage; protection of system and equipment against overvoltage; insulation coordination. Switchgear design:: Circuit breakers; circuit breaker technology; circuit breaker parameters. 
EE50113: Contract engineering 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50105 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide students with an understanding of contract management and to
define the processes involved in preparing and operating workable contracts
between contractors and clients. Objectives: After completing this module,
students should be able to: describe the structure of commercial contracts,
understand the different types of contract, design a prequalification process,
describe the process for the selection of contractors, understand the duties
involved in a modern contract engineering department and appreciate the
processes involved in executing contracts. Content: An introduction to industrial contracts; types of contract; the contract cycle; prequalification, tendering and evaluation, contract conditions; winning work; the operation of contracts and an understanding of the role of contracting. 
EE50114: Artifical intelligence in power systems 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: CW30EX70 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide the fundamental principles of various artificial intelligent
techniques and insight of how to apply those techniques to solve practical
problems. Objectives: After completing this module, students should be able
to: distinguish the differences between intelligent techniques and conventional
techniques; be aware of the opportunities where intelligent techniques might
be most beneficial; be able to construct simple intelligent systems to solve
practical problems; be able to further enhance the performances of intelligent
techniques. Content: Expert Systems (ES): major characteristics of expert systems; knowledge representation techniques; inference techniques; rulebased expert systems; applications in power systems. Fuzzy Logic (FL): fuzzy set theory; fuzzy inference; fuzzy logic system; fuzzy control; applications in power systems. Neural Networks (NS): artificial neurons and neural networks; learning process: Errorcorrection learning, Hebbian learning, Boltzmann learning, competitive learning, supervised/unsupervised learning; Perception and multilayer perception; selforganising Kohonen networks; Hopfield neural networks; practical implementation and applications. Hybrid systems: typical hybrid intelligent techniques, applications in power systems. 
EE50115: Dissertation 
Credits: 36 
Level: Masters 
Modular: no specific semester 
Assessment: DS90OR10 
Requisites: 
Before taking this unit you must take EE50104 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims: To provide students with an opportunity to develop further their ability to define, plan and execute a technical project under limited supervision, but with individual responsibility for the outcome. On completion of the unit students should be able to accept responsibility for delegated tasks within a project area, plan a scheme of work and complete it to a standard expected of a professional engineer. The student should be able to develop innovative solutions to problems and produce designs which meet the requirements of the project. Objectives: Students will choose a title from a list of topics offered by the department or, preferably, propose their own project through requirements/ideas from their workplace. Students proposing their own project will need to have the project plan approved by the Course Director. The project solution may involve a design exercise or implementation in hardware/software. Students will be expected to follow through the accepted problem solving route beginning with the identification and specification of the problem and proceeding to proposals for solution, analysis of alternatives, implementation of chosen solution and final proving and acceptance testing. To commence the dissertation, students should initially produce a planned timetable of goals and milestones relevant to the work. This plan will be approved by the Course Director, or his deputy, before the student can proceed with the work. It may be necessary to amend the timetable during the course of the work. The final report should contain evidence that the plan has been adhered. The dissertation will be supervised by a member of staff who will be available to students either via phone, fax or email. The dissertation will be marked by the supervisor and an internal examiner who will agree a score representing 90% of the marks. Following submission of the dissertation the student will attend the next residential school and make a presentation to an audience consisting of distance learning students and 2 other examiners who will assess the presentation and the student's ability to answer questions. 
EE50116: Project unit 1  literature review, planning & preliminary work 
Credits: 12 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: RT100 
Requisites: 
Aims: To provide an experience
of project planning and reporting as close as possible to that likely to
be encountered in UK industry. Learning Outcomes: After successful completion of this unit students will be able to:write a requirements specification, write a technical specification, act autonomously in constructing a project workplan, define appropriate milestones and deliverables, undertake and report a detailed critical literature review demonstrating a systematic understanding of the background body of knowledge pertinent to a project, demonstrate satisfactory execution of the initial stages of the implementation of a project. Skills: To synthesise a comprehensive and critical literature review of an appropriate technical area  facilitated and assessed; To formulate a requirements specification given an imperfectly stated problem  facilitated and assessed; To translate a requirements specification into a technical specification  facilitated and assessed; To plan a programme of work by specifying a logical sequence of ordered tasks that on successful completion will result in a product fulfilling a technical specification  facilitated and assessed; To define milestone events in a work programme such as might be necessary to monitor progress  facilitated and assessed; To define deliverables such as might be required by a commissioning organisation  facilitated and assessed; To identify and acquire knowledge and understanding directly relevant to the solution of a problem integral to the student's project  facilitated and assessed; To manage research, design, and/or development projects in an effective and professional way  facilitated and assessed; To author and produce written reports to a technical and literary standard consistent with the normal requirements of UK industry facilitated and assessed; To operate within the appropriate code of professional conduct, recognising obligations to society, the profession and the environment  facilitated and assessed. Content: Students may choose a title from a departmental list or may propose a title originating with themselves or their company. In the latter case students must provide a onepage summary of the project giving aims, an anticipated methodology and the resources required. The proposal must be submitted to the Projects Coordinator who will determine its academic suitability obtaining the advice of other members of departmental staff as necessary and appropriate. Proposals found to be academically sound will be approved providing that both the required resources and a supervising member of staff with appropriate expertise are available.A small number of formal lectures relating to the formulation and presentation of project documents and literature search techniques will be offered. Students will keep personal logbooks for their project work in which they will record the daytoday details of their work and informal notes of meetings with supervisors. The notes of meetings will be agreed and initialled by supervisors. Students will submit a report containing (i) a detailed critical literature review of the appropriate technical field, (ii) a specification of the project objectives/intended outcomes and a project plan, and (iii) preliminary progress in the execution of the project. 
EE50117: Project unit 2  project implementation & completion 
Credits: 30 
Level: Masters 
Dissertation period 
Assessment: RT80OR20 
Requisites: 
Aims: To provide an experience
of project execution, management and reporting as close as possible to that
likely to be encountered in UK industry. Learning Outcomes: After successful completion of this unit students will be able to:demonstrate a systematic approach to project work and a commitment to attaining the milestones and deliverable that the plan contains, write technical project reports, deliver oral reports, respond confidently to questions arising from their written and oral reports, demonstrate initiative and the willingness to take personal responsibility, demonstrate a critical awareness of the principal problems limiting progress/performance in the technical area of the project, outline the range of technique/solutions currently being brought to bear on these problem, explain the way in which their chosen approach builds on or compliments the current techniques/solutions, make where necessary engineering judgements in the face of incomplete information, demonstrate selfdirection in tackling and solving problems. Skills: To analyse complex problems breaking them down into a set of simpler problems which are tractable in the context of the knowledge, skills and facilities available to the student  facilitated and assessed; To synthesise solutions to problems from existing knowledge and understanding  facilitated and assessed; To identify and acquire knowledge and understanding directly relevant to the solution of a problem integral to the student's project  facilitated and assessed; To author and produce written reports to a technical and literary standard consistent with the normal requirements of UK industry facilitated and assessed; To design and deliver oral reports appropriate to an engineering audience  facilitated and assessed; To manage research, design, and/or development projects in an effective and professional way  facilitated and assessed; To operate within the appropriate code of professional conduct, recognising obligations to society, the profession and the environment  facilitated and assessed. Content: Students will execute their project following closely the plan submitted in Semester 2. Students will be allowed to propose modifications of the plan but a closely argued case for such modifications must be submitted to the project supervisor. If the modifications are approved by the supervisor then the modified work plan will supersede the original plan and all subsequent progress will be judged against it. A written Final Report will be submitted in September and a detailed oral presentation of this report will be made. 
EE50127: Microelectronics 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW25EX75 
Requisites: 
Aims: This course covers all aspects
of the realisation of integrated circuits, including digital, analogue and
mixedsignal implementations. Consideration is given to the original specification
for the circuit which dictates the optimum technology to be used also taking
account of the financial implications. The various technologies available
are described and the various applications, advantages and disadvantages
of each are indicated. The design of the circuit building blocks for both
digital and analogue circuits are covered. Computer aided design tools are
described and illustrated and the important aspect of testing is also covered.
Learning Outcomes: After completing this module the student should be able to take the specification for an IC and, based on all the circuit, technology and financial constraints, be able to determine the optimum design approach. The student should have a good knowledge of the circuit design approaches and to be able to make use of the computer aided design tools available and to understand their purposes and limitations. The student should also have an appreciation of the purposes and methods of IC testing. Skills: Students will learn the principle and techniques of modern integrated circuit design and realisation and be able to demonstrate these skills through simple circuit design and analysis examples. Taught, facilitated and tested. Content: Design of ICs: the design cycle, tradeoffs, floor planning, power considerations, economics. IC technologies: Bipolar, nMOS, CMOS, BiCMOS, analogue. Transistor level design: digital gates, analogue components, subcircuit design. IC realisation: ASICs, PLDs, ROM, PLA & PAL structures, gate arrays, with particular emphasis on FPGAs, standard cell, full custom. CAD: schematic capture, hardware description languages, device and circuit modelling, simulation, layout, circuit extraction. Delineation of design flows between digital and analogue. Testing: types of testing, fault modelling. 
EE50128: Optical communications 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW25EX75 
Requisites: 
Aims: To describe the fundamentals
of optical (fibre) communications systems and key components. Learning Outcomes: After completing the unit the student should have a clear understanding of: * the characteristics of the optical fibre; * the basic principles of operation of optical communications systems and components; * the design rules for (i) a high capacity trunk optical network, (ii) a metropolitan area fibre network and (iii) an optical local area network. Skills: Intellectual skills: basic maths, electromagnetic waves and semiconductor devices. Content: Overview of optical communications systems and basic components. Optical Fibres: types of fibre, simple ray model, Snell's Law, numerical aperture, number of modes, intermodal dispersion and fibre bandwidth, chromatic dispersion, waveguide dispersion and their effect on fibre bandwidth. Attenuation and dispersion characteristics of fibre  impact of choice of optical source wavelength and detector. Fibre jointing and interconnections. Optical sources: LEDs and lasers, review of the development of laser structures. Gain curve. Structures for single wavelength operation. Modulation response of lasers (simple analysis using rate equations). Description of basic principles of operation of DFB lasers. Coupling of input signal to optical fibre. Optical Transmitters: requirements for stable pulsed laser operation, relaxation oscillations, chirp, use of optical modulators. Optical Receivers: principles of photodiode operation, requirements for high speed photodetection, optical design of PIN photodiodes, signaltonoise performance of photoreceivers, simple relationship between bit error rate and receiver signaltonoise performance. Performance of Optical Fibre Links: power budget, timing budget, effect of chirp and polarisation on system bandwidth, requirements of (i) high data rate links, (ii) wavelength division multiplexing, (iii) metropolitan area networks and (iv) local area networks and optical Ethernet. 
EE50129: RF & microwave circuits 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW25EX75 
Requisites: 
Aims: This course introduces students
to the engineering techniques and approaches required at radiofrequency
(RF) and microwave frequencies. This includes circuit design concepts using
matrix formulations and in particular the scattering matrix representation
(Sparameters). The concept of matching is introduced to reduce reflections
within high frequency circuits and design approaches using the Smith chart
are described. Modern circuit realisation using stripline technologies are
outlined. High frequency amplifier design and applications to digital radio
are introduced. Learning Outcomes: After completion of the Unit the student should: be able to design simple microwave networks using matrix approaches; be able to use the Smith chart to design matching networks; have an appreciation of stripline realisation of high frequency circuits; be able to design amplifier circuits and compensate for such nonideal behaviour as mismatching and distortion; have a knowledge of the architecture and components of digital radio systems. Skills: Students will learn the techniques and design and analysis approaches suitable for high frequency devices and circuits. These skills will be demonstrated by the design and analysis of typical devices and circuits. Taught, facilitated and tested. Content: Matrix description of highfrequency circuits, ABCD and Sparameters, examples of circuits. Smith chart formulation and use; lumped element, single stub and doublestub matching techniques. Stripline technology; microstrip components, crosstalk (coupling) effects. High frequency amplifier design; matching, stability and oscillation conditions, 3rd order intercept point, feedback and feedforward distortion control. Digital radio techniques; receiver architecture, frequency synthesis, direct digital synthesis, software radio. 
EE50131: Project unit 1 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: To
provide an experience of project planning and reporting as close as possible
to that likely to be encountered in the Electrical Supply Industry. After
successful completion of this unit students should be able to: * Write a requirements specification. * Write a technical specification. * Act autonomously in constructing a project workplan. * Define appropriate milestones and deliverables. * Undertake and report a detailed critical literature review demonstrating a systematic understanding of the background body of knowledge pertinenet to the project. Content: Students may choose a title from a departmental list or may propose a title originating with themselves or their company. In the latter case students must provide a onepage summary of the project giving aims, an anticipated methodology and the resources required. The proposal must be submitted to the Project Coordinator who will determine its academic suitability obtaining the advice of other members of departmental staff as necessary and appropriate. Proposals found to be academically sound will be approved providing that both the required resources and a supervising member of staff with appropriate expertise are available. Students will submit a requirements specification and a project plan by the end of week 5, semester 2 and a detailed critical literature review of the technical field by the end of week 12, semester 2. 
XX50161: Project unit 1 (Masters in Mechatronics programme) 
Credits: 6 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 1 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide an experience of project planning and reporting as
close as possible to that likely to be encountered in UK industry. Objectives:
After successful completion of this unit students will be able to:write
a requirements specification, write a technical specification, act autonomously
in constructing a project workplan, define appropriate milestones and deliverables,
undertake and report a detailed critical literature review demonstrating
a systematic understanding of the background body of knowledge pertinent
to the project. Content: Students may choose a title from a departmental list or may propose a title originating with themselves or their company. In the latter case students must provide a onepage summary of the project giving aims, an anticipated methodology and the resources required. The proposal must be submitted to the Projects Coordinator who will determine its academic suitability obtaining the advice of other members of departmental staff as necessary and appropriate. Proposals found to be academically sound will be approved providing that both the required resources and a supervising member of staff with appropriate expertise are available. A small number of formal lectures relating to the formulation and presentation of project documents and literature search techniques will be offered.Students will keep personal logbooks for their project work in which they will record the daytoday details of their work and informal notes of meetings with supervisors. The notes of meetings will be agreed and initialled by supervisors.Students will submit a requirements specification and a project plan by the end of week 5, semester 1 and a detailed critical literature review of the technical field by the end of week 12, semester 1. 
XX50162: Project unit 2 (Masters in Mechatronics programme) 
Credits: 12 
Level: Masters 
Semester: 2 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide an experience of project execution, management and
reporting as close as possible to that likely to be encountered by UK industry.
Objectives: After successful completion of this unit students will be able
to: demonstrate a systematic approach to project work and a commitment to
attaining the milestones and deliverable that the plan contains, write technical
project progress reports, deliver oral executive reports, respond confidently
to questions arising from their written and oral reports, demonstrate initiative
and the willingness to take personal responsibility. Content: Students will execute their project following closely the plan submitted in week 12 of Semester 1. Students will be allowed to propose modifications of the plan but a closely argued case for such modifications must be submitted to the project supervisor. If the modifications are approved by the supervisor then the modified work plan will supersede the original plan and all subsequent progress will be judged against it. An interim Report, describing progress to date will be submitted by students at the end of week 12, Semester 2. The written case(s) for any modifications and the modified work plan will be incorporated into an appendix of the Interim Report.A 15minute oral presentation in the form of an executive summary of the projects aims, methodology, progress to date and planto completion will be delivered by students at the end of Semester 2. 
XX50163: Project unit 3 (Masters in Mechatronics programme) 
Credits: 30 
Level: Masters 
Dissertation period 
Assessment: CW100 
Requisites: 
Aims & Learning Objectives: Aims:
To provide an experience of project execution, management and
reporting as close as possible to that likely to be encountered in UK industry.
Objectives: After successful completion of this unit students will be able
to: demonstrate a critical awareness of the principal problems limiting
progress/performance in the technical area of the project, outline the range
of technique/solutions currently being brought to bear on these problems,
explain the way in which their chosen approach builds on or compliments
the current techniques/solutions, make where necessary engineering judgements
in the face of incomplete information, demonstrate self direction and originality
in tackling and solving problems. Content: The most demanding project objectives will be addressed that result in some contribution (e.g. new results, theory, software or hardware) to the field of study. A written Final Report will be submitted in September and a detailed oral report (30 minutes) appropriate to a technical meeting will be delivered. 
