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Department of Architecture & Civil Engineering, Unit Catalogue 2004/05


AR10003: Building environment 1

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX50CW50
Requisites:
Aims: To provide a basic vocabulary which enables a discussion of environmental issues. To make students aware of the physical impingements upon the body. To introduce the principal variables in the design of the physical environment. To use calculations at a basic level sufficient to enable students to make informed decisions about the orientation of buildings, the choice of building envelope and satisfactory internal conditions.
Learning Outcomes:
On the successful completion of this unit students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the basic concepts of Building Environmental Engineering and to apply them to the design of buildings using passive means of environmental control.
Skills:
Appropriate analytical skills, understanding, design ability.
Content:
Human response, Climate, Vernacular buildings, Thermal environment, Thermal comfort, Heat losses, Heat gains, Condensation risk, Building examples, Natural lighting, Units of light, Sunlighting, Daylighting, Sound environment, Sound propagation, Sound insulation, Sound in rooms.

AR10014: Building construction 1

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take AR10015
Aims: To provide a basic understanding of simple building construction and materials. To integrate construction into the Design Studio. To teach standards of drawing technique, 'technical' drawing, lettering, layout etc.
Learning Outcomes:
On the completion of this unit students will be able to prepare a 1:20 uncut sectional working drawing of a simple house designed in the Design Studio (either timber or masonry construction) with full descriptive annotation and some three-dimensional sketches.
Skills:
The skills required are:
* simple technical (working) drawing, notation and presentation;
* knowledge of the assembly of simple structures;
* knowledge of the application of basic building materials and finishes.
Content:
Lecture course: A series of 5 lectures on timber, timber framed construction, masonry construction, flat and pitched roofs and simple foundations. Lectures illustrated by extracts from construction textbooks, own diagrams and slides of small buildings with reference notes to the sources used and accessible Library information.Students use full-size mock-ups of construction using timber and bricks available in the Studio. Students are encouraged to use 'question-and-answer' tutorials illustrated by Studio tutorials using OHP Draft submission: the coursework submission is tutored in the Design Studio and presented in draft before final presentation.

AR10015: Design studio 1.1

Credits: 9
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take AR10014
Aims: To introduce students to the following areas and concepts:
Basic skills:
1. Creative Building Design.
2. Materials and Construction.
3. Visual Communication through drawing and model-making.
Basic Principles:
4. That the above skills are mutually necessary and inseparable;
5. That design is a collaborative process in which ideas and criticisms are freely exchanged between individuals.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate the following drawing skills:
1. Plan, Section, Elevation;
2. Axonometric and Isometric projection;
3. Perspective;
4. Freehand and mixed-media techniques;
5. Construction drawing.
Skills:
Skills in the following: Freehand drawing, Technical drawing, Model making, Verbal presentation, Drawn presentation.
Content:
The core vehicle is a design project involving two small, related structures, one timber-framed construction and the other in masonry. In conformity with objective 4, formal lecture programmes on materials and construction, and on communication techniques support tutored design work in the studio. The construction lectures in unit AR10014 run concurrently with and are integrated into this.The communication lectures cover the following drawing skills:
1. Plan, Section, Elevation;
2. Axonometric and Isometric projection;
3. Perspective;
4. Freehand and mixed-media techniques;
5. Construction drawing.
In pursuance of Objective 5, the design is undertaken by mixed architect and engineer groups of not more than four students working together. Sketchbook: Students are encouraged to keep as many sketchbooks as possible, recording analytically three-dimensional spaces, both real and imagined, alongside ideas on how these buildings either are, or might be, constructed.

AR10016: Design studio 1.2

Credits: 24
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10015 and take AR10014

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To continue, through a series of four short structured projects, the exploration of fundamental theoretical and historical themes in architecture that commenced in Semester 1. The aim of these projects is to provoke students to ask - and suggest some answers to - the basic question, what is this activity called 'architecture' to which we propose to devote our careers? Through this unit they will develop newly acquired skills in architectural design and communication.
Content:
Four architectural design and communication oriented projects:
1. A design project that questions the nature of architecture and landscape, that focuses and highlights issues concerning architectural content and expression;
2. I.T. Project: An introductory design exercise using the computer, adapted to the varying skill levels of individual students;
3. Public Space: focuses on the public open space between and around buildings as positive (rather than residual) environments. The project is introduced through a precedent study and an associated reading list. The design is communicated through models and figure-ground drawings;
4. Building Design. This project is concerned with developing planning and construction skills by focussing on a real site and a more complex functional programme. In addition, there will be a requirement for students to keep sketchbooks for recording three-dimensional spaces analytically, both real and imagined, alongside ideas on how these buildings either are, or might be, constructed.

AR10033: Geology

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX90CW10
Requisites:
Aims: To give a general knowledge of geological processes appropriate to the needs of a civil engineer, and to teach basic methods of interpretation of simple geological maps.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate:
* a basic knowledge of geological materials and processes;
* an ability to interpret a simple geological map;
* an insight into the impact of geology on civil engineering design and construction.
Skills:
Ability to understand the importance of geological history and processes to civil engineering design.
Content:
Soil and rock description and classification. Particle size distribution. Definitions of voids ratio, moisture content, density, Atterberg Limits with explanation of their relevance. Plate tectonics, volcanoes and earthquakes. Formation and characteristics of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.Intrepretation of simple geological maps, producing accurate cross-sections for inclined and faulted strata, including unconformities, and sketch cross-sections for folded strata. To be able to appreciate the topography from the geology in common situations. Processes of weathering, erosion and transportation. The formation of sediments in different environments and key characteristics. The Hydrological cycle and occurrence of ground water.

AR10035: History & theory of architecture 1.2

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10040
Aims: To provide a summary of key architectural movements from early modern (Renaissance) to recent periods, alongside an overview of the historical, social and technological developments that influenced the production of built structures.
Learning Outcomes:
The students will be able to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of a number of buildings, and of their historical significance, and will be equipped with the tools and vocabulary of elementary architectural appreciation, which they should be able to express via writing in combination with annotated sketched and notes.
Skills:
Sketching, note-taking, assimilation of historical data, historical understanding.
Content:
A series of chronologically arranged lectures present key periods and movements relating to the development of architecture. Significant architectural monuments are described with reference to their cultural context, and with emphasis on vocabulary, the characteristics and the type of construction that typify the movement and style to which they belong. This unit begins with the Renaissance (16th/17th centuries) and ends with the late 20th century.

AR10040: History & theory of architecture 1.1

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
After taking this unit you must take AR10035
Aims: To provide a summary of key architectural movements from ancient to early modern (Renaissance) periods, alongside an overview of the historical, social and technological developments that influenced the production of built structures.
Learning Outcomes:
The students will be able to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of a number of buildings, and of their historical significance, and will be equipped with the tools and vocabulary of elementary architectural appreciation, which they should be able to express via writing in combination with annotated sketches and notes.
Skills:
Sketching, note-taking, assimilation of historical data, historical understanding.
Content:
A series of chronologically arranged lectures present key periods and movements relating to the development of architecture. Significant architectural monuments are described with reference to their cultural context, and with emphasis on vocabulary, the characteristics and the type of construction that typify the movement and style to which they belong. This unit begins with antiquity and runs down to the Renaissance (16th/17th centuries).

AR10041: History of architecture and civil engineering 1b

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Aims: To strengthen the basic understanding of structures given to the students in Structures 1 by relating it to the history of civil and structural engineering, and to the design of specific structures through case studies.
Learning Outcomes:
The student should acquire a knowledge of the history of civil and structural engineering. The student should acquire an understanding of the way in which that history, together with an understanding of statics, informs the design of structures.
Skills:
Ability to understand the relationship between the development of materials and technologies and the history of the built environment. Content:A range of lecturers from within and outside the School will give a series of discrete lectures examining the development of various structural systems and materials.

AR10059: Mathematics 1a

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Aims: To provide a general mathematical basis for the development of engineering subjects at first year level of the civil engineering programmes.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate an understanding and ability to use the following techniques, as detailed in the 'Contents':
* Elementary functions;
* Differentiation and its applications;
* Integration and its applications;
* Infinite series.
Skills:
Ability to manipulate and solve mathematical problems, graphical representation of mathematical functions, development of mathematical ideas relevant to engineering
Content:
Elementary functions Exponential and logarthmic functions, hyperbolic functions and inverses in logarithmic form, inverse circular functions, plotting graphs. Differentiation and its applications Maximum and minimum values, inflection points, tangents, normals, curvature, solution of non-linear equations using Newton's method, limits. Integration and its applications General revision of techniques, by parts, use of partial fractions, substitution, length of curves, areas and volumes, first and second moments, centre of gravity, parallel and perpendicular axes theorem. Infinite series Maclaurin and Taylor's series, binomial expansion, ideas of convergence, geometrical series, comparison, ratio and integral tests, l' H˘pital's rule.

AR10060: Mathematics 1b

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10059
Aims: To provide a general mathematical basis for the development of engineering subjects at first year level of the civil engineering programmes, and preparation for year 2 work.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate an understanding and ability to use the following techniques, as detailed in the 'Contents':
* Complex numbers;
* Determinants and matrices;
* Elementary vector analysis;
* Statistics;
* Concept of probability.
Skills:
Visualisation of engineering behaviour in terms of mathematical models, solution of mathematically and statistically described engineering problems.
Content:
Complex numbers: Complex plane, Cartesian, polar and exponential forms, algebra of complex numbers, de Moivre's theorem multiple roots, complex logarithm. Determinants and matrices: Properties of determinants. Matrix algebra. Solution of simultaneous equations using the matrix inverse. Cramer's rule and Gauss elimination. Consistency. Elementary vector analysis: Basic definitions and algebra. Scalar, vector and tensor products. Equations of lines and planes. Geometrical interpretations, orientation of planes, volumes of solids. Statistics: Basic descriptive statistics, histograms, cumulative frequency, measure of location and dispersion, mean, mode and median, upper and lower quartiles, variance and standard deviation. Concept of probability, exclusivity, dependence and independence of events, conditional probability. Binomial and Poisson distributions.

AR10079: Structures 1

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX50CW50
Requisites:
Aims: To make students aware of the role played by structure in the design and building process. To introduce the concepts of statics and load carrying mechanisms, sufficient for an elementary appraisal of structures. To familiarise students with different types of structural materials and assemblies.
Learning Outcomes:
On completion of this unit students will be able to design a simple structure and identify and calculate the forces within it.
Skills:
An understanding of Statics and an ability to apply the principals in the context of a design problem. Ability to work in groups on design projects and to present the work verbally and through graphics and modelling. An ability to analyse staticallydeterminate structures and to estimeate appropriate member sizes for permissible stress states.
Content:
Stable structures and structural mechanisms. Newton's laws; static equilibrium and free body diagrams. The concepts of forces and moments in structural members. Equilibrium of loads, forces and moments in simple structures. Introduction to load carrying action of trusses, beams, arches, cables and columns. The concepts of stress, section sizes and shapes. Pin-jointed trusses: triangles of forces, resolving at joints and method of sections; physical behaviour and structural form and efficiency. Direct stresses and strains; Young's Modulus. Beams and free body diagrams, bending moments and shear forces. Bending stresses in beams, section shape and structural efficiency; web action and the concept of shear stresses. Overall efficiency of beams and simple bridges. Combined bending and axial loading in short columns; the middle third; slender columns and stability concepts. Hanging chains and funicular shapes; simple suspension systems. Voussoir arches. Three pin arches and portal frames.The above topics concentrate on a broad overview of structural concepts and will be supportedby laboratory demonstrations, tutorial classes and project work emphasising the relation between structural and architectural concepts, structural safety and examples of structural failures.

AR10080: Structures 2

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX70CW30
Requisites:
Aims: To develop an analytical understanding of the statics and mechanics of statically determinate structures and structural mechanisms.To introduce students to the internal action of structures, stresses and strains, and the comparative action of statically determinate and indeterminate structures.To consider in greater detail the range of structures examined conceptually in Structures 1.To develop a physical and analytical understanding of stresses and strains in two (and three) dimensions, and of the three-dimensional action of structures and components.
Learning Outcomes:
On completion of this unit, students will be able to analyse simple structures to determine stress, strain, stability and displacements.
Skills:
An ability to analyse stress, strain, deformations and stability in simple structures.
Content:
Bending moment and shear force diagrams for beams; comparison of statically determinate and continuous beams. Bending and shearing stresses in beams; concept of principal stress trajectories and analogies with truss action; structural form and efficiency. Centroid, neutral axis, section modulus and beam sectional shape efficiency. Deflected forms and bending moments in portal and framed structures; weak beam/ strong column and strong beam solutions (physical action and approximate analysis). Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio; shear modulus; elastic behaviour. Internal stress equilibrium; Mohr's circle for stresses and strains; principal stresses and strains. Moment/curvature relations and analysis of deflections. Shear flow in beams; fabricated and composite beams; welds and shear connectors. Bending of asymmetric sections. Torsion of thin-walled closed sections. Shear centre; torsion of thin-walled open sections. Stresses due to combined bi-axial bending, torsion and axial loading in structural members. Euler buckling load for columns; differing end constraints; imperfections, eccentric loading and initial curvatures. Concepts of plastic failure mechanisms. Approximate elastic analysis of multi-storey frames.

AR10087: Surveying 1

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To give students the knowledge and skills required to carry out an engineering survey of a small site.
Learning Outcomes:
The succesful student will be able to demostrate the knowledge, understanding and skills required to carry out an engineeirng survey of a small site.
Skills:
Ability to use a range of surveying instruments to acceptable accuracy, to plan execute, and process small surveying projects.
Content:
Object and application of surveys - basic functions of survey instruments - survey planning - assessment of accuracy. Measurements of distance - direct tape measurements - cumulative errors in chainage measurements and corrections applied. Principles of electronic methods of distance measurement. Measurement of level - types of levels - levelling procedures and methods of booking - errors - reciprocal levelling - recording and plotting levels. Measurement of angles - principles and operations of the theodolite - scope of use - instrument errors and adjustments. Usage of theodolite and computation for tacheometry, traverse surveys, triangulation. After a series of initial practice periods with survey instruments the unit concludes with a survey project consisting of the measurment of a closed traverse around a land plot and its detailed mapping.

AR10212: Surveying and Geology Field Course

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10059 and take AR10033 and take AR10087
Aims: To learn how to apply modern surveying techniques appropriate to a larger scale and rougher terrain than can be found on the university campus, and to gain experience in geological field observations.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit, the student should be able to:
* appreciate the requirements for carrying out geological and surveying observations in the field;
* carry out a limited range of geological field observations;
* understand the use of methods for surveying in rough terrain;
* appreciate the scale of some geological structures;
* be able to describe some geological structures and materials.
Skills:
Group working, working outdoors, use of advanced surveying instrumentation, sketching, geological observation.
Content:
Surveying:
* Techniques for reconnaisance surveys.
* Use of total stations and GPS. Geology:
* Study of glaciated landforms.
* Study of coastal and fluvial systems.
* Study of patterns of discontinuities and description of materials in outcrops. Takes place before the start of Semester 1.

AR10230: Computer aided design

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To introduce students to the use of CAD software in the construction industry, and to develop skills using AutoCAD 2000.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit students should be able to use AutoCAD to construct 2D drawings and 3D models of their design projects and to present this information in a variety of ways.
Skills:
Ability to use AutoCAD in the support of engineering and architectural design.
Content:
Contents include; creating basic drawing elements, editing and manipulation; adding text, dimensions and hatching; understanding the user co-ordinate system; creating and editing 3D objects; plotting.

AR10244: Design studio 1.1

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take AR10014
Aims: To introduce students to the following areas and concepts:
Basic skills:
1. Creative building design.
2. Materials and construction.
3. Visual communication through drawing and model making;
Basic principle:
1. That the above skills are mutually necessary and inseparable.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate the following representational skills:
1. Plan, section, elevation.
2. Axonometric and isometric projection.
3. Perspective.
4. Freehand and mixed media techniques.
5. Construction drawing.
6. Model making.
Skills:
Freehand drawing, technical drawing, model making, verbal presentation, drawn presentation.
Content:
Formal lectures on materials and construction and on communication techniques support tutored design work in the studio. The construction lectures in AR10014 run concurrently with and are integrated into this. Sketchbook: Students are encouraged to keep as many sketchbooks as possible, recording analytically three-dimensional spaces, both real and imagined, alongside ideas on how these buildings are, or might be, constructed.

AR20001: Acoustics & sound control

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To strengthen the link between theory and design.
Objectives: To complement previous acoustics courses with an understanding of the analytical methods and practical techniques for the acoustic design of buildings.
Content:
Wave theory: plane and spherical waves Standing waves. Propagation across medium boundaries. Vibration in buildings: free and forced vibration. Damping. Machine motion, inertial bases Traffic noise. Sound insulation case studies. Ventilation noise design: - ductborne and regenerated noise Speech in offices Open plan offices

AR20002: Continuum mechanics 1

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce continuum mechanics and its application to elasticity, plasticity and fluid mechanics.
Content:
The unit is complementary to other units describing the numerical methods which would be used to solve the equations. Equations in three dimensions using 'Timoshenko notation'. Stress functions. Compatability equations. Two dimensional elasticity: derivation of del4phi=0 and solutions using polynomials. Reworking of this using cartesian tensor notation to demonstrate its utility. Plasticity: Tresca and von Mises yield criteria. Outline proof of upper and lower bound theorems. Application to indentation problems. Derivation of Navier-Stokes equations in fluid mechanics.

AR20004: Building environment 2

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10003
Aims: To show how the choice of particular systems may be influenced by the type of architectural and engineering solution chosen for the building. To provide a framework for establishing the design objectives for the internal environment and to demonstrate the application of principles by examining examples of systems in houses and small commercial buildings.
Learning Outcomes:
On the successful completion of this unit students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the range of Building Services incorporated within buildings, and show how they may be used to actively control the internal building environment in contrast to the passive means considered in Building Environment 1.
Skills:
Appropriate analytical skills, understanding, design ability.
Content:
Building services, Need and development, Systems design, Thermal environment, Heating systems, Mechanical ventilation, Air conditioning, Plant, System choice, Daylighting, Regular lighting arrays, Design of electric lighting., Quality, Luminaires, Light sources, Acoustics, Propogation of sound, Trans. and insulation, Acoustic design.

AR20009: Computer aided design 1

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
This course is intended to introduce students to the use of CAD software in the construction industry and to develop skills using AutoCAD 2000. By the end of the course students should be able to use AutoCAD to construct 2D drawings and 3D models of their design projects and to present this information in a variety of ways.
Content:
Contents include; creating basic drawing elements, editing and manipulation; adding text, dimensions and hatching; understanding the user co-ordinate system; creating and editing 3D objects; plotting.

AR20012: Building construction 2

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10014 and while taking this unit you must take AR20018

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To integrate construction, building services and engineering into the Design Studio.To establish standards of technical (i.e. working/drawing) drawing technique. On completing this unit students should understand the basic connection between building design, the use of materials and the construction and assembly of buildings, of a standard that may be expected by employers during their first Placement.
Content:
A series of lectures each on an element of building construction illustrated by extracts from construction textbooks, building trade (product) information, case studies and a range of completed buildings that are important in architectural history. Each lecture is accompanied by reference notes to the sources used and accessible Library information.Coursework includes preparation of a 1:20 uncut section working drawing of a building designed by the student in the Design Studio together with structural diagrams, building services diagrams, 'U' value calculations and full descriptive notation.

AR20017: Design studio 2.1

Credits: 15
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10016

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To expand the student's experience of buildings in context; to introduce ideas of context, village and town planning and spaces;; to introduce ideas of mixed uses, urban densities and urban strata; to study rural housing and study recent and historical housing precedents; to introduce methods of site analysis. On the completion of this unit the student's range of architectural drawing and model making will have been expanded and, in preparation for the first Placement, an insight gained into housing and urban/rural design as well as current methods of site analysis.
Content:
Study of typical local villages, history of village development, architecture and building materials, visual analysis and form; site analysis based on a real site; Village and town visits including examples of rural housing; precedent studies of urban/suburban and rural housing; housing design and theory; design of public spaces, roads and squares; and the design of simple housing units, repeated units, terraced and stacked housing forms.

AR20018: Design studio 2.2

Credits: 15
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20017
Aims: To introduce the idea of a specific building brief; to study a particular building type in the context of its landscape and local settlement; to study the design of larger, specific interior spaces. To raise awareness of the physical environment around buildings and its modification through passive and active technical means.
Learning Outcomes:
On completion of this unit the student will be able to:
1. Comprehend the process of design from the initial brief to the site and context study, resolved in relation to an individual building design.
2. Apply to principles of landscape design to design studio work.
Skills:
Research, analysis, proposals in sketch and models form, drawn and verbal presentation.
Content:
Precedent studies of the building type; visits to important examples of the building type; site analysis; design of a simple building to given areas with different types of space, volume etc.; design of external space (square, courtyard, wider landscape) associated with the building.

AR20036: History & theory of architecture 2

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of this course is to extent beyond the basic history survey undertaken in the first year, and to give the students the opportunity to participate more actively in the research and presentation of material. A period covering approximately 4 centuries, from Baroque to the present day, is analysed according to a range of thematic concepts. On completion of this unit students will have developed their learning and communication skills and demonstrated these in a public environment.
Content:
Each week, groups of 2-4 students use 'powerpoint' to present to the whole year a lecture on a selected period or movement. This is followed up by an essay submission.

AR20042: Industrial placement CA1

Credits: 30
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: RT100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20082 and take AR20213
Aims: To gain experience and knowledge of civil engineering in practice, and to report on and assess the experience gained.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit, the student should be able to demonstrate an enhanced understanding of civil engineering practice, an ability to write a clear report, and an awareness of training objectives.
Skills:
Ability to apply skills learnt in university to practical design and construction problems, and the development of new skills particular to the individual placement.
Content:
Practical experience and first hand observation of civil engineering and construction, preferably on a construction site as an employee of a contractor, but possibly as an employee of a consultant with visits to sites. The student is supported in finding an employer, but the School cannot guarantee that every student will be employed. All students will be given an academic supervisor for the duration of the unit. Students who obtain employment in the UK will be visited at their place of work to discuss with them and their Supervising Engineer their training progress and objectives. Where this is not feasible (for example overseas placements) otherwise, communication will be maintained by other means. Should a student fail to find a job, they would be expected to carry out a relevent study in the area in which they live; their supervisor will discuss this study with them, and give guidance where required. Students will be assessed for the award of the credits on the basis of a report on one aspect of the work they have done.

AR20043: Industrial placement 2

Credits: 18
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: RT100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To gain experience and knowledge of civil engineering design in practice, and to report on an area of interest.
Content:
Practical experience and first hand observation of civil engineering desgn, preferably in a consulting practice. The student is supported in finding an employer, but the School cannot guarantee that every student will be employed. All students will be given an academic supervisor for the duration of the unit. Students who obtain employment in the UK will normally be visited at their place of work; otherwise, communication will be maintained by other means. Should a student fail to find a job, they would be expected to carry out a relevant study in the area in which they live; their supervisor will discuss this study with them, and give guidance where required. Students will be assessed for the award of the credits on the basis of a report on one aspect of the work they have done.

AR20044: Industrial placement M2

Credits: 24
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: RT100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To gain experience and knowledge of civil engineering design in practice,and to report on an area for which the student has taken significant responsibility (project report IP1).
Content:
Practical experience and first hand observation of civil engineering design, preferably in a consulting practice. The student is supported in finding an employer, but the School cannot guarantee that every student will be employed. All students will be given an academic supervisor for the duration of the unit. Students who obtain employment in the UK will normally be visited at their place of work on two occasions in order to discuss the progress of project work (related to IP1) and potential follow-up work to be undertaken in Semester 2 at the University for Project IP2. Should a student fail to obtain a placement they will be required to undertake project work (for IP1) at the University under the joint supervision of academic and industrial tutors.

AR20050: Lighting

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: Lighting for civil engineering projects and overall building form.
Objectives: Introduction to external lighting which may be experienced by practicing civil engineers. The calculation of sky factors to enable rapid estimation of sky components in order to assess the adequacy of window design.
Content:
Applications: Streetlighting, Floodlighting,Tunnel lighting, Sports lighting, Light sources: Discharge light sources, luminaires. Theory: Adaption time, apparent brightness, unit hemisphere, vector summation method.

AR20052: Management 1

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
An introductory course concerning the management of the construction industry and the roles and responsibilities of the professions.
Content:
This unit is designed to develop the individual's concept of employment, professional duties and the 'business of business' by: Gaining an appreciation of the economics of the construction industry. Ensuring an understanding of the various ways in which the design team may be structured. Demonstrating the role and differing levels of the professional's responsibility within each structure. Generating an understanding of sole trader, partnership and corporate entities. Examining the laws governing employment. Reviewing the role of architects, engineers, contractors, and project managers both nationally and internationally. Reviewing the organisation and management of an architecture office including reference to health and safety. Discussing personal promotion in terms of the use of technology, e.g. the use of computer technology for the presentation of c.v.'s and the like.

AR20061: Mathematics 2

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10060
Aims: To provide a general mathematical basis for the development of engineering subjects at second year level of the civil engineering programmes, and preparation for year 3 work.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate an understanding and ability to use the following techniques, as detailed in the 'Contents':
* Ordinary Differential equations;
* Functions of several variables;
* Numerical Methods;
* Elementary computer programming using C++.
Skills:
An understanding of the mathematical tools used in engineering analysis and how they can be applied to civil engineering problems.
Content:
Ordinary Differential equations Simple first order using separation of variables and integrating factor. Linear equations with constant coefficients using trial method for particular integral. Simultaneous equations. Application of differential equations to mechanical systems and structural problems. Functions of several variables: Multiple Integration, Partial differentiation. Separation of variables, Laplace's equation, diffusion and wave equations. Fourier series Full and half-range series. Odd and even functions, odd harmonics. Numerical Methods: Method of least squares, Finite differences, interpolation using Lagrange and Newton difference formulae. Error estimation, splines, Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. Euler, improved Euler, Runge-Kutta methods. Accuracy and stability. Initial and boundary value problems. Numerical integration. Root finding Newton Raphson, Secant method. An introduction to the principles and techniques of computer programming using C++.

AR20064: Professional placement 1

Credits: 12
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20018 and After taking this module you must take AR30019
Aims: The thin sandwich system at Bath offers students the opportunity to experience a range of employment in architectural practices, or in other activities that are related to the academic and professional nature of the course. Aims and objectives are stipulated as part of an RIBA Professional Experience and Development Record (PEDR) to be completed by the student and his/her employer.
Learning Outcomes: Ability to integrate design and professional skills in the workplace.
Skills: Integration of design and professional skills with the workplace. Group working with other trades and professions.
Content: The Department will support all students in their search for placements, and will offer guidance in the preparation of applications. However, employment is not guaranteed, and all students who are unsuccessful in finding employment will be required to pursue activities that will form a useful contribution to their development. The students will prepare a 2000 word SWOT analysis of their experience.

AR20065: Professional placement 2

Credits: 12
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30020 or take AR30243 and After taking this module you must take AR30021
Aims: The thin sandwich system at Bath offers students the opportunity to experience a range of employment in architectural practices, or in other activities that are related to the academic and professional nature of the course. Aims and objectives are stipulated as part of an RIBA Professional Experience and Development Record (PEDR) to be completed by the student and his/her employer.
Learning Outcomes: Ability to integrate design and professional skills in the workplace.
Skills: Integration of design and professional skills with the workplace. Group working with other trades and professions.
Content: The Department will support all students in their search for placements, and will offer guidance in the preparation of applications. However, employment is not guaranteed, and all students who are unsuccessful in finding employment will be required to pursue activities that will form a useful contribution to their development. The students will prepare a 2000 word Case Study from their experience.

AR20072: Project M1

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To consider design of buildings relying on passive energy and to relate to general environmental issues.
Objectives: To determine the attitudes of a number of organisations to sustainability and the impact of human habitation on the environment, ecology and nature. To investigate different forms of passive energy design and the use of renewable energy. To provide vehicles for group and individual presentations.
Content:
Brown field development, BREAM, International Commission on Climate Change, Brundland Report, Brandt Commission, Sustainability and organisations: ICE, RIBA, ISE, CIBSE, South West Regional Development Agency, Bath City Council, National Trust Wind Power, Wave power, Tidal Power, Nuclear power, Nuclear Waste, Combined Cycle power stations, Energy and transport, Energy and buildings, Fuel Cells, Shading to limit overheating, Combined Heat and Power, Life Cycle costing of Buildings, Geothermal Energy, Solar Voltaic Cells, Solar Heating Panels, Biomass as an energy source, District Heating, Buried Buildings, Ventilation in Victorian Buildings, Sites of Special Scientific Interest, Site Contamination and its consequences, Heat Reclaim and Ventilation, Using Buildings to store energy, Waste Water, Human Waste disposal, Recycling

AR20076: Soil mechanics

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:
Aims: To develop an understanding of the behaviour of soil, and the factors that influence that behaviour.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student should be able to demonstrate understanding, and an ability to apply that understanding, in the following subjects, as detailed in the 'Contents' section:
* Stresses in soil;
* Seepage and flow nets;
* Measurement of permeability;
* The shear strength of granular and cohesive soils;
* Measurement of fundamental shear strength, and of the current state of a sample.
Skills:
Basic soil mechanics laboratory technique, graphical and algebraic analytical methods.
Content:
Stresses in soil - total stress, effective stress and pore water pressure. Non-linear stress-strain character of soils. Isotropic and one-dimensional consolidation. Consolidation of natural deposits, normally consolidated and over-consolidated materials. Seepage, Darcy's law of permeability, head as a measure of potential. Wide range of permeability values. Flow nets, derivation from a common sense approach, how mathematical 'derivation' is merely a formularisation of this. Determination of volumetric flow rates by Nf/Nh. Relative importance of predictions of volumetric flow rates and pore pressures. Sensitivity to inaccuracy of flow net. Prediction and importance of low effective stresses. Measurement of permeability, use of triaxial apparatus as a permeameter. Falling head and constant head tests. Pumping tests - confined and unconfined aquifers. Flow nets for anisotropic permeability. Outline of other approaches to analysis of flow - physical / electrical / computer numerical modelling. Seepage in earth dams, importance of drainage, stability of downstream face, rapid drawdown. Influence of rainfall. Design of filter layers, use of geotextiles. The shear strength of granular and cohesive soils. Mohr's circles of total and effective stress to determine the undrained and drained shear strength and friction angle of soils. Stress/strain relationships for soils, behaviour of normally consolidated clays. Behaviour of loose and dense samples, concept of a critical state, introduction to behaviour of lightly and heavily overconsolidated clays, dependence of critical state density on normal stress. Relationship between normal consolidation line, Roscoe surface, Critical State Line, Hvorslev Surface, zero tension criterion. Shear strength tests, the advantages and disadvantages of the direct shear test, the triaxial test, vane shear test, other tests. Total and effective stress paths for drained and undrained testing. Obtaining information about current state of a sample (undrained shear strength) compared with fundamental properties (drained shear strength / critical state parameters) from triaxial testing.

AR20081: Structures 2A

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10079

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To consider the development of the design process as the interaction between architecture and engineering, of various classes of structure. To define efficiency and aesthetic quality. To consider in more detail the structural design of steel and reinforced concrete structures, and to apply structural concepts of stability, safety and serviceability to examples of contemporary architecture. On the completion of this unit students should be able to demonstrate their understanding of the design process that links architecture and engineering, in relation to various classes of structure.
Content:
The structural design process. Basic concepts of static and structural action. Structural materials. Definition and quantification of loads on structures. Concepts of safety, stability and serviceability. Identification of architectural and structural concept in design. Comparison between efficiency and aesthetics of structures and buildings. Approximations and other criteria for sizing structural elements. Design of steel structural elements. Design of reinforced concrete structural elements. Design of connections. Application of the above programme to the structural assessment of a chosen case study, among contemporary works which highlight interaction between architectural creativity and innovative technological design.

AR20082: Structures 3

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop analytical and conceptual understanding of structural action through the use of compatability methods (virtual work and flexibility analysis). To develop an appreciation of the importance of construction tolerances and foundation settlements. To develop understanding of structural analysis using equilibrium methods.
Content:
Revision of statics for statically determinate frames and trusses. Virtual work and the Unit Load method for calculating deflections. Maxwells reciprocal theorem and influence lines. Flexibility Analysis of statically indeterminate truss and frame structures. Lack of fit, support settlements and temperature effects. Virtual work extended to beams subject to bending, shear and torsion. Torsional and shear deflection of beams. Derivation of slope deflection relations. Application of the slope/deflection method to continuous beams and sway frames.

AR20086: Thermodynamics

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20004 and take AR20061

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To provide an introduction to the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and their implications for the use of energy in buildings. At the end of the unit, the student should be able to demonstrate:
* an understanding of the 1st law of thermodynamics and its application to open and closed systems
* an understanding of entropy
* an ability to apply a knowledge and understanding of property relationships for pure substances to simple power, refrigeration and heat pump cycles
* an understanding of the 2nd law of thermodynamics and thermodynamic efficiency
* an understanding of psychrometrics, and an ability to analyse air conditioning processes
* a knowledge of vapour power processes
* a knowledge of refrigeration and heat pump systems
* a knowledge of types of compressors, their characteristics, and their use in air conditioning systems
* a knowledge of fuel types, combustion, and efficiency.
Content:
Power generation and the environment. Energy resources and the effects of fossil fuel combustion. Renewable energy sources and their possibilities for future use. Definitions, 1st law of thermodynamics for closed systems, thermodynamic properties of the perfect gas, relationship between internal energy and specific heat at constant volume. Work transfer in closed systems for constant volume, constant pressure, hyperbolic and polytropic processes; adiabatic reversible process for perfect gas. 1st law of thermodynamics for open systems and the Steady Flow Energy Equation; enthalpy and entropy changes for a perfect gas; relationship between enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure. Applications of the SFEE to power and refrigeration plant. Introduction to entropy, isentropic efficiency, entropy as a measure of irreversibility, entropy changes in a perfect gas. Property relationships for pure substances, two property rule, phase diagram. T-s, p-h and h-s diagrams. Applications to simple power, refrigeration and heat pump cycles. 2nd law of thermodynamics, Entropy and Clausius inequality, Carnot cycle; corollaries to the 2nd law, absolute temperature scale and thermodynamic efficiency. Mixtures of gases and vapours , introduction to psychrometrics and condensation. Psychrometrics: analysis of air conditioning processes. Vapour power cycles: steam turbine cycles , power cycles and CHP. Refrigeration and heat pump systems; multistage vapour compression cycles, refrigerant properties. Absorption refrigeration: analysis of LiBr systems; comparison with NH3 systems. Compressors: compressor types and applications, analysis and characteristics of compressors, compressors for air conditioning. Fuels and combustion: introduction to fuel types, classification and properties; combustion processes, combustion equations, stoichiometric analysis, combustion efficiency.

AR20208: Structures design and construction

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10079
Aims: To introduce students to the concepts of limit state design and its practical application to reinforced concrete, steel, timber and masonry structural elements.To further develop analytical and conceptual understanding of structural action through the design of elements and simple structures.To introduce elements of construction technology as applied to reinforced concrete, steel, timber and masonry construction.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate:
* knowledge ofthe concepts of limit state design and its practical application to reinforced concrete, steel, timber and masonry structural elements;
* analytical and conceptual understanding of structural action through the design of elements and simple structures;
* knowledge of elements of construction technology as applied to reinforced concrete, steel, timber and masonry construction.
Skills:
A range of knowledge and analytical techniques necessary for the engineeringdesign of steel, reinforced concrete, masonry and timber structural elements.
Content:
Design philosophies (Geometrical principles; Permissible stress; LFRD; Limit state). Codes of Practice, Standards, Building Regulations. British Standards, Euro-codes. Design loads and actions. Layout of calculations; drawings.Reinforced concrete design - materials; singly reinforced rectangular beams; doubly reinforced beams; serviceability - deflection, cracking; shear; detailing of reinforcement; fire resistance; simple retaining wall design.Structural steel design - steel sections; materials; simple tension members; simple compression members; beam design (bending; lateral restraints; laterally restrained beams; laterally unrestrained beams; shear; deflections); bolted and welded connections.Structural timber - materials (grading, species); tension; compression; bending; connections.Structural masonry - materials; compression; bending; shear.A major part of the assessed coursework will be a design project.

AR20213: Management 1C

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR10014
Aims: To provide students with a basic knowledge of the civil engineering profession and it's place in society, and other basic skills needed for obtaining and successfully completing a first industrial placement.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit, the student should be able to:
* Demonstrate an understanding of what is needed for good written and verbal communication skills, and an awareness of the requirements for effective use of mass media and graphical communications.
* Demonstrate an outline understanding of the organisation of the construction industry and the various major players.
* Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of the engineer's role in society, and some of the broader issues affecting an engineer's work.
* Demonstrate an understanding of the role of professional organisations, and the ethical and behavioural framework within which the engineer is expected to operate.
* Demonstrate a knowledge of the routes to corporate membership of ICE and IStructE, and the contribution to be made by industrial placements.
* Demonstrate an ability to find and apply for a job.
* Demonstrate an ability to assume responsibility for their personal safety on a construction site.
Skills:
Oral presentation skills; knowledge of basic management theory and health and safety issues relating to construction.
Content:
Communication skills:
* Written communication skills (English usage; Word processing; Report writing). Verbal communication skills (e.g. Presentations; Interviews; Meetings; Conversation). Mass media.
* Graphic communications skills (Data presentation). Organisation of the construction industry:
* Sectors, clients, designers, contractors, roles of the various parties, different ways in which teams are put together. The Engineer & Society:
* Role of the engineer, architect, contractor.
* Case studies of contentious engineering projects.
* Introduction to construction law. The basics of English Law as applied to:
* Contracts; Employment; Professional responsibility; Negligence. Professional ethics:
* Professions. Professional organisations (ICE, IStructE). Code of ethics. Professional behaviour. Professional training:
*SARTOR. Employer's role. Sandwich training. Looking for a job:
* Matching applicant's and employer's potentials. Research. Applications (C.V.'s and covering letters).
* Personal safety on construction sites.

AR20238: Highways and infrastructure

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must (take AR10040 and take AR10041)
Aims: To provide an introductory knowledge to the planning and design of infrastructure, especially highways.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the techniques used in the design and planning of highways and infratructure, and knowledge of its relationship to the social, political and environmental context in which it is carried out.
Skills:
A range of analytical abilities, together with knowledge of the context in which they are used.
Content:
* Introduction to the social and political context of infrastructure design, and to the environmental and financial assessment of infrastructure projects;
* Organisation of highway design in the UK - DOT, Welsh Office, etc.;
* RCU's and County Councils - rules, codes, memoranda;
* Early roads (Roman to Macadam) and Bridges (beams, arches, trusses to steel and concrete);
* Road Alignment: horizontal curves, vertical curves, gradients, sight lines;
* Pavement Design: rigid, flexible, vertical curves, gradients, sight lines;
*Bridge Design: types of crossing, relationship to strata, factors affecting choice of materials and construction, headroom, loading rules;
* Cut and fill/embankments: factors affecting excavation and fill (costs, suitability of fill, difficulties of excavation programme etc), calculations for cut and fill, slopes of embankments, compaction;
* Tunnelling in rock and in soft ground; types of machines, immersed tubes.

AR20239: Management 2C

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20213
Aims: To give a general knowledge of legal and contract obligations in the construction industry.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit, the student should be able to demonstrate a knowledge of the following areas at a level to provide appropriate preparation for employment as a graduate in the construction industry:
* the management roles of the engineer;
* basic management theory;
* business management in construction;
* methods of civil engineering procurement;
* processes and roles on construction sites;
* construction hazards and their management / responsibility for safety.
Skills:
Ability to understand management relationships and structures in the construction industry.
Content:
Structure of business organisations. The Engineer as Manager. Management theory:
* Organisational culture;
* Handy's paradoxes of modern organisational life;
* Changing patterns of organisation and their relevance to construction. Decision-making models:
* rationalist, Carnegie, incremental, 'garbage can'. Business management in construction:
* Corporate policy, objectives, strategies, tactics, marketing. Construction health and safety:
* Safety law and regulations, safety management systems, construction hazards, cost of accidents, CDM, Risk Assessment.
* Economics of safety (financial and non-financial costs of accidents, ethical standards). The tender process:
* Procurement of design, consultancy contracts, methods of payment;
* Construction contracts (design and build; subcontracting; design, build and operate). Project management overview:
* Concept of project management;
* Construction and operation (energy, pollution, ecology, resources, recycling, sustainability);
* Environmental Impact Assessment (process, EC and UK approaches, methods, monitoring, risk assessment);
* Life cycle costing;
* Value management & engineering. Construction sites:
* Basic terminology of construction techniques and plant;
* Organisation of construction sites;
* Roles of architect, engineer, contractor, project manager;
* Buildability, method statements, access to workface, commissioning, international variations.

AR20240: Mathematics 3C

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20061
Aims: To provide a general computational and mathematical basis for the development of engineering subjects at third year level of the civil engineering programmes.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate an understanding and ability to use the following techniques, as detailed in the 'Contents':Computer programming using C++ for engineering analysisApplication of Numerical Methods.
Skills:
The ability to write simple computer programs in C++ to analyse engineeringproblems and produce graphical output. Both matrix and relaxation techniquesare used.
Content:
* Further principles and techniques of computer programming using C++.
* Sources of error and ill conditioning.
* Algorithms: design and correctness.
* Arrays, searching and sorting.
* Convergence.
* Application of Numerical Methods: Linear equations.
* Numerical differentiation and roots.
*Interpolation and numerical integration. ODE's.

AR20241: Foundation design

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20076
Aims: To gain a knowledge of the way in which the understanding developed in Soil Mechanics can be applied to the design of shallow and deep foundations, and how the necessary information is obtained in practice.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate:
* an ability to design shallow foundations;
* an ability to select and design appropriate piled foundations.
Skills:
Ability to select appropriate foundation types, and design them.
Content:
Shallow foundation design - stress distributions, bearing capacity and settlement calculation, related to site investigation techniques. Deep foundation design. Piling. Construction and design of single piles and pile groups. Types of pile and appropriate analytical methods, related to site investigation methods. Calculation of working loads and settlements. Design of a piled foundation. Excavations in soils. Design and construction of excavations. Settlement of adjacent structures.

AR20242: Surveying 2

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To extend the student's knowledge of surveying by giving them an understanding of how terrerial and aerial photgrammetry can be used in support of engineering projects.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student will be able to demonstrate understanding of the capabilities of a range of modern surveying techniques, especially in the context of engineering projects.
Skills:
Ability to determine appropriate surveying methods for specific problems.
Content:
Photogrammetry: Definition, history, uses and application of photogrammetry. Stereoscopic viewing, depth perception, the human eye, principle of parallax. Terrestrial photogrammetry. Surveying accuracy/errors. Differences between random and systematic errors, observations not equally precise, assessment of accuracy. Assessment of acceptable tolerances in construction and building. The advanced use of total stations, including reflectorless systems. Laser Scanning, and any other newly developed technique considered to be appropriate to this unit.

AR30005: Building environmental modelling

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX60CW40
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20004 and take AR20086

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To provide students with an understanding of the analytical techniques that are needed to validate the passive control of the building environment. Objectives: To introduce Computational Fluid Dynamics to investigate natural air flows in and around buildings, to include buoyancy effects and pressure driven flow. To introduce the dynamic thermal modelling of the building fabric to include finite difference methods of modelling transient heat flow through structures and radiance methods of establishing solar irradiances incident upon room surfaces. The use of commercially available software packages to provide experience of methods used in practice, and also their use in simple examples in order to provide experience of the relative degree to which different design variables affect the environmental conditions. Issues related to the combining of the two analytical techniques are introduced and discussed in relation to the solving of practical problems in design.
Content:
Computational Fluid Dynamics: Industrial applications of CFD, revision of fluid dynamics, (boundary layers, separation and turbulence), mesh generation, derivation governing equations, finite volume discretisation, solution method (pressure correction) for the Navier-Stokes Equations, turbulence modelling. Revision of heat transfer, thermal conductivity, thermal capacity and thermal diffusivity. Surface heat transfer coefficients, convective and radiant modes combined. Sol_air temperatures. Thermal modelling using Degree Days, Admittance, Response factors. Finite difference method of modelling transient heat flow, lumped parameters, Biot no, Fourier no., incorporation of surface heat transfer effects. Use of commercial software packages. Investigation of displacement ventilation.

AR30006: Civil engineering construction

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The course covers the practical, safety and organisational aspects of civil engineering construction and is intended to present an overview of procedures in the industry.
Content:
Early roads (Roman to Macadam) and Bridges (beams, arches, trusses to steel and concrete). Present organisation and procedure - DOT, Welsh Office, etc. RCU's and County Councils - rules, codes, memoranda. Road Alignment horizontal curves, vertical curves, gradients, sight lines. Pavement Design rigid, flexible, vertical curves, gradients, sight lines. Bridge Design types of crossing, relationship to strata, factors affecting choice of materials and construction, headroom, loading rules. Cut and fill/embankments factors affecting excavation and fill (costs, suitability of fill, difficulties of excavation programme etc), calculations for cut and fill, slopes of embankments, compaction. Piers and caissons, box foundations buoyancy rafts and basements, piers, open caissons, box caissons, pneumatic caissons. Methods of construction. Excavating below water table or in water sheet cofferdams, diaphragms, underwater construction, well-pointing, pumping. Excavations in cohesive and non-cohesive soils methods of excavation and shoring, means of determining forces and bending moments in shoring systems. Tunnelling in rock and in soft ground types of machines, immersed tubes. Safety and Health on construction sites, good practice and relationship to law.

AR30007: Civil engineering hydraulics 1

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop the student's knowledge and understanding of open channel flow beyond that covered in Fluid Mechanics, and give the student a knowledge of civil engineering structures in which that understanding is applied.
Content:
Open channel flow: normal flow, critical flow, Froude Number, surges, hydraulic jump, broad crested weir, narrowing channel, gradually varied flow, backwater curve and surface profiles. Hydraulic structures: dams, spillways, stilling basins, draw off towers, constant velocity channel, settlement tanks, flow dividers.

AR30008: Civil engineering hydraulics 2

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30007

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To give the students some knowledge and understanding of Water Engineering applied to coastal, estuary and river engineering. To give the students a knowledge of Public Health Engineering including water supply, drainage and treatment. Learning objectives: The succesful student should be able to:
* demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the factors and relationships affecting groundwater, including replenishment, contamination and extraction
* demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the main factors affecting the design of civil engineering works on coasts
* demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the application of open-channel hydraulics to river and canal engineering
* demonstrate knowledge of the factors influencing the design of hydro-electric and tidal power schemes
* demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the main elements of water supply, sewage disposal, and surface water drainage systems.
Content:
a) Water Engineering Hydrology: hydrological cycle, meteorology, groundwater, surface run-off, analysis and forecasting. Groundwater: wells, groundwater movement, groundwater contamination, dispersion and diffusion. Coastal Engineering: Wave action, sediment transport, natural bays, defences and protection, coastal structures, wave power. River and canal engineering: optimum cross-section, unlined channels, alluvial channels, river modelling. Hydro-electric power, tidal power. b) Public Health Engineering Sanitation: Appliances, materials and components; sanitary incinerators and mascerators; sanitary provision. Discharge pipe systems, terminal velocities, pressure variation in stacks. Water supply: sources of water, purity, hardness, water consumption, methods of treatment; corrosion, sludge, micro-organism control in water and steam systems, supply networks; supply installations, estimation of demand and sizing, simultaneous demand. Drainage: foul and surface water drainage; materials and components; sizing and design; ventilation; sewage lifting. Sewage disposal and drainage: water cycle, rainfall, run off, soakaways, sewerage systems, chemical and biological methods of treatment, small plants; problems with various effluents, septic tanks, disposal to rivers or sea outfalls. Environmental risk assessment, pollution

AR30010: Computer aided design 2

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20009

Aims & Learning Objectives:
This unit introduces students to the principles of rendering and animation using 3D Studio Viz. By the end of the course students should be able to produce 3D models of their design project and to use these models to create photo-realistic static views and animations generated from these models.
Content:
Contents include; importing 3D models from AutoCAD; creating models directly in 3D Studio; setting up camera positions and animation paths; creating and assigning textures and materials; lighting 3D models; putting together presentations using Adobe Premiere.

AR30011: Conservation of historic buildings

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX60CW40
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30083
Aims: To give the student sufficient specialist knowledge and insight to enable participation in design and appraisal of engineering work on historic buildings.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student should be able to demonstrate:
* familiarity with issues affecting the structural conservation of historic buildings.
* an ability to apply a correct methodological approach.
* an interest in historic and architectural issues.
* a flair for investigation supported by sound structural knowledge.
Skills:
Evident from content and learning outcomes.
Content:
The mechanics of historic materials, and the assessment of their properties in situ and in the laboratory. The use of analytical tools in the implementation of the structural condition of existing buildings. The methodology for the analysis of historic buildings:
* the collection of data from different fields of analysis (history, architectonic quality, visual inspection, survey and in situ testing, crack pattern interpretation and structural analysis).
* interpretation of data to produce a final judgement on causes of damage and present safety level, with examples. Choice and implementation of structural conservation techniques. Level of alteration of existing structure, reversibility of new work, homogeneity of old and new materials, with direct involvement in project work. Dedicated seminars will be used throughout the course, given by representatives of English Heritage and engineering companies.

AR30013: Building construction 3

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20012 and while taking this unit you must take AR30021 and take AR30022

Aims & Learning Objectives:
This unit assumes a basic understanding of 'traditional' construction techniques and focuses on innovative techniques, new tools and fostering an intelligent approach to decision making in relation to construction - environmental 'sustainability' is a core issue. On completing this unit students will be able to demonstrate their knowledge of construction synthetically - in written report form and through specific detailed drawings relating to design project work.
Content:
Lectures at the beginning of Semester 1 are concerned with specialist topics supplemented by group tutorials to support exploratory design work which is fully integrated with Design Studios 4.1 & 4.2 - in three stages:
1. An examination of selected buildings, which are exemplars of material technology which are investigated in detail and presented to a review panel. Presentations include three-dimensional representations of one of more key details, large-scale physical models, or a three-dimensional computer model, which can be viewed from various angles.
2. The lessons learnt from the precedent study are integrated into Design Studio 4.1.
3. The preliminary phase of Design Studio 4.2 at the end of Semester 1 requires the development of a briefing document - this includes identifying 'building performance criteria' which establish 'benchmarks' by which the individual project can be assessed in relation to construction. This final assessment takes place at the end of Semester 2.

AR30019: Design studio 3.1

Credits: 18
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To further individual capacity for independent architectural thought and its application at all stages of the design process, as well as encouraging the coherent presentation of ideas through suitable media, and on open discussion of these ideas. In particular, this studio syllabus exploits the international SOCRATES profile of the year by exploring the relationship between culture, urban form and architecture, allowing students from diverse cultural backgrounds to share their understanding and experiences.
Learning Outcomes:
This unit will develop individual and team working skills in architectural design, working with designers originating from different cultural backgrounds.
Skills:
Research, verbal and visual presentation.
Content:
Design projects that are based on a different 'theme' each year. These include: an in-depth investigation of the use of day and artificial light in the design of spaces and how this affects out perception of the quality of a building; identifying specific building materials, how these materials are detailed and the effects of the ageing process; the creative response to a number of design issues relating to the topic of 'disability' in architecture.

AR30020: Design studio 3.2

Credits: 12
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30019

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The third year studio syllabus exploits the international profile of the year. The studio furthers the individual student's capacity for independent architectural thought and its application at all stages of the design process. The studio explores the relationship between culture, urban form and architecture, allowing students from diverse cultural backgrounds to share their understanding and experiences, as well as the coherent presentation of ideas through suitable media, and on open group discussion of these ideas.The studio develops skills in working as individuals and as members of a team.
Content:
A series of design projects, including a joint design project with students of engineering in the year.

AR30021: Design studio 4.1

Credits: 12
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30020

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The collaborative design project for Architects and MEng students (known as the Basil Spence Project) has been running since 1978. It is intended to develop creative, collaborative working techniques; explore the impact of engineering, both structural and environmental on the form and functioning of the building; acquaint students with the characteristic strengths and weaknesses of a particular material, together with its environmental profile.This unit will bring together Architecture and Engineering students in a way which will simulate the best of real life design projects, introducing to each discipline what the other can contribute creatively in the production of the built environment.
Content:
It is centred around a design project that is highly prescriptive (in contrast to Design Studio 4.2). This project is considered to be an integral part of the sustained study of a specific urban area, which gives the fourth year a unique character, but is focused on material and technique. Students are required to design and detail a large span structures, and to understand the material and the building from an environmental point of view and put forward a case for minimising the building's carbon dioxide usage.

AR30022: Design studio 4.2

Credits: 30
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30021
Aims: In contrast to Design Studio 4.1 provides for a more individual approach: each student develops their own brief, discovers a site or sites and proceeds with their design project on an individual basis. A core team of critics, who meet with each student on a regular basis, is supplemented by specialist or 'wild card' critical input at random intervals.
Learning Outcomes:
The outcome will be that individual students will learn to foster individual responsibility for a complex design project, by writing and developing a specific brief in relation to a self-selected site. They will experience and understand the full range of the design process.
Skills:
Research, writing, analysis and synthesis and three-dimensional presentation.
Content:
Each individual design project will be underpinned by a number of common themes:
1. The exploration of contemporary urban or rural conditions - (urban study areas are chosen which are exemplary as hybrid urban/suburban/ex-urban settings, engagingly peculiar intersections of place and non-place, which by conventional criteria are so unrelentingly bland that they must be concealing hidden qualities; eg: Swindon, Bristol Parkway).
2. Ecological concerns - the recycling of materials, self-sufficiency, the recycling of land that is apparently without value, the implications of change in relation to transport systems and changing lifestyles and working patterns, corresponding attitudes to concentration and dispersal.
3. The impact of digital media and telecommunications - explicit in relation to anticipated immersion of the year in computer assisted design, representational techniques and applications, from the most straightforward to more advanced modelling and rapid prototyping operations.

AR30023: BEng Dissertation

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: DS80OR20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To assess the ability of students for original and individual thought and application to a substantial project/ programme of work.
Content:
A substantial work of research presented as a short thesis, normally entailing experimental and analytical or numerical modelling and their practical application to a researched topic. This preliminary unit represents the background reading and planning for the investigation. Assessment will be together with Dissertation Completion, but a formal presentation must be made by each student describing the background, aims, and proposed methods of their dissertation, which will carry 20% of the mark for this unit.

AR30024: Continuum mechanics 2

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give a brief introduction to cuvilear co-ordinates and tensors which are useful for any advanced work in continuum mechanics, the finite element method, or shell theory. To stimulate the students interest in physics and its relation to some important areas of current engineering research.
Content:
Revisio of Navier-Stokes equations and introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics. Curvilinear co-ordinates, covariant and contravariant base vectors, metric tensor. Tensor product. Tensors in cuvilenear co-ordinates. Properties of symmetric second order tensors - principal values and directinos, Mohr's circles in three dimensions. Definition of stress and strain in curvilinear co-ordinates. Christoffel symbols and covariant differentiation. Equilibrium equations in curvilinear co-ordinates. Constiutive equations in elasticity, plasticity and fluid mechanics using curvilinear co-ordinates. Geometry of surfaces, metric tensor, second fundamental form, normal curvature and twist, mean and Gaussian curvature. Order of covariant differentiation, Reimann-Christoffel tensor. Gauss's theorem and the Codazzi equations. Membrane equilibrium equations. Application to shell and tension structures. Discussion of ccurvilinear co-ordinates in 4-dimensional space-time, the Bianci relations, the Ricci tensor, the Einstein tensor and the General Theory of Relativity.

AR30025: BEng Dissertation completion

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: DS100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
As for Dissertation.
Content:
The main part of the dissertation work, following on from the 'Dissertation' unit.

AR30026: Facade engineering construction

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give a knowledge and understanding of the design and construction of building facades. Objectives: To give an understanding of the various structural and environmental requirements of facades. To give a knowledge of the various methods used in facade construction, and of how they meet design requirements.
Content:
Design principles Windows, curtain walling, slope glazing, overcladding. Front sealed, drained and ventilated and pressure equalised systems. Materials Glass, aluminium, steel, PVC.U, G.R.P., G.R.C., bricks, natural stone, precast concrete, finishes, sealants, gaskets. Performance criteria Water penetration, air leakage, wind, thermal mass and insulation, condensation, acoustics, building movement, thermal movement, ventilation, fire, security, blast. Specification and contracts Nature of the industry, construction/manufacturing, specification, contracts, installation. Detailing Joints, anchorages, stick systems, panellised systems, untied systems, tolerances.

AR30029: Building environment 3

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20004 and while taking this unit you must take AR30021

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To improve students confidence to use building environmental design as a major positive factor in the design of buildings.
Objectives: to examine in some detail the objectives of design using examples from practice. The course will use the joint design project as a vehicle for the early lectures in the course.
Content:
Lighting Design: Designed appearance, enclosure, structure, rational use of colour. Combined lighting: Exploitation of natural light, control of electric lighting. Design criteria: Establishing criteria, isolation of variables, effects of experimentation. Display: Art galleries, museums, principles of design, conservation. Nighttime lighting: Security, floodlighting of buildings. Green buildings: Integrated design. Acoustics: Principles of internal room acoustic design. Acoustic design of lecture and drama theatres. Multipurpose hall design. Noise control in buildings. Case histories of internal acoustic and noise control design. Guidance for the final year joint design project. Thermal Choice between passive and active control of internal environment, value engineering. Implications on building design when incorporating major building services.

AR30030: Facade engineering

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To extend the knowledge and understanding gained in Facade Engineering Construction by examining the engineering issues involved in current developments in Window and Cladding Technology.
Content:
Brittle materials, anchorages and fixings Engineering use of adhesives Structural/ cladding interaction Structural use of glass Heat transfer, thermal capacity, component temperatures, shading, moisture and condensation Advanced glazing Durability, weathering

AR30031: Fire & construction safety

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce the subject of Fire Engineering and develop previous course material concerning construction safety on site and in design considerations for the future use of building structures.
Content:
An introduction to fire engineering including the nature of fire, the mechanism of combustion and the behaviour of its products. The behaviour of people in fire is examined, the interaction between fire, buildings and other enclosures and the principles of escape and survival studies. The course goes on to examine safety in the context of the construction site, the industry and application of legislation and the development of safety policies and management systems. CDM regulations (short course).

AR30034: Geotechnical engineering

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX60CW40
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take AR30214

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give an understanding of the behaviour of piled foundations, and of the principles, theory and methods used in their design and analysis. To give a knowledge and understanding of a range of geotechnical engineering processes, including an appreciation of how soil mechanics theory combines with a general engineering approach to yield practical solutions to real problems. The succesful student should be able to demonstrate a depth of understanding of the technologies studied, and the way in which approaches to design and construction have been developed. The succesful student should also be able to examine a new situation, realise the potential geotechnical problems involved, and be able to make reasonable suggestions as to how they might be dealt with.
Content:
Earth Retaining Structures: generalised types, failure modes, construction. Different approaches to design. Gravity structures, cantilever structures, introduction to sheet pile and embedded design. Soil as fill. Requirements of engineering fills, suitability criteria, excavation, transportation and compaction. Reinforced soil. Mode of reinforcement, distinction between reinforced soil and soil anchors. Requirements of reinforcing elements - tensile stength/stiffness, durability, ease of construction. Importance of interaction, strain compatability. Function of and requirements for facing, types of construction. Use in embankment foundations, slope repair. Methods of analysis and design - walls and steep slopes, ensuring a margin of safety, other slopes, common errors. Piling. Construction and design of single piles and pile groups. Types of pile and appropriate analytical methods, related to site investigation methods. Calculation of working loads and settlements. Design of a piled foundation. Geotechnical engineering site appraisal, assessing geotechnical problems in a project. The 'trees and foundations' problem. Importance of soil type, tree species and size, location relative to building, rainfall, ground cover, ground water movement, building brittleness. Behaviour of soil as water content is reduced and air enters.Approaches to risk in design and assessment of existing buildings. Need for an empirical approach in the face of inevitable shortage of data for a theoretical approach.

AR30037: History & theory of architecture 3.1

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20036 and while taking this unit you must take AR30038

Aims & Learning Objectives:
This unit aims to introduce a range of analytical theories and research techniques associated with the formal design of buildings in western architecture. By the time students have completed this unit they should be able to analyse a historic building or project in order to distinguish and evaluate key concepts relating to the way in which mathematical, hierarchical and aesthetic principles inform its design, and to locate such concepts against changing patterns of cultural and intellectual history.
Content:
Lectures provide a grounding in the history of the use of formal design methods in architectural design via an exposition of textual sources, proportional analyses and recent research. General themes include the dialogue between the ideal and contingency in architectural design, with particular reference to the origin of form, abstract and aesthetic issues, formal composition, proportion and geometry. Topics include the following: Vitruvius and the foundations of classical design theory; the changing concept of proportion over time; the re-birth of classical theory in the Renaissance; modern conceptions of origin and proportion; Le Corbusier's theory; arithmetical and geometrical modes of composition and their relation to the use of drawing; the design of the orders in antiquity; the Renaissance ideal of church and palace design; ruins as inspiration, and the Romantic reception of antiquity; the Pantheon and other projects where ideals bend to contingency.

AR30038: History & theory of architecture 3.2

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20017 and take AR20018 and while taking this unit you must take AR30019
Aims: To introduce and examine theoretical positions relating to design activity, and the ideas and explanations advanced by both practitioners and historians to account for the way in which architectural solutions are generated, and the way in which it is thought that they ought to be generated.
Learning Outcomes:
Students should be able to interpret critical ideas and sources that have influenced modern design, and explain how their effect is manifest in the design strategies proposed by individual architects.
Skills:
Research and seminar presentation.
Content:
Seminars analysing a succession of key theories and theoreticians, and their relationship to modern architectural design, with an emphasis on the period between the second half of the 18th century and the early part of the 20th century. Theoretical topics covered include functionalism, rationalism and the notion of 'honesty' in relation to design and the employment of structure and material. Theoretical discourse is also located within the context of the broader intellectual background commencing with the Enlightenment, moving on to the 'battle of the styles' and the debate over the role of ornament and attempts to banish it, taking into consideration technological and social developments. Particular attention will be given to figures such as Claude Perrault, Laugier, John Soane, Heinrich Hubsch, Gottfried Semper, Viollet-le-Duc, Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier.

AR30039: History & theory of architecture 4

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take AR30021
Aims: To provide an introduction to architectural and urban theory congruent to the themes of the parallel studio.
Learning Outcomes:
The students will utilise a major architectural theme in their final paper which will not exceed 2,500 words. The paper will demonstrate an understanding of the assigned texts and lecture topics. Students will research one architectural topic appropriate to their interests and present a final paper that demonstrates a structural argument and is complete with full bibliographic references.
Skills:
Research; written English.
Content:
Eight lectures which focus on the development of salient debates of the last forty years. The course will also focus on a series of reading material made available in the form of a course reader.

AR30045: Industrial project IP1

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: RT100/CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give experience in solving a real industrial problem under both industrial and academic supervision.
Content:
Structural or Environmental Engineering Design carried out in industry with academic links, following or during the second industrial placement M2. For students who are unable to gain an industrial placement the project IP1 will be undertaken as a sponsored project on behalf of one of the companies who would normally employ students. In this case the project will be undertaken wholly at the University (in labs or CAD labs) during the first part of term 2 and before commencement of Semester 2.

AR30046: Industrial project IP2

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give further experience in solving a real industrial problem under both industrial and academic supervision.
Content:
Structural or Environmental Engineering Design linked with industry sponsorship, following on from Industrial Project IP1, but for all students based in the University under closer academic supervision.

AR30048: Laboratory 2

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: PR100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce more sophisticated laboratory techniques including electronic instrumentation and data logging, and to give experience of some of the methods and apparatus referred to in lecture modules.
Content:
Laboratory experiments and exercises in geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, fluid mechanics, acoustics and lighting

AR30051: Lightweight structures

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX60CW40
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop an understanding of the theory and practical design of lightweight wide-span structures, particularly tensile membranes, cable networks, grid shells, air-supported and pneumatic structures.
Content:
Characteristics, behaviour and analytical methods for funicular cable structures subject to uniform and non-uniform loadings. Effects of elastic extensino, temperature effects, support settlements and cable slip. Matrix methods for geometric and material non-linear cable and membrane structures. Incremental, Newton-Raphson and modified N-R methods. Zero stiffness controls in the iteration process. Implicit and explicit integration vector methods. Dynamic Relaxation applied to shell, space and tension structures. Form-finding controls. Kinetic and viscous damping. Behaviour and modelling of prestressed fabric membranes. Crimp interchange and on-off non-linear material properties modelling. Computer Aided Design packages for form-finding and analysis of membrane, cable network, grid shell and pneumatic structures. Wind load response and numerical and physical modelling. Practical design aspects for steelwork, membrane and foundation design, steelwork detailing and steelwork and membrane fabrication patterning. Assembly and on-site construction procedures. The course will entail design project studies embracing conceptual and structural engineering dsign and detailing using both CAD and physical modelling methods.

AR30053: Management 2

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20052

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To provide an overview of procurement approaches taken to construction work. To study contemporary approaches to the management of cost, time and quality in providing buildings completed to the client's satisfaction. Learning objectives: To ensure students acquire an understanding of the Architect's authority under standard forms of contracts.
Content:
This unit is designed to provide the students with more detailed coverage of the Architects responsibilities and liabilities in law as well as management concepts and practices utilised by construction professionals. The unit contains the following content: Procurement of construction works, traditional, management, design and build, partnering etc. Standard forms of contracts and the Architects responsibilities and liabilities. Examination of the Latham and Egan reports and the ongoing 'rethinking construction' debate. Planning and control time management. Principles and the management of cost control. Quality management and an introduction to QA and TQM systems and philosophy.

AR30054: Management 2C

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20213

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give a general knowledge of legal and contract obligations in the construction industry. At the end of the unit, the student should be able to demonstrate a knowledge of the following areas at a level to provide appropriate preparation for employment as a graduate in the construction industry:
* the management roles of the engineer;
* basic management theory;
* business management in construction;
* methods of civil engineering procurement;
* processes and roles on construction sites;
* construction hazards and their management / responsibility for safety
Content:
Structure of business organisations. The Engineer as Manager Management theory: Organisational culture. Handy's paradoxes of modern organisational life. Changing patterns of organisation and their relevance to construction. Decision-making models: rationalist, Carnegie, incremental, 'garbage can'. Business management in construction: Corporate policy, objectives, strategies, tactics, marketing. Construction health and safety: Safety law and regulations, safety management systems, construction hazards, cost of accidents, CDM, Risk Assessment. Economics of safety (financial and non-financial costs of accidents, ethical standards). The tender process: Procurement of design, consultancy contracts, methods of payment Construction contracts (design and build; subcontracting; design, build and operate). Project management overview: Concept of project management. Construction and operation (energy, pollution, ecology, resources, recycling, sustainability). Environmental Impact Assessment (process, EC and UK approaches, methods, monitoring, risk assessment). Life cycle costing. Value management & engineering. Construction sites: Basic terminology of construction techniques and plant. Organisation of construction sites. Roles of architect, engineer, contractor, project manager. Buildability, method statements, access to workface, commissioning, international variations.

AR30055: Management 3C

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30054

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give students a knowledge of the economics of the construction industry. At the end of the unit, the student should be able to demonstrate a knowledge of the following areas at a level to provide appropriate preparation for employment as a graduate in the construction industry:
* law of torts
* contract law
* company law
* employment law
* a systematic approach to human resources and motivation / responsibility for safety
* operational research
* project planning and control.
Content:
Introduction to English law and legal system Law of torts. Negligence. Design liability. Introduction to CDM regulations. Insurance and Litigation; the ethical context and the legal context. Contract Law: Creation of a contract document. Defects in a contract, termination. Parties to a contract. Introduction to construction contracts. Company law (types of business organisation; setting up a limited company; appointment and responsibilities of directors; meetings, financing a company, partnership, insolvency, bankruptcy) Employment law (contract of employment; rights and duties; statutory regulation of remuneration; legal constraints on terms and conditions of employment; termination of employment) Estimation and bills of quantities: Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement. Preparing bill items and taking-off quantities. Operational estimations; measurement, valuation and claims, role of method-related charges Preparation of contract documents. Partnering, benchmarking Quality Assurance Principles of QA. Quality auditing. Human resources and motivation: Theories of motivation. Responsibility for safety. Team building, conflict, leadership, group theory, power and influence, conduct of meetings. Human Resource Management. Performance appraisal. Introduction to project planning and control: Planning, activity planning, logic, critical path networks, resource analysis, GANTT. Charts & PERT charts.

AR30056: Management 4C

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30055

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give students a general knowledge of the broad economic context in which the construction industry operates, and general principles of financial management. By the end of the course, the student should be able to demonstrate a broad understanding of the material covered.
Content:
Microeconomics: Supply and demand. Supply curve. Monopolies. Cost-benefit analysis. Macroeconomics: Fiscal policy. Investment and monetary policy. Inflation and unemployment. Balance of payments Politics and Business: Discuss and explain how politics and business interact. Government intervention, protectionism and trading distortions. The European Community, monetary union and its implications. Multi-national projects. Introduction to finance and accounting Accounting concepts. Financial statements. Management accounting concepts. Financial Management: Budget compilation and expenditure management. Investment appraisal. Analytical tools. Benchmarking. Key performance indicators Pricing practices: Mark-up pricing and profit maximisation, price discrimination, predatory pricing, Limit pricing, multiple and joint product pricing. Cost and price: Cash flow in project and contract, time value of money, time/cost optimisation; site Cost control.

AR30062: Mathematics 4

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To provide a general computational and mathematical basis for the development of engineering subjects at third year level of the civil engineering courses.
Content:
Further principles and techniques of computer programming using C++: Sources of error and ill conditioning. Algorithms design and correctness. Arrays, searching and sorting. Convergence. Application of Numerical Methods: Linear equations. Numerical differentiation and roots. Interpolation and numerical integration. ODEs.

AR30063: Numerical modelling

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To provide practice in the computational formulation and solution of engineering problems; principally related to structures but including field problems such as seepage and fluid flow.
Content:
The theoretical basis for computer packages used or demonstrated will be studied and students will develop their own (simplified) computer programs or routines for the numerical methods employed. These will cover step-by-step integration methods for the modelling of structural dynamics, heat transfer and potential flow problems. Individual projects will be undertaken to cover one of these areas and will be presented in seminar groups covering all aspects.

AR30068: Project C2

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop skills in integration of engineering and architectural objectives to produce creative and competent designs.
Content:
Structural and Environmental Engineering Design linked with architectures studio. Precedent lectures are used to discuss relevant examples. Suitable buildings might include a community centre, an electronics factory with spans typically up 15m. Structural issues should include the integration of architectural and environmental aspects in the complete conceptual design, the design to codes of practice of all principal members, connection details and construction aspects, and the design of foundations. Environmental issues should include optimal use of daylight, solar heating, natural ventilation, noise from surroundings. The proportion of time spent on group working with the architectural students is up to 50% (in the first half of the project development).

AR30069: Project C3/1

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give students experience in developing a complex scheme working in teams with architecture students.
Content:
Precedent lectures are used to discuss relevant examples. The building type will have more complex planning problems and potential for elegance to suit the needs of the architects. There should be environmental conditions to consider, ie air conditioning/ natural ventilation to compare, and lighting and acoustic problems. Types of building which are suitable include autitoria based (theatre, opera house, concert hall - all have potential for interesting structures, eg cable, domes, frameworks etc), museum (differing types from art galleries to 'Exploratory' type, and libraries, requiring exclusion of noise and good lighting ), industrial (eg brewery, with the process providing a problem), or sports complex. All have air conditioning / natural ventilation, potential for interest visually as well as in services and structure, and heavy foundation loads. The project will be tutored both by academic staff and industrial visiting tutors.

AR30070: Project M4

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Development of a holistic approach to structural and environmental design.
Content:
Two alternative paths can be taken for this project, depending on the subject and content of the semester 1 project C3/M3 (carried out as a group project involving architectural students):
1. Individual design development of Project C3/M3, involving consideration of civil, structural and environmental engineering design issues. Normally a real current development project will be used for this brief, and the project will involve the full structural, geotechnical and environmental design for a particular building or small complex of buildings within the development. Precedent lectures are used to discuss relevant examples, and the work is tutored by visiting architects and engineers.
2: A design project which is specifically related to one of the option courses (in Lightweight Structures, Conservation, Facade Engineering, or Bridge Engineering); it may also be related to Project M3 (but would not be restricted to the development of a particular feature of that project).

AR30071: Project C3/2

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To undertake an entirely individual design project and develop it from concept through to detail design.
Content:
The project is intended to be linked to one of the option or core design subjects (Lightweight Structures, Conservation, Facade Engineering, or Bridge Engineering), and will be tutored by both academic staff and industrial visiting tutors. The project undertaken may be an extension and redevelopment of a particular feature of project C3, but will entail a new structure which complements the C3 design project, and is developed to a much greater level of engineering competence in its detailed solutions.

AR30073: Project M2

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To introduce the installation of Building Services.
Objectives: To consider the various types of Building Services Systems that are used to promote comfortable environmental conditions within a building, using a real building as a vehicle for the study. The use of commercially available software for the investigation and sizing of Building Services Installations
Content:
The details of this depend upon the particular building chosen for study, but include a selection from: Heating systems, Mechanical ventilation systems, Air conditioning systems, Cooling plant design, Displacement ventilation, consideration of appropriate legislation. Design of systems for reduced energy use, heat reclaim, variable speed fans, control of electric services and lighting.

AR30075: Socrates exchange semester 1

Credits: 30
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20018 and After taking this module you must take AR30020
Aims: The SOCRATES exchange programme links the Department with selected European Schools of Architecture. It provides students with opportunities to study abroad and learn directly about the architectural values of the institution being visited through design project work and lectures.
Learning Outcomes:
The specific learning outcomes will vary from each institution visited but students will widen their architectural experience.
Skills:
Languages (requirement varies dependant upon place of study). Research, analysis, synthesis and verbal and visual presentation.
Content:
Individual students select appropriate courses from the palette offered by the host institution and these are relayed to the Bath Socrates co-ordinator for approval. Exchange students complete design projects which are first assessed by the host institution with the marks reported to Bath. On returning to Bath each student is required to submit their complete portfolio of work to a panel for inspection and assessment.

AR30077: Soil mechanics 2

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20076

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To gain a knowledge of the way in which the understanding developed in Soil Mechanics 1 can be applied to the design of foundations and soil structures, and how the necessary information is obtained in practice.
Content:
The shear strength of soils - the critical state model, relationship between normal consolidation line, Roscoe surface, Critical State Line, Hvorslev Surface, zero tension criterion. Test paths for drained and undrained testing, behaviour of normally consolidated clays, introduction to behaviour of lightly and heavily overconsolidated clays. Brittle behavoiur of heavily overconsolidated clays. Use of p'e for normalising wrt specific volume. Obtaining information about current state of a sample (undrained shear strength) compared with fundamental properties (drained shear strength / critical state parameters) from triaxial testing. Site investigation. Purpose of site investigation - general scenario, anomolies, design parameters. Desk study requirements, sources, walk over survey. Preliminary and final site investigations. Methods of borehole drilling. Safe use of trial pits. In-situ testing. Geophysical methods of investigation, capabilities and limitations. Slope stability analysis. Purpose, derivation of Bishops' and Janbu's simplified methods. Application. Other methods. Foundation design - stress distributions, bearing capacity and settlement calculation, related to site investigation techniques.

AR30083: Structures 4

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Development of matrix methods of analysis and computer techniques for structural analysis. To advance the student's knowledge and ability in the plastic analysis of structures, including multibay frames and the yield line analysis of slabs.
Content:
Revision of virtual work, flexibility analysis, and slope deflection method. Matrix Methods: stiffness analysis of pin-jointed space trusses and rigidly jointed frames. Organisation of stiffness method for computation. Introduction to finite element method. Finite element method: Shape functions. Application of virtual work and the Rayleigh-Ritz method to the derivation of stiffness and load matrices. Compatibility requirements between elements. Plane stress, plane strain and three dimensional elements. Simple plate bending elements. Application of Finite Element Computer Package to analysis of frame and slab structures. Plastic analysis of frames: Upper and lower bound solutions. Instantaneous centres, combined mechanisms for multibay and multistorey frames. Plastic analysis of slabs and yield line theory: equilibrium and energy methods, isotropic and orthotropic slabs, skew reinforcement. Iterative methods, "Affine" methods.

AR30084: Structures 5

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take AR30214

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop the understanding and application of design procedures for various materials (particularly steel and concrete) related to professional codes of practice. To cover the effects of vibrations and issues affecting the stability of structures.
Content:
Reinforced concrete: beams - T & L beams, doubly reinforced beams, crack widths. Slabs - two way span slabs, flat slabs, strip theory. Columns - combined compression and bending, compression and tension control, derivation of design graphs, moment increase due to slenderness. Prestressed concrete: derivation of losses, elastic and ultimate analysis. Introduction to shear and end blocks. Structural steel: lateral torsional buckling. Local buckling of webs, web stiffeners. Combined shear and bending. Column design. Plastic sizing of elements. Structural timber: properties of timber, strength of joints, slenderness, notching, combined stresses, glued laminated members. Masonry: strengths and partial safety factors, stress block, slenderness, arching. Wind loading, tensile stresses, precompression. Tables of panel moments. Composites. Vibrations Single degree of freedom systems: free vibrations, response to step load, sinusoidal load and seismic and inertial excitation. Dynamic loads: random loads. Earthquakes, rigid model and aeroelastic model wind tunnel tests. Natural frequencies and mode shapes or buckling loads and mode shapes with a variety of end conditions. Orthogonality conditions. Damping and response to loads including moving loads. Multi degree of freedom systems: lateral vibrations of beams under constant axial load. Discussion of post buckled stability via single degree of freedom models. Interaction of buckling and plasticity; lateral torsional buckling of beams. Modal analysis for vibrations and buckling of structures; eigenvalues, eigenvectors and othogonality conditions. Damping and geometric stiffness.

AR30085: Structures 6

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30084

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To extend previously introduced structural theory and analysis to an appropriate level for a broad coverage of finite element methods. To develop the understanding and application of finite element methods to a range of structural systems. To extend understanding of, and the ability to apply plasticity methods for the analysis of structures.
Content:
Numerical methods: revision of matrix methods of analysis as applied to pin jointed trusses, rigidly jointed frames, and finite element modelling of continuum structures. Isoparametric elements, plate and shell elements. Finite element analysis of complete structures; compatiblity of in-plane and bending displacements. Classical plate theory. Plate buckling and buckling of thin-walled box-beams. Non-linear behaviour of structures, geometric and material non-linearity; Newton-Raphson and incremental solution methods. Computer finite element modelling of non-linear problems. Plasiticity theory: yield and failure criteria, 3-D Mohr's circle of stress, hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses. C-curves and the pi-plane. Tresca and von Mises yield criteria. The flow rule, normality and convexity. Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The upper and lower bound theorems. Shakedown. Torsion, indentation, axial and shear effects for metallic structures. Concrete plasticity, upper-bound flexural and shear analysis, lower-bound strut-and-tie methods.

AR30089: Thermofluids

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The movement of energy and fluids in buildings.
Content:
Dimensionless analysis and similarity : Introduction to the principles of dimensionless analysis; determination of dimensionless groups; use of dimensionless groups in experimental investigation. Turbo-machinery Performance characteristics of rotodynamic machines; centrifugal, axial and mixed flow pumps and fans; use of specific speed for pump selection; simple applications of network machine systems. Euler one dimensional theory for axial and centrifugal turbomachines. Introduction to heat transfer :General conduction equation, 2-D steady state solutions; 1-D unsteady state, lumped parameter approach, Biot and Fourier numbers. Convection : Velocity and temperature boundary layers, calculation of convection coefficients, use of dimensionless parameters in heat transfer, analogies between momentum and heat transfer; dimensionless correlations in forced and natural convection. Radiation : Laws of radiant heat transfer, radiation properties of real materials, geometric factors. Radiation networks in buildings. Extended surfaces : Analysis of heat transfer from fins, overall U-value for extended surfaces. Heat exchangers : Analysis of parallel and counterflow exchangers, log mean temperature difference and Transfer Unit approaches, fouling factors. Heat recovery devices used in buildings

AR30093: Urban studies

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30019 and After taking this module you must take AR30020
Aims: The aims of this Unit are twofold: firstly, to introduce students to: the ideas and ideals which have shaped cities; and understand the policies that govern urban design and to introduce a methodology in use to assess the architectural character and qualities of an historic UK city.
Learning Outcomes:
On completion of this Unit, students will be able to make a coherent presentation through a written illustrated report on the urban form of an historic UK city.
Skills:
Research, writing, presentation of report.
Content:
The Unit begins with 6 lectures introducing the ideas and ideals that have shaped European cities, and which focuses on specific historic UK cities as case studies. The second part of the Unit is an assessment by students in small groups of part of an historic city using a range of analytical techniques - drawings, photographs, physical and computer models - in order to define the architectural character and quality of the area under study and in relation to the whole. The material gathered will be analysed and presented in illustrated reports in a format to be determined by the examiner.

AR30112: Building services engineering

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take AR30073

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To enable the design of mechanical and electrical services. Objectives: To understand the techniques available to design various air conditioning systems and choice of suitable plant. To provide tools needed design principal electrical service distribution systems. To consider the design of utility systems within buildings.
Content:
Design of heating systems Design of mechanical ventilation systems Design of air conditioning systems Choice of cooling plant and methods of heat rejection, Design of Utility systems, Design of hot and cold water services, Gas distribution Telephones and communictions Waste systems and management. Design of electrical distribution systems, fault protection, harmonics, interference Emergency power generation Fire and security systems.

AR30114: Structures 4A

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20081

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To reinforce the understanding of architectural students in the role of statics in determining the form efficiency of structural systems.
Content:
A number of architectural projects with significant qualities in their structural engineering and conceptual realisation are examined in the context of their statical actions as a whole and the influence of these actions on the construction detailing.

AR30207: Bridge Engineering

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop an awareness and enthusiasm for the design, construction and assessment of various forms of bridge structures. The successful student should be able to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the material given in the content.
Content:
The history of bridge engineering, from stone arches and rope-suspension bridges to the wholly plastic Aberfeldy Bridge and the 2km long span Akashi Bridge. Lessons learned from intermittent bridge collapses. Bridge components and their nomenclature. The choice of bridge types and suitability at specific sites for reasons of constructability, aesthetics, economics, function and available materials. Issues involved in short, medium and long span bridge design. Bridge construction techniques available for various applications, and design of the bridge to allow for easier construction. Design loading on bridges, including dead, superimposed dead, traffic, wind, temperature, earthquake, etc. Elastic and plastic analysis techniques available for the design of various forms of bridge structure. Realistic strength assessment of existing highway bridges, so that needless demolition of adequate bridges may be prevented. Bridges of the future, from short-span to the Messina Crossing.

AR30214: Project C3/M3

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment:
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30073 and take AR30083

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To give students experience in developing a complex scheme working in teams with final year BSc architecture students or MArch students. At the end of the unit, the student should have demonstrated an ability to engage in interdisciplinary design of a complex scheme.
Content:
Precedent lectures are used to discuss relevant examples. The building or development project type will have more complex planning problems such as transportation, geotechnical and flood alleviation aspects, and potential for elegance in its structural solution and architectural function. There should be environmental conditions to consider, both external and internal - such as air conditioning/ natural ventilation to compare, and lighting and acoustic problems. Types of building complexes which are suitable include autitoria based (theatre, opera house, concert hall - all have potential for interesting structures, eg cable, domes, frameworks etc), museum (differing types from art galleries to 'Exploratory' type, and libraries, requiring exclusion of noise and good lighting ), industrial (eg brewery, with the process providing a problem), sports complex or transport interchange facilities. All have potential for interest functionally, structurally and visually as well as in services, and heavy foundation loads. The project will be tutored both by academic staff and industrial visiting tutors. The project is also intended to be competitive between groups (with each group consisting ideally of 2 architectural and 2 engineering students), and is the subject of a prize jury and presentation - known as the Basil Spence Prize. The BEng, MEng and Architectural students all participate in this interdisciplinary group project. The main distinction between the BEng (Project C3/1) and MEng (Project M3) is that MEng students are expected to apply their broader knowledge to the design, and to demonstrate leadership in the conceptual design stage.

AR30216: Management 5C

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment:
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30055

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop an increased depth of understanding of construction project management by the examination of case studies. At the end of the unit, the student should be able to demonstrate an awareness of a range of approaches, procedures and techniques, and should have begun to understand how they may be used in managing a construction project.
Content:
Case studies are presented to develop the student's awareness of the influence of the following issues on the management of design and construction. Note that these topics are not expected to be covered in detail, but rather in the context of the case study projects. Project management: Anatomy of a project, project boundaries, multi-project planning. Defining the project, the design brief. Leadership and teams, project organisation. Structure of a design team. Professional responsibilities within different structures. Operations management: Product, plant, processes, programs, people Introduction to operations research techniques: Queuing theory. Simulation. Linear programming. Dynamic programming. Contract procedures: Conditions of contract (ICE 5th and 6th ed., NEC), Parties to the contract, duties and responsibilities; running the contract, programmes, Certificates, durations; paying for work, variations, claims; disputes resolution. Quality Assurance: TQM (principles and practice); Implementing quality management in a construction firm. Risk analysis and management: Forecasting, sensitivity, mean expected values, decision strategies. Managing uncertainty and variation. Organisational change. 'New Thinking' in organisational theory and practice. Implementation in construction. Industrial relations Developments in the use of computers in construction management.

AR30229: Natural building materials & methods

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20082 and take AR20208
Aims: To develop an awareness of and enthusiasm for building design and construction using natural materials and methods, and develop understanding and ability.
Learning Outcomes:
On completion of this unit the successful student should be able to demonstrate:
* a broad understanding of the context, characteristics, manufacture and applications of natural building materials;
* sufficient knowledge and insight to design, specify and build with confidence using natural materials and methods.
Skills:
Evident from content and learning outcomes.
Content:
Outline the main issues of sustainability relating to building materials: environmental impact; CO2 emissions; embodied energy; recycling of materials; role of natural materials; vernacular building methods and appropriate technology. Designing to take account of unfamiliar material properties and appropriate construction methods; designing in the absence of prescriptive codes of practice. These issues are then considered in relation to the following material types and construction methods. Depth of coverage may vary between these areas, and additional materials/technologies may be introduced into or removed from the unit with the development of appropriate technologies. Earthen construction: adobe; rammed earth; cob; compressed block; wattle & daub; soil mortars; material suitability; stability; durability; manufacture; characteristics; applications; design; case studies. Timber construction: natural 'green' timber construction; properties & characteristics; production and treatments; building technology; applications; traditional connections; design; case studies. Natural fibre construction: bamboo; straw bale; grasses and leaves; wool; turf roofs; animal skins; properties and characteristics; applications; building technology; design principles; case studies. Natural binders: prozzolans; gypsum; lime; sulphur concrete; production and characteristics; techniques (lime motar; lime-crete); applications; design principles; case studies. Stone: materials (rock types); sources and extraction; environmental impact; properties; durability; applications (foundations, walls, roofs, and floors); design; case studies. Waste materials: waste paper and textiles; sewage sludge; coal wastes; blast furnace slag; bauxite waste; rubble; rice husks; coconut wastes; wood residues; water hyacinth; vegetable wastes; applications; case studies. Caves and underground dwellings; ice (igloos). A number of external expert speakers will be invited to deliver specialist lectures (e.g. timber construction; use of lime). In addition, site visit(s) will be arranged to inspect particular case studies (e.g. CAT, Wales). The coursework will comprise a small project in which students will be encouraged to innovate and explore further by designing a medium size building using entirely natural materials.

AR30231: Advanced composites in construction

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW20EX80
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30084

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop an awareness and enthusiasm for (i) the design and construction of fibre-reinforced polymer structures and (ii) the repair and strengthening of existing structures in order to prolong the life of our infrastructure. At the end of this course, the successful student should be able to decide on the feasibility and appropriateness of the use of fibre-reinforced polymers for specific design applications. In particular, the student will have understanding of the issues involved in the design of polymeric structures, the design of concrete structures with polymeric reinforcement and the design of strengthening schemes for structures and buildings.
Content:
Lecture 1: General introduction to Advanced Composites, their properties, advantages and disadvantages, manufacturing processes, case studies.
Lecture 2: Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRPs), wholly polymeric structures, design issues, modular construction.
Lecture 3: FRP as internal concrete reinforcement, general design issues, durability, flexural design, ductility.
Lecture 4: FRP as internal concrete reinforcement, shear design issues, detailing issues, fire, creep, fatigue.
Lecture 5: FRP as internal prestress for concrete, external prestress via polymeric ropes, novel reinforcement layouts.
Lecture 6: FRP strengthening of concrete structures for flexure.
Lecture 7: FRP strengthening of bridges for shear; use of sheets, bars and plate.
Lecture 8: FRP strengthening of columns and piers for earthquake and/or vehicle impact, ductility issues, confinement issues with non-circular sections.
Lecture 9: FRP strengthening of timber, steel, iron, masonry and other structures; sustainability, economics of FRPs.

AR30243: Socrates exchange semester 2

Credits: 18
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30075 and After taking this module you must take AR20065
Aims: The SOCRATES exchange programme links the Department with selected European Schools of Architecture. It provides students with opportunities to study abroad and learn directly about the architectural values of the institution being visited through design project work and lectures.
Learning Outcomes:
The specific learning outcomes will vary from each institution visited but students will widen their architectural experience.
Skills:
Languages (requirement varies dependant upon place of study). Research, analysis, synthesis and verbal and visual presentation.
Content:
Individual students select appropriate courses from the palette offered by the host institution and these are relayed to the Bath Socrates co-ordinator for approval. Exchange students complete design projects which are first assessed by the host institution with the marks reported to Bath. On returning to Bath each student is required to submit their complete portfolio of work to a panel for inspection and assessment.

AR40095: Wind & earthquake engineering

Credits: 3
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20002 and take AR30024 and take AR30007
Aims: To enable understanding of the use of power spectra analysis in the design of structures (e.g. how to you plan wind tunnel tests to give the information necessary to predict the rms acceleration of a building caused by the peak ten minutes of a storm within a return period of five years?). To enable understanding of earthquake engineering design issues.
Learning Outcomes:
The successful student should be able to demonstrate understanding of the subjects described under 'Content', and the ability to use that understanding in design.
Skills:
Evident from content and learning outcomes.
Content:
The nature of wind, flow around angular, curved and streamlined bodies. Vorticity and turbulence. The effect of terrain. Introduction to the statistics of extremes, return periods, gusts, etc.. Introduction to codes and standards. Wind tunnel testing. Comfort criteria limiting sway of tall buildings. Introduction to aero-elasticity, flutter, galloping and divergence. Aero elastic wind tunnel tests. The causes of earthquakes, prediction of ground movements. Effects of earthquakes on buildings and other structures. Introduction to codes and standards. Rules for the design of earthquake resistant buildings and structures. Description of wind and earthquake loads using power spectra. 'Reconstitution' of load from power spectrum. Fourier transform, auto-correlation and cross-correlation. Use of modal analysis to predict the root mean square building acceleration from power spectrum of load. The use of tuned mass dampers to reduce the motion of tall buildings. Flow visualisation laboratory for flow past a circular cylinder and a square to investigate flow separation and turbulence.

AR40097: Placement MArch

Credits: 24
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
After taking this unit you must take AR40098
Aims: Graduation in the BSc in General Architectural Studies takes place in the academic year preceding the commencement of the MArch programme. The unit is undertaken prior to commencement of units based at the University. The unit provides practical experience of architectural design and/or building construction. It develops integrated design and professional practice skills introduced during the first degree in architecture. More detailed aims and objectives are stipulated in the RIBA Practice Logbook/Professional Experience and Development Record (PEDR) that every student is required to complete, with his/her employer, as partial fulfilment of this unit.
Learning Outcomes: On the successful completion of this unit students will have demonstrated an ability to integrate design and professional skills in the work place.
Skills: Integration of design and professional skills within the work place.
Content: A three-month period of practical training to be recorded in the student's RIBA Practice Logbook/Professional Experience and Development Record. The Placement Tutor scrutinises and counter-signs the RIBA Practice Logbook/PEDR completed by the student and signed by their Work Place Supervisor.

AR40098: Design studio 5.1

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To emphasise the role of architectural design and planning in an urban, UK context. To encourage an understanding of the historical and cultural evolution of the city being studied and provide an overview - through text and drawings - of its present condition. On the successful completion of this unit students will be able to demonstrate through drawings, models and written reports an understanding of the relationship between individual buildings and the development of a particular city.
Content:
The exploration of architecture within a UK urban context explored through Architectural Design. It involves a short fieldtrip to study a UK town or city. Collection by groups of visual, historical, social and cultural information relating to its urban development. Presentation by groups of drawings photographs and models of the past and present character and future potential of the area. Written documentation as necessary supportive of visual and verbal presentations. Specialist expertise will be provided by visiting Architectural, Landscape, Environmental and Structural Engineering consultants, and visiting design critics will be invited at appropriate times during the project.

AR40099: Design studio 5.2

Credits: 12
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The exploration of architecture within an a UK urban context explored through Architectural Design. The course builds on knowledge acquired during the first degree in architecture, with an emphasis on architectural design and planning in an urban context presented in unit Design Studio 5.1 (AR40098). Students are to demonstrate a competence in the integrated design of a range of building types while producing architecturally elegant designs.
Content:
The formulation of group and/or individual design briefs using material accumulated in Design Studio 5.1 (AR40098) for different building types (public and residential) in different locations within the established urban context. The design to be presented at a drawing scale not less than 1:100 through plans and sections of key examples of these types, and supplemented by models (physical and/or computer models). Designs will be developed with due regard to aesthetic and technical requirements pervailing nationally and especially within the urban context studied; and with due regard to the perceived long-term social and physical needs of the local community. Specialist expertise will be provided by visiting Architectural, Landscape, Environmental and Structural Engineering consultants.

AR40100: Natural building materials & methods

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To develop an awareness and enthusiasm for building design and construction using natural materials and methods. To develop and understanding and design ability using natural building techniques.
Learning Outcomes:
On completion of this Unit the successful students should be able to demonstrate: a broad understanding of the context, characteristics, manufacture and applications of natural building materials; sufficient knowledge and insight to design, specify and build with confidence using natural materials and methods.
Skills:
Research, construction of models.
Content:
Precedent lectures, including invited guest speakers covering: climate change, sustainable development, environmental impact of building materials; natural alternatives; Stone; Earth; Pozzolans; Natural binders; Underground dwellings; Ice; Lime construction; Natural fibres (including straw, grass, hemp, reeds); Green oak and round pole construction; Bamboo; Recycled natural products; Natural building materials and building regulation requirements. Design exercise joint with MEng structural engineering students.

AR40101: Management 5

Credits: 3
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
This unit aims to provide students with an in-depth study of the practice of architecture, and the professional role of the architect. To demonstrate the need for advance planning in the cost of construction works, and for the combined control of expenditure. To develop an understanding of estimating procedures, cost analyses and the impact of design changes upon costs.This unit will provide students with a detailed understanding of how architects carryout their professional responsibilities according to the demands of current legislation and RIBA practice guidelines in preparation for the RIBA Pt 3 Exams and Professional Practice.
Content:
Sources of work, types of clients, the appointment process, management and design process, role playing the client/architect relationship. Contracts of appointment, codes of conduct, fees, consultants, collateral warranties, registration acts. The RIBA Job Book, planning ahead, pricing the job, tendering procedures for the architect, communication in the office, feedback and development. Visit to an architect's office and a practical exercise in job getting, confirming the appointment, planning the work, pricing for fees, dealing with warranties and appointing other consultants. The nature of cost planning and the preparation and use of viability studies. Estimates of capital construction cost and cost analyses. Impact of design on cost and principles of cost control. Cost reporting procedures and preparation of final accounts. Cost benefit analysis, cost-in-use and life cycle costing.

AR40103: Landscape & ecology

Credits: 3
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To create an awareness of the physical environment around buildings, and to demonstrate a range of appropriate measures for modifying this environment, through passive and active, visual and technical means. On the successful completion of this unit students will be able to demonstrate in an essay, and in relation to a specific building type in the design project being explored in Design Studio 5.2/5.2a, the impact of Landscape & Ecology on architectural design.
Content:
The unit will comprise of introductory lectures relating prevalent landscape and ecological attitudes to the context of the urban situation being studied in Design Studio 5.2/5.2a. Tutorials will develop individual and group responses to such issues by students in the context of design problems that are part of these respective units.

AR40105: History & theory of architecture 5

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take AR40099
Aims: To provide an introduction to Architectural Theory and History in the post-war period in three parts. The course will begin with an historical survey of a selection of debates from the last forty years. It will examine four themes within contemporary theory and identify proponents. The final third is to encourage individual interests and group work in history and theory.
Learning Outcomes:
The student will utilise a major theme in architectural theory and history in the critical appraisal of practice; demonstrate an understanding of the assigned texts through the description of the author's perspective and a critical appraisal of the arguments presented; and research an architectural topic of theoretical/speculative interest.
Skills:
Research. Written English.
Content:
A written paper of not more than 3,000 words will be presented with a structured argument based on material of the course. It will be complete with bibliographic references at an appropriate academic standard.

AR40106: Dissertation (MArch)

Credits: 15
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: DS100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To provide an opportunity for students to study an aspect of the history, theory or practice of architecture in depth, and to present this material primarily in written form. The dissertation is to take the form of an academic piece of writing structured with a clear argument that reaches a balanced conclusion. The dissertation should be written as a balanced review of archive material, or as a survey of a building and/or associated products. On the successful completion of this unit students will be able to demonstrate their use of written English and powers of reasoning and expression, and presentation skills in relation to the agreed topic.
Content:
Emphasis is to be placed on the cultural context of architecture, with particular to respect to the history, theory and urban design of architecture; or, on a technical aspect of architectural design or production. The dissertation is to be on a theme selected by the candidate and agreed to by the dissertation co-ordinators. It is to be written in English, have a maximum length of 8,000 words, and be illustrated as necessary. It is to be properly referenced, provided with a full bibliography and bound.

AR40107: Design studio 6.1

Credits: 9
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR20098 and take AR40098

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The exploration of architecture within a European urban context explored through Architectural Design. The unit develops skills in urban analysis acquired during units Design Studio 5.1 and 5.2, and relates the individual and group understanding of a specific urban environment (physical and cultural) to the development of a brief, which is used to shape an individual building design. On the successful completion of this unit students will be able to demonstrate through drawings, models and written reports their understanding of how the selected city was shaped by its unique history, culture and natural topography.
Content:
Collection in groups of visual, historical, social and cultural information relating to its urban development. Presentation singly, or in groups through sketch books, drawings, photographs and models of the past and present character and future potential of the area. Written documentation as necessary supportive of visual and verbal presentations.

AR40108: Design studio 6.2

Credits: 21
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Students are to demonstrate a high level of competence in the integrated design of one building type in a major European urban setting, while producing an architecturally elegant design. The course builds on knowledge acquired during unit Design Studio 5.2 (AR40099) and AR40107.
Content:
The formulation of group and/or individual design briefs using material accumulated in Urban Design Studio 1 for one building type (public or residential) in one location within the established urban context. The design is to be presented at a drawing scale not less than 1:100 through plans and sections, and supplemented by models (physical and/or computer models). The design will be developed with due regard to the technical requirements pervailing in the UK and aesthetically in accordance with the urban context being studied; and with due regard to the perceived long-term social and physical needs of the local community. Specialist expertise will be provided by visiting Architectural, Landscape, Environmental and Structural Engineering consultants.

AR40109: Design project reports

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30107 and take AR40107

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Design Project Reports will be used to explain the urban context of the European city under investigation in Urban design Studio 1 and 2a+b (AR40107 & AR40221 & AR40222, or AR40108), and to describe group and individual architectural and urban design responses to it. The unit aims to demonstrate the role of concise report writing in the presentation of architectural and urban ideas. On the successful completion of this unit students will be able to demonstrate their ability to summarise complex ideas concisely in writing and through appropriately selected images.
Content:
An illustrated A3-sized bound project report to be produced by a study group/or an individual student describing the cultural and physical context of the city as it was in the past, as it is now, and as it may be developed in the near future. An illustrated A4-sized bound project report describing the building type designed by each student and in its national, regional and local cultural and physical context.

AR40110: Management 6

Credits: 3
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR40101

Aims & Learning Objectives:
This unit aims to determine some of the principles of policy organisation, planning and control that are present in project management in the construction industry. To encourage an understanding of the present strengths and weaknesses of project management. To appreciate something of cause and effect in business practice.On completion of this unit students will be ready to enter their final Placement equipped with the fundamentals of project management, and architectural management in general.
Content:
This unit focuses, at an advanced level, on the principle concepts of project management using a series of case studies: The business system and the market, project and en terprise.The participants in the project: sponsor, leader, co-ordinator, construction etc. Management and control of time, cost and quality. Project appraisal: viability, social, economic, environmental impact. Corporate Management: strategies for development. The management of risk in project management, variability, uncertainty etc.

AR40209: History & theory of architecture 6

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR40099 and take AR40105
Aims: This Unit aims to cover topics in architectural history and theory from the Roman architect Vitruvius to the present.
Learning Outcomes: To enable the student to gain a good understanding of some of the issues and debates in the field of architectural history.
Skills: Research, historical interpretation.
Content: Issues of urban design, proportion, the use of the Orders and of human settlement are covered in a series of lectures given by experts on the staff and by visiting scholars. Particular attention is given to the urban development of Bath under the Woods, to the invention of architectural theory by Vitruvius, to the principles of Roman building, to the Renaissance treatises of Alberti and Serlio, to the work of Inigo Jones and Nicholas Hawksmoor, to Victorian public school architecture and how Catherine Bauer formed a new attitude to domestic housing.

AR40210: Conservation of historic buildings

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
An introduction to the range of philosophies and techniques concerning the repair and re-use of historic buildings, drawing on the resource of the classical city of Bath and its regional context. The unit introduces the range of tasks performed by conservation professionals from the repair of individual buildings through to the field of urban management, and describes the historic evolution of structures and the causes of, and remedies for structural defects and decay. The aim is to stimulate debate and to develop individual viewpoints on the issues raised. On the successful completion of this unit students will be able to demonstrate in essay form their knowledge of the subject covered.
Content:
Lectures and discussion include: conservation and classicism in Bath, reviewing the phases of building in Bath, and examining some of the conservation techniques that have been applied locally; the ethics and aesthetics of architectural conservation and a discussion of society's influence on the emergence of twentieth century planning and conservation law; an historical outline of structural engineering, an overview of the history of structures and structural materials; causes of damage and decay in structures; the assessment of structural defects; and repair criteria and techniques; monitoring and maintenance, techniques for ongoing care and maintenance of building structures.

AR40217: MEng dissertation (6)

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW20ES80
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR30007 and take AR30073 and take AR30077 and take AR30083

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Together with the post requisite unit, to assess the ability of students for original and individual thought and application to a substantial project/ programme of work. At the end of this preliminary unit, the student should be able to demonstrate the ability to define the objectives of a short research programme, carry out a literature review, plan a program of activity, and organise materials, equipment and facilities as required.
Content:
In conjunction with the postrequisite unit, a substantial work of research presented as a short thesis, normally entailing experimental and analytical or numerical modelling and their practical application to a researched topic This preliminary unit represents the background reading and planning for the investigation. Students are expected to have written up most of this work by the end of the unit. This preliminary unit represents the background reading and planning for the investigation. Students are expected to have written up most of this work by the end of the unit.

AR40218: MEng dissertation completion (6)

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR40217

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To assess the ability of students for original and individual thought and application to a substantial project/ programme of work. At the end of the unit, the student should be able to demonstrate the ability to design a short research programme, excecute it, and report on it.
Content:
The main part of the dissertation work, following on from the 'Dissertation' unit.

AR40246: Urban studies

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take AR40098 and After taking this module you must take AR40099
Aims: The aims of this Unit are twofold: firstly, to introduce students to: the ideas and ideals which have shaped cities; and secondly to understand the policies that govern urban design and to introduce a methodology in use to assess the architectural character and qualities of an historic UK city.
Learning Outcomes: On completion of this Unit, students will be able to make a coherent presentation through a written illustrated report on the urban form of the city and site in which their design project work is set.
Skills: Research, writing, written and visual presentation of report.
Content: The Unit introduces the ideas and ideals that have shaped European cities, and focuses on specific historic UK cities as case studies. The second part of the Unit is an assessment by students in small groups of part of an historic city using a range of analytical techniques - drawings, photographs, physical and computer models - in order to define the architectural character and quality of the area under study and in relation to the whole. The material gathered will be analysed and presented in illustrated reports in a format to be determined by the examiner.


Postgraduate Units:


AR50121: Management in construction

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50EX50
Requisites:
This module has two main themes: it looks at the various aspects of project management, from the identification and planning of a project to the post-completion phase, and it also discusses the implications of health and safety legislation to a project. Overall, the aim is to help you identify the major stages of managing a project, to examine the roles of project personnel, to explain the rationale for managing health and safety and to understand the requirements - legal and moral - placed on employers and employed alike.
Aims & Learning Objectives:

AIMS: To explain the evolution of the discipline of management; To use the concept of systems to depict the nature of the interaction between organisations and their environment; To analyse the elements of a strategic system; To focus on the people in an organisation in terms of motivation, teamwork, leadership styles and the nature of management.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Refer to workbooks 1 and 2 for detailed section learning objectives.
Content:
THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THEORIES: Historical setting, key theories and critiques the classical school, the human relations school, the systems school and the contingency school.
THE ENVIRONMENT OF ORGANISATIONS: Levels - macro environment, micro environment; Types - stable, complex, diverse, hostile; Effect of environment on the organisation and vice versa.
THE STRATEGIC SYSTEM: Main elements of strategic management: analysis, choice, implementation. Reactor and planner approaches. Decision making and management elements.
THE ORGANISATIONAL SYSTEM: Inputs, conversion processes, differentiation, integration; Structures in organisations: authority, social, power.
WHAT MOTIVATES PEOPLE: Organisations and individuals, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, two factor theory. Job characteristics.
GROUPS IN ORGANISATIONS: Purposes and types of groups, effectiveness, conflict.
LEADERSHIP: Theories: trait, style, contingency, best fit.
SECTION 8 CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTENT: Minzberg's six characteristics, Kotter's model. Nature, quantity and pace of work, agenda setting.
CONTRASTS AND CHANGE: Job types and differences, Stewart's model, managing change.

AR50122: Economics in construction

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50EX50
Requisites:
A general introduction to economics is given in terms of planned, market, and mixed economies and the schools of thought that describe them. Economics is then discussed as a factor that shapes global construction demand and output under various local conditions. The perspective moves from the world view to look at the effect on individual construction firms of such economic factors as varying costs and availability of labour and materials.
Aims & Learning Objectives:

AIMS: To explore the relevance of economics to construction in respect to marco, meso and microeconomics.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Refer to workbooks 1, 2 and 3 for detailed section learning objectives.
Content:
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS: Prevailing systems, changes in economic practice throughout the world.
MEASURES OF ACTIVITY: Economic data available nationally and internationally, GDP, GNP, PPP.
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN ECONOMICS: Role of money. Classical school, Keynesianism, monetarism.
GROWTH, CYCLES AND UNEMPLOYMENT: Reasons for cycles, links with unemployment.
SAVING, INVESTMENT, MULTIPLIER AND ACCELERATOR: Performance factors in the economy. Using construction industry to regulate overall economic performance.
INFLATION: Relationship between inflation and macroeconomics. Remedies for inflation: price and wage control, increased tax, increased competition, reduced government spending. Measuring inflation. Control of inflation.
INTERNATIONAL TRADE: Balance of payments, exchange rates.
DEMAND FOR CONSTRUCTION: Goods and services. Difference between demand and need. Influencing factors.
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OUTPUT: Output by end product, client, agencies, size, duration, geographical distribution, construction techniques used.
STRUCTURE AND SUBCONTRACTING: Structure which results from construction process.
INPUTS AND PRODUCTIVITY: Labour, management, materials, plant and equipment, finance.
GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION AND RESOURCE PLANNING: Within the economy and within the industry.
ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION: Iso product curves, aid to developing countries, economies in transition: FSU, Vietnam, China.
TYPES OF FIRM, TYPES OF BUSINESS: Housing, property development, minerals, materials, international construction.
DEMAND AND SUPPLY: Demand and supply curves.
COSTS OF THE FIRM AND MARKET SUPPLY CURVES: Cost structures and cost curves in manufacturing and construction industries.
TYPES OF MARKET SITUATION AND EQUILIBRIUM: Equilibrium and market situations (from perfect competition to monopoly).
INPUTS TO THE CONSTRUCTION FIRM: Materials, plant and equipment, labour.
CHOICE OF SPECIFIC MARKETS: Construction markets. Diversification.
ECONOMIC DECISIONS: Market economies. Planned economies.

AR50123: Construction law

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50EX50
Requisites:
Aims:
* To consider legal concepts relevant to construction contracts.
* To explore the management of construction conflict and resolution of disputes around the world.
Learning Outcomes: After completing this unit students should be able:
* To appreciate the law of contract and its relevance to construction projects and construction professionals;
* To understand the law of tort and its relevance to construction projects and professionals;
* To administer appropriate standard forms of contract on construction projects;
* To have a good understanding of a range of effective approaches to the management of conflict and resolution of disputes on construction projects.
Skills:
Intellectual skills:
* To understand and analyse taught material - taught;
* To problem solve throughout the study material with exercises and SAQs - facilititated;
Professional/Practical skills:
* Ability to apply legal concepts relevant to construction contracts - taught and assessed;
* The application of standard forms of contracts - taught and assessed;
* Ability to apply conflict resolution techniques to construction disputes - taught and assessed;
Transferable/Key skills:
* To synthesis and critically review taught material - facilitated and assessed;
* To communicate ideas, analyses in writing - facilitated and assessed.
Content:
Contracts
* Types of, terms of, privity, assignment, discharge, remedy.
Torts
* Trespass, nuisance, liability, negligence.
Standard forms of contract
* JCT, ICE, NEC.
Conflict management and dispute resolution
* Comparison of ADR techniques, negotiation, mediation process, other ADR processes.
International practice and procedures
* Overview of practices and procedures, national monographs.

AR50124: Managing human resources

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50EX50
Requisites:
Aims:
* To develop knowledge of human factors;
* To develop skills in dealing with human resources;
* To identify how we do business with people who sem to be different from ourselves;
* To propose ways in which we can deal more effectively and profitably with people of different cultures.
Learning Outcomes: After completing this unit students should be able:
* To understand and appreciate human factors and the practices and techniques of managing people;
* To deal effectively with human resources issues in their own organisations;
* To have a comprehensive understanding of the influences on construction management of national and ethnic cultures.
Skills:
Intellectual skills
* To understand and analyse taught materials - taught;
* To problem solve throughout the study material with exercises and SAQs - facilitated.
Professional/Practial skills
* Understand and apply a range of human resources management principles and techniques;
* Work with and deal more effectively and profitably with people of different cultures.
Transferable/Key skills
* To synthesis and critically review material taught - facilitated and assessed;
* To communicate ideas, analyses in writing - facilitated and assessed.
Content:
Human resources planning
* Integration of corporate planning with recruitment, training, management development, payment, industrial relations.
Personnel management
* Fragmented, decentralised nature of construction ind, growing need for personnel function.
* Selecting and recruiting.
Salary structures
* Salary levels, performance-related pay.
* Equity, job analysis. organisational objectives.
Appraisal skills
* Staff appraisal, assessment, performance.
* Appraisal methods.
Negotiation skills
* Most favoured position, recall point, bargaining.
Interviewing for selection
* Job descriptions, qualifications, experience, prejudice.
Issues for the future
* The External Environment's Effect on HRM, industrial relations in construction, women in construction.
Cultural issues
* Why the interest in culture?
* Rational organisations to work around, globalisation, the learning organisation, conflict and culture and explanation.
* What causes culture, what does culture cause. Classic studies: Durkheim, Weber. Contemporary: Kanungo confrontation.
Ethics and culture
* Culture as a state of mind, as evolutionary process, as descriptive of concrete 'sediments', as a whole way of life.
Culture diversity in construction
* Influence of culture on the internationalisation of construction.

AR50125: Pre-contract management

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50EX50
Requisites:
This module addresses the nature of the construction process and its associated business aspects, prior to the award of a construction contract to a contractor. It focuses on the business world to review forms of business finance, investment appraisal and procurement approaches. Client and contractor objectives are also discussed. Overall, the module seeks to enable you to evaluate the principles of pre-construction practice and to distinguish between the various responsibilities and roles of pre-contract construction participants.
Aims & Learning Objectives:

Aims:
* To evaluate alternative approaches to business finance and investment appraisal
* To distinguish between the various responsibilities and roles of pre-contract construction participants
* To establish and explain the primary principles of pre-contract construction practice
* To describe and compare suitable procurement approaches.
Learning Objectives: When students have completed this unit they should be able:
* To apply investment appraisal techniques to a range of investment options as a means of identifying the most prudent investment decisions
* To demonstrate an understanding of business financial accounts and methods of management accounting
* To outline the project primary participant variables involved in procurement, for clients, designers and constructors
* To appreciate the range of services that a client may need from the construction industry and the mechanism for obtaining them
* To understand the process of marketing and appreciate the importance of it for construction firms.
Content:
BUSINESS UNITS: Types, impacts on business units, takeovers and mergers, international business.
INVESTMENT APPRAISAL: Consideration of tax and inflation, rate of return, discounted payback methods, discounted cash flow yield.
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: Business performance, annual financial accounts, liquidity, investor potential.
CASHFLOW AND FINANCE: Sources of finance, break-even analysis, cash flow forecasting.
PROCUREMENT APPROACHES: Historical development, procurement participants, procurement methods and choice.
UNDERSTANDING AND ACHIEVING CLIENTS OBJECTIVES: Who the client? What are client's needs? Meeting clients needs, maintaining project coalition.
CONSTRUCTION SERVICES: Integrating services into project delivery, demolition, plant and material sectors.
MARKETING: What is marketing? Market orientation, relationship marketing, marketing strategies and mix.
BIDDING STRATEGIES: Competitive bidding processes, contractor's bidding strategies.

AR50126: Strategy in construction

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50EX50
Requisites:
This module deals with strategic management. The theoretical and practical aspects of strategy formulation and decision-making as they affect both large and small firms in the construction industry are initially reviewed. The module then reviews with the relationship between business strategy and the international business environment. The focus is on the emergence of new and existing international construction markets as a policy issue for business. Possible ways of developing effective strategies for addressing the business threats and opportunities posed are outlined.
Aims & Learning Objectives:

Aims:
* To introduce and evaluate the variety of approaches to strategy making and planning available to construction firms.
* To demonstrate the effects of a firm's size and its ability to deal with complexity and chaos in its environment on its strategy making process.
* To examine the nature and extent of the international challenge for construction firms.
* Critically assess the effectiveness of strategic policies designed for entering and surviving in international markets.
Learning Objectives: When students have completed this unit they should be able:
* To appreciate and evaluate the variey of approaches to strategy making and planning available to construction firms.
* To understand the effects of a firm's size and its ability to deal with complexity and chaos in its environment, on its strategy making process.
* To appreciate and evaluate the nature and extent of the international challenge for construction firms.
* To critically assess the effectiveness of strategic policies designed for entering and surviving in international markets.
Content:
Workbook 1: Strategic Processes, Problems and Players.
SCHOOLS OF STRATEGIC THOUGHT: Review of the established theories of strategy formulation.
STRATEGIC PROCESSES: Approaches to strategy making.
STRATEGIC DECISION-MAKING MODELS: Rational, political, institutional and anarchic models.
ENTREPRENEURS: Profile of the entrepreneur.
CHAOS AND COMPLEXITY: Introduction to these phenomena, influence on strategy.
Workbook 2: Strategies for entering the International Construction Market.
CONCEPTS AND THEORY OF THE INTERNATIONAL FIRM: Globalisation, identity and brand, multi-nationals, the theories behind markets, portfolios.
CORPORATE AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: Context of risk and reward, pros and cons of international strategy models.
OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS TO GLOBALISATION STRATEGY: Modes of development, market changes, the aid system.
CULTURAL ASPECTS: The theory, the office, the site, leadership, teamworking, training.
JOINT VENTURES: JV work, prequalification work, leading bids, leading projects.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: The increasing focus.

AR50132: Design management

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
This module is concerned with the management of design and the information needed to carry it out. It applies mainly to work on new buildings but also acknowledges the significant proportion of the national construction budget spent on repair and maintenance. You will consider the roles of all the participants as they relate to the client's needs, both before and during the construction process. Emphasis is given to the management of the various types of design information and the application of IT to the field.
Aims & Learning Objectives:

AIMS:
* To provide an overview of the design process;
* To review the past and present roles of those involved in building design;
* To analysis the management of the process and the information needs to carry it out.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Refer to workbook 1 and 2 for detailed section learning objectives.
Content:
THE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT: Unique nature of each project, Roles of participantsProblems of communication.
THE ACTIVITY OF DESIGN: explain the process of designing any object and the particular characteristics of building designexplain the differences in design responsibilities; outline the processes by which conflicts are resolved; describe influences on design decisions and effects of planning and legislation; explore alternative models of design process and contrast with current procedures and processes.
THE FLOW OF DESIGN INFORMATION: How information is communicated, Traditional and new processes; CPI and Uniclass.
MANAGEMENT OF DESIGN PRACTICES: Alternative organisations, Managing creativity, Multi-disciplinary organisations, Timesheet analysis, job costing.
ORGANISATION OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION: Current forms of project, Fast-Track construction, Design and BuildProject Management, Developments in sub-contracting.
ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION: Lessons from other industries,Computer-Integrated design, IT systems to support the above, IAI.
PROJECT DATA FLOWS: describe the various forms of digital data and their combination in multimediaselect the appropriate standards for storing alphanumeric and graphical datamanage the flow of data between the parties to a building project.
APPLICATIONS FOR PROJECT STAGES: describe the types of data used in a building project and what is, or may becomeavailable in digital formexplain how computers can aid the design processapply computer software to the costing and measurement of projects, the management of cost and time and of completed buildings.
ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS: identify which administrative systems are needed for a general office functionassess the capacity required for storage of data and types of software for database management; anticipate future developments in communications systems.
COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD): explain the use of computers for generating views and exploring from different angles; describe what complete models of buildings can provide, including presentation and production drawings, analyses and quantities; plan and manage drawing production based on standards.
COSTING AND SPECIFICATION: state when to obtain cost data and develop a cost planset up a spread sheet exercise with a simple cost plan and explore changes; explain the use of computerised bills and commercial EDI messages.
ENGINEERING DESIGN: explain how computers are used for the analysis of structural frames, elements and design systems for concrete, steel and other materialsexplain how computers are used for the analysis of heating, cooling and ventilation, design of distribution systems, sizing of plant and management.
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT: explain the use of computers in integrated accounting systems with their models for ledgers, contract costing, plant hire, stock control, subcontractors; make use of computers for project management and critical path analysis; identify future developments in robotics and project communication.
INTEGRATION OF PROJECT DATA: establish the ownership of, and liability for, electronic data in the project team; describe how electronic communications have been used on some leading projects; outline the problems of exchanging data electronically and future solutions; anticipate future information technology and its application in construction.

AR50133: Project management techniques

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
This module has two main themes: it looks at the various aspects of project management, from the identification and planning of a project to the post-completion phase, and it also discusses the implications of health and safety legislation to a project. Overall, the aim is to help you identify the major stages of managing a project, to examine the roles of project personnel, to explain the rationale for managing health and safety and to understand the requirements - legal and moral - placed on employers and employed alike.
Aims & Learning Objectives:

AIMS:
* To identify the major stages of managing a project;
* To examine the roles of project personnel;
* To explain the rationale for managing health and safety.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Refer to workbook 1 and 2 for detailed section learning objectives.
Content:
THE NATURE OF A PROJECT: What is a project?, types of projects, nature of work.
DEMAND FOR A PROJECT: Various perspectives, project sponsors.
INCEPTION: Parties to the inception phase, relationship between concept and cost.
FEASIBILITY: The feasibility study, project sponsors.
STRATEGY: Requirements of a strategy, procurement routes, project organisation and control.
PRE-CONSTRUCTION: Design management, project co-ordination, quality management.
START UP: The start up phase.
OVERVIEW OF HEALTH AND SAFETY: Rationale, hazard and risk, the risk assessment process.
CONSTRUCTION HEALTH AND SAFETY: Construction and manufacturing, reasons and cures.
CONSTRUCTION HEALTH AND SAFETY LEGISLATION: History, Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the 'six pack' regulations 1992.
CONSTRUCTION (DEISGN AND MANAGEMENT) REGULATIONS 1994:
THE COST OF ACCIDENTS: Economic costs, detailed breakdown of accidents.
CONSTRUCTION HEALTH: Occupational health hazards.
THE HUMAN FACTOR: Ergonomics, motivation, behavioural approach.

AR50134: Property development appraisal

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Overall, this module seeks to identify the principles of investment with emphasis on property as an investment medium. It reviews the process of initiating and undertaking a property development and examines evaluation techniques appropriate for assessing the investment potential of property developments. The module also identifies and examines the chief components of economic viability studies and the methods of quantifying putative economic returns. Risk analysis in the context of property development is also explored.
Aims & Learning Objectives:
AIMS:
* To identify the principles of investment with special emphasis on property as an investment medium;
* To review the process of initiating and undertaking a property development;
* To examine those evaluation techniques that are appropriate for assessing the investment potential of property development;
* To identify and examine the components of economic viability studies and the methods of quantifying the economic returns for proposed property development;
* Explore risk management in the context of property development.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Refer to workbooks 1 and 2 for detailed section learning objectives.
Content:
INTRODUCTION TO INVESTMENT: Investment principles, investment qualities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROPERTY: Nature and characteristics of property, investor diversity, capital investment qualities.
THE PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: The development period.
DESIGN ECONOMICS: Building economics, construction area costs.
EVALUATING INVESTMENT ALTERNATIVES: Investment classifications, minimum acceptable rate of return, economic evaluation criteria.
EQUIVALENCE AND THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY: Equivalence, time value of money, annuities, amortisation.
INDEX NUMBERS: Indexes, composition and construction of weighted index.
CONVENTIONAL APPRAISAL METHODS: Rate of return, simple payback method.
NET PRESENT VALUE METHODS: NPV techniques, profitability index.
INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN METHOD: IRR techniques.
COMPARISON - IRR AND NVP METHOD: Comparison, cash flow timing.
INFLATION AND INCOME TAX: Impact of inflation, income tax, depreciation.
ECONOMIC VAIABILITY STUDIES: Total capital cost outlay, gross annual income, gross annual operating expenses.
EQUITY AND DEBT RELATIONSHIPS: Financial gearing, mortgage interest rates.
RISK MANAGEMENT: Concept of risk and uncertainty, risk management

AR50135: Quantitative decision making

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
This module Many management decisions are based on figures. Vague descriptions such as 'large' or 'small', 'expensive' or 'cheap', have to be quantified so that decision-making can be placed on a rational basis. Topics include mathematical modelling, the critical path and the time value of money, as well as linear programming, transportation and mixture. Probability is addressed in terms of compound trials, mean and standard deviation, queuing and stock control.
Aims & Learning Objectives:

AIMS:
* To describe a range of methods for tackling decision-making problems;
* To assemble the data required in such problems;
* To identify the techniques need to solve them;
* To explain the problems and methods of solutions in general terms.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: When students have completed this module they should be able:
* To recognise construction management problems to which the taught methods can be applied;
* To apply these methods and techniques to successfully solve simple problems;
* To relate and apply the ideas in this module to other parts of the course.
Content:
CRITICAL PATH: Project time management methods, computer analysis.
THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY: Compound interest law, present value.
LINEAR PROGRAMMING - TRANSPORT: Transportation problems.
LINEAR PROGRAMMING - MIXTURE: Constraints and boundaries, optimal solutions, mathematical formulation.
PROBABILTY: Scale of probability, expected value, decision-making with uncertainties; Mean and standard deviation.
QUEUING: Categories of queue, simple queue, the cost of queuing, finite queues, multi-server queues.
STOCK CONTROL: Stock costs, time factors, economic batch size, variable demand and buffer stock.

AR50233: Case Studies (Construction Management)

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Three separate case studies are undertaken. Case study A relates to modules one and two, case study B to modules three and four and case study C to modules five and six.
Aims & Learning Objectives:

AIMS: To provide an opportunity for the application of learnt knowledge to a practical problem.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
* To test the students ability to apply theoretical knowledge to an applied situation;
* To encourage the assimilation and integration of cross-module material;
* To introduce the concept of problem-based learning.
Content: Case study A, B & C.

AR50234: Dissertation (Construction Management)

Credits: 30
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: DS100
Requisites:
Aims & Learning Objectives:
AIMS: To demonstrate an ability to carryout detailed research.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
* To create an effective research proposal;
* To plan, implement and undertake the proposed research methodology;
* To demonstrate an ability to analyse and interpret data in an appropriately critical and balanced fashion;
* To draw and discuss appropriate conclusions from the study;
* To demonstrate clarity of thought and quality of argument throughout the work.
Content: Research project.

AR50235: Residentials (Bath)

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: OT100
Requisites:
Aims & Learning Objectives:
AIMS:
* To introduce the course and its learning style;
* To review contemporary issues and developments in the construction industry;
* To prepare the students for undertaking a dissertation.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
* To provide opportunities to participate in group activities and develop higher level skills relevant to industry managers;
* To provide opportunities to meet staff who teach and support the course;
* To provide opportunities to obtain help with module study and revision;
* To provide networking opportunities.
Content: Introductory Workshop - 2 days; Summer School 1 - 5 days; Summer School 2 - 5 days; Dissertation Workshop - 2 days.

AR50236: Residentials (Hong Kong)

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: OT100
Requisites:
Aims & Learning Objectives:
AIMS:
* To introduce the course and its learning style;
* To review contemporary issues and developments in the construction industry;
* To prepare the students for undertaking a dissertation.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
* To provide opportunities to participate in group activities and develop higher level skills relevant to industry managers;
* To provide opportunities to meet staff who teach and support the course;
* To provide opportunities to obtain help with module study and revision;
* To provide networking opportunities.
Content: Module 1 and 2 residential - 4 days Module 3 and 4 residential - 4 days Module 5 and 6 residential - 4 days Dissertation workshop - 2 days

AR50237: Residentials (Canada)

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: OT100
Requisites:
Aims & Learning Objectives:
AIMS:
* To introduce the course and its learning style;
* To review contemporary issues and developments in the construction industry;
* To prepare the students for undertaking a dissertation.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
* To provide opportunities to participate in group activities and develop higher level skills relevant to industry managers;
* To provide opportunities to meet staff who teach and support the course;
* To provide opportunities to obtain help with module study and revision;
* To provide networking opportunities.
Content: Introduction and residential 1 - 7 days Residential 2 and dissertation workshop - 7 days

 

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