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Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Unit Catalogue 2005/06


PA10001: Chemistry of functional groups

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
After taking this unit you must take PA10008
Aims: To familiarise the student with:
a) the fundamental principles of atomic structure, molecular and intermolecular bonding and functional group recognition,
b) the principles of reaction mechanisms in organic and biochemical systems; to illustrate the importance of 3-d structure in medicinal and biological chemistry.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to describe the factors that affect the 3-dimensional shape of molecules and assign stereochemical descriptions, present suitable reaction mechanisms for the interconversion of common functional groups and outline how these groups mediate acidity, basicity and weak bonding interactions.
Skills:
Study skills (T/F); Oral communication (T/F); Working with others (T/F); Problem solving (T/F).
Content:
The topics in this unit include atomic structure and hybridisation with its implications for molecular geometry. Intramolecular covalent bonding. Intermolecular weak bonding; origins and relevance to ligand/receptor and substrate/enzyme binding. Structural factors that affect reactivity. Functional groups and their interconversion at a mechanistic level. Stereochemistry in organic and biological molecules. Central role of the carbonyl group in chemistry and biochemistry. The nature of aromaticity and the occurrence and role of aromatic nuclei in drug molecules.

PA10004: Introduction to pharmaceutical analysis

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
After taking this unit you must take PA10012
Aims: To introduce the student to the role of analysis in the pharmaceutical sciences, analytical methods used in a pharmaceutical context and their bases in theory.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to
(a) outline the theoretical backgrounds, scope and limitations of titrimetry, thin layer, gas and high performance liquid chromatography and infrared, ultraviolet and visible, fluorescence, flame emission and atomic absorbtion spectroscopy, and immunochemical methods,
(b) demonstrate a familiarity with the forms in which data from the above techniques are presented, the relevant units, constants and parameters,
(c) perform necessary calculations and data manipulations for the interpretation of results.
Skills:
Study skills, problem solving, handling information (T/F).
Content:
Thin layer, gas and high performance liquid chromatography. Electrophoretic methods. General principles of spectroscopy, vibrational and electronic types of spectroscopy. Titrimetry. Immunochemical methods.

PA10006: Learning and study skills

Credits: 3
Level: Certificate
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
Aims: To introduce the student to methods of individual and group learning and assessment, including library and web-based resources; to outline the importance of self-directed study, personal development planning and continuing professional development. To introduce the student to safe laboratory practice and to basic concepts of experimental error.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to organise effective notes; demonstrate use of library and appropriate computing facilities in the University to research and to write essays in scientific style; calculate basic statistical distributions and summarise data; work safely in a chemistry laboratory.
Skills:
Study skills, planning & organisation, handling information (T/F); Written communication (T/F/A); Information and communication technology (T/F/A); Problem solving (T/F/A); Scientific and practical skills.
Content:
Key skills including effective study and note taking. Continuing professional development. Introduction to University computer facilities. Use of electronic communications, the library and bibliographic searches. Basic word-processing and spreadsheet use. Statistical distributions, calculation of mean, median, variance, regression. Use of statistical software. Directed essay writing (in tutor groups). Laboratory classes in titrimetry.

PA10009: Instrumental analysis & spectroscopic interpretation

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX50RT50
Requisites:
Aims: Building on unit PA10004, to give the student practical experience of using a variety of analytical instruments to explore selected pharmaceutical applications; to develop data handling and interpretation skills; to introduce the student to the use of spectroscopic data in organic chemical structure elucidation, and to survey the various technologies used in medical imaging.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to:
(a) follow written and verbal instructions to use simple analytical instruments,
(b) demonstrate a familiarity with the forms in which data are presented, the relevant units and constants,
(c) perform necessary calculations and data manipulations to interpret results,
(d) draw appropriate conclusions on the basis of experimental data,
(e) present results and conclusions of a practical experiment in written and oral form,
(f) interpret spectroscopic data to identify chemical structure, and to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the techniques used in medical imaging.
Skills:
Study skills, handling information (T/F); Working with others, problem solving (T/F).
Content:
Introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry - how these techniques, along with infra-red spectra, can give access to molecular structure of organic compounds. Analytical methods used in medical imaging. Practical aspects of thin layer, gas and high performance liquid chromatography, UV-, IR-, fluorescence- and atomic absorbtion spectroscopy.

PA10014: Introduction to professional pharmacy skills

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To provide an introduction to the pharmacy profession. To introduce clinical cases through problem-based learning. To introduce and explore the principles, skills, knowledge and practices used in small-scale extemporaneous manufacture.
Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit the student should be able to give a short oral presentation based on group study of a clinical case, perform pharmaceutical calculations, extract information from core pharmacy reference sources, and extemporaneously prepare and package products for internal and external use.
Skills:
Study skills, handling information, working with others (T/F), Scientific and practical skills (T/F/A), Oral communication skills (T/F), Problem solving (T/F).
Content:
Reference sources and information gathering. Problem based learning applied to simple clinical case studies. Pharmaceutical calculations. Small-scale manufacture. History of the pharmacy profession.

PA10044: Introduction to experimental pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Certificate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW50OR25OT25
Requisites:
Aims: To familiarise the student with the principles of measurement required in experimental pharmacology; to introduce the skills required for oral communication of scientific information.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the principles of measurement applied to basic pharmacology, and the ability to give a short oral presentation.
Skills:
Study skills, planning and organisation (T/F), Written, oral communication (T/F/A), Working with others (T/F), Scientific and practical skills (T/F/A).
Content:
The topics in this unit include basic techniques and recording equipment; molarities; dose-response curves using in vitro preparations; group work on preparing and giving short oral presentations on a scientific theme.

PA10236: Molecular and cell biology

Credits: 12
Level: Certificate
Academic Year
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Aims: To introduce the student to the organisation of procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, and to provide a chemical approach to study the structure and function of cell components including amino acids, peptides and proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. To provide a chemical approach to study the structure and function of nucleic acids and their role in protein synthesis. To introduce the basic theory and practice of microbiology.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to describe the properties of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and their building blocks and to present the rationale for how such macromolecules maintain their in vivo structures and functions; demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the structure and functions of nucleic acids and their role in protein synthesis; demonstrate knowledge and understanding of prokaryotic cell structure and function to support future studies of infections, infectious diseases and their treatment, and to carry out basic practical techniques in microbiology competently and safely.
Skills:
* Working with others (T/F)
* Study skills, problem solving (T/F)
* Handling information (T/F)
* Scientific and practical skills (T/F).
Content:
An outline of cellular organisation, structure and function of major organelles and membranes in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Structure, classification, biosynthetic origins and biochemical roles of amino acids. The nature of the peptide bond and the forces which maintain primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Protein function, reactive groups, enzymes and catalysis, allostery, protein fractionation. The structure of relevant carbohydrates and lipids, and the biological role of these molecules in energy metabolism. Structure and organisation of DNA and RNA; Nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein synthesis. Introduction to microbiology: basic nomenclature, Gram-positive and -negative envelopes, peptidoglycan, endospores, microbial nutrition. Introduction to viruses. Practical microbiology.

PA10237: Molecular and cell biology with pharmacology

Credits: 12
Level: Certificate
Academic Year
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
This unit is only available to students on Natural Sciences programmes.
Aims:
To introduce the student to the organisation of procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, and to provide a chemical approach to study the structure and function of cell components including amino acids, peptides and proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. To provide a chemical approach to study the structure and function of nucleic acids and their role in protein synthesis. To introduce the student to general aspects of pharmacology and receptor theory.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to describe the properties of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and their building blocks and to present the rationale for how such macromolecules maintain their in vivo structures and functions; demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the structure and functions of nucleic acids and their role in protein synthesis; demonstrate an understanding of the principles underlying the fate of a drug molecule following administration, and the concept of a receptor as defined by classical pharmacological means.
Skills:
* Working with others (T/F)
* Study skills, problem solving (T/F)
* Handling information (T/F)
* Scientific and practical skills (T/F)
Content:
An outline of cellular organisation, structure and function of major organelles and membranes in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Structure, classification, biosynthetic origins and biochemical roles of amino acids. The nature of the peptide bond and the forces which maintain primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Protein function, reactive groups, enzymes and catalysis, allostery, protein fractionation. The structure of relevant carbohydrates and lipids, and the biological role of these molecules in energy metabolism. Structure and organisation of DNA and RNA; Nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein synthesis. Receptor theory, agonists, antagonists, measurements of potency, pA2; Examples of the above taken from blood and respiratory pharmacology.

PA10238: Physiology

Credits: 12
Level: Certificate
Academic Year
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Aims: To familiarise the student with the major physiological systems, their integration and regulation, as the basis for the study of disease mechanisms and drug actions.
Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit, the student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of the major physiological systems of the human body, and demonstrate knowledge of how the function of major organs and systems is integrated and regulated.
Skills:
* Scientific and practical skills (T/F)
* Working with others (F)
* Information and communication technology (F)
Content:
The animal cell, cell membranes, body fluid composition and compartments; Neurones - anatomy and physiology of the central and autonomic nervous systems; Blood, pH, respiration, metabolic rate, body temperature. The endocrine system; Gut motility; Muscle - physiology of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle; Cardiovascular system, the kidney, regulation of blood pressure.

PA10239: Biopharmaceutics & general pharmacology

Credits: 12
Level: Certificate
Academic Year
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Aims: To introduce students to the physico-chemical characteristics of drugs and allied entities. To explain how these are relevant to their in vivo actions, their analytical quantification in medicines and biological fluids and in the design of medicinal products. To provide a practical training in measurement of physico-chemical characteristics. To introduce the student to general aspects of pharmacology and receptor theory.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to: correctly derive formulation masses and concentrations; demonstrate an understanding of the differences and similarities in real and ideal behaviour of drugs and when the two can be approximated; demonstrate a sound appreciation of the solution properties of drugs and the impact of pH and other vehicle variants on their values; demonstrate an understanding of the processes of passive drug transport and the role of solution thermodynamics in pharmaceutical science; demonstrate an understanding of the principles underlying the fate of a drug molecule following administration, and the concept of a receptor as defined by classical pharmacological means.
Skills:
* Study skills, problem solving (T/F)
* Planning and organisation, handling information (T/F)
* Scientific and practical skills (T/F)
* Information and communication technology (T/F)
Content:
Ideal and real behaviour of drugs in the gaseous, liquid and solid state. Gas-liquid equilibria. Drug polarity and functional group effects. Crystal structure and polymorphism. Solvents and solute-solvent interactions. Concepts of activity, pH and its determination, pKw. Acid-base equilibria, pH/drug dissociation profiles, buffers. Routes of drug administration, drug absorption and distribution, an introduction to drug metabolism and excretion, pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. Buffer calculations. Drug solubility in aqueous solution, influence of pH, ionic strength and ion pairing. Partitioning, effects of molecular structure and pH. Diffusion and permeation. Introduction to solution thermodynamics. Receptor theory, agonists, antagonists, measurements of potency, pA2; Examples of the above taken from blood and respiratory pharmacology.

PA20015: Drug metabolism: a molecular approach (Medicinal & biological chemistry 4)

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW50ES50
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop the student's understanding of drug metabolism at a molecular level. The use of advanced spectroscopic techniques in chemical structure elucidation in order to explain, interpret and contrast drugs and their metabolites. After completing this unit the student should be able to: (a) demonstrate an understanding of drug metabolism; (b) examine proton and carbon 13 NMR, MS and IR spectroscopic data in order to elucidate chemical structures of unknown compounds.
Content:
Advanced and Multinuclear NMR techniques. Problem solving workshops using an integrated approach to spectroscopic structure elucidation. Introduction to drug metabolism. Calculations of drug and metabolite concentrations, and serial dilutions.

PA20016: Physiology, pathology & pharmacology 3 (Cardiovascular, renal & peripheral nervous system pharmacol)

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop an understanding of the action of drugs on the peripheral nervous system, renal and cardiovascular systems. After taking this course, the student will demonstrate an understanding of the chosen topics.
Content:
Understanding the action of drugs in the peripheral nervous system, kidney and cardiovascular systems. Physiology, pathology and pharmacology of these systems.

PA20017: Cell biology 3 (Receptors, signal transduction pathways & gene regulation)

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with the major families of receptors associated with eucaryotic cells. To introduce the components of intracellular signalling pathways from the recrptor to the cell nucleus, and to illustrate the role of these systems in regulating normal gene expression and the development of cancer. After taking this unit, the student will demonstrate an understanding of the chosen topics.
Content:
Membranes and the cytoskeleton. Receptor families, second messenger systems, Ser and Tyr protein kinases and their phosphorylation targets. Impact of signalling pathways on nuclear events, including regulation of gene expression through transcription factors. Proto-oncogenes, oncogenes and the control of cell growth.

PA20018: Medicines design 1 (Preformulation & introduction to formulation)

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: PR100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The unit aims to introduce the principles involved in the formulation of medicinal products, and present the physical and chemical basis for formulation choices. By the end of the unit, students should be able to make initial rational choices about formulation decisions.
Content:
Routes and mechanisms of drug absorption, influence of drug physico-chemical processes. Introduction to dosage forms and routes of administration. Surface phenomena. Particle sizing and micromeritics. Bulk properties of particles. Thermal analysis of materials and use of these techniques in preformulation. The chemistry of polymers, their physical properties and their uses in formulation. Rheology of pharmaceutical materials: liquids, solids and semi-solids; their characterisation and properties. The stability of prepared pharmaceuticals.

PA20019: Statistics for pharmacists & pharmacologists

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To equip students with statistical techniques appropriate to the analysis of biomedical data. After completing the course, the student will demonstrate an understanding of appropriate usage of statistical tests.
Content:
Introduction to probability. Use of statistical software. Comparing two groups. Data transformations. Student's t and non-parametric methods. Analysis of variance, multiple comparisons. Correlation, contingency tables. Analysis of bioassay data.

PA20020: Medical microbiology

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To understand the pathogenic mechanisms of infectious disease and the human host response to infection. At the completion of this unit, the student should be able to describe the innate human host defence mechanisms and provide examples of micro-organisms comprising the normal flora. They should explain and classify the key features required by micro-organisms to cause human disease and justify how the relevant prominence of virulence determinants contributes to the type of disease caused. They should demonstrate knowledge of how pathogenic organisms respond to the host and regulate virulence.
Content:
This course introduces the concept of how micro-organisms cause infectious disease. It outlines the general defence mechanisms of the human body against infection and the ways in which micro-organisms defeat these systems. A number of paradigms of infectious diseases will be used to illustrate the critical stages of pathogenesis, namely adhesion, replication, evasion of host defences and damage to the host.

PA20021: Applied pharmaceutical analysis

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: PR80CW20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop the student's understanding of sample preparation for analytical procedures and of advanced chromatographic techniques. The selection and use of analytical techniques for solving analytical problems and the presentation of results as a formal written report. After completing this unit, the student should be able to apply appropriate chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to simple pharmaceutical problems, report the results in a scientific manner and draw valid conclusions.
Content:
Sample preparation for analysis; advanced chromatographic methods. Problem solving workshops in chromatography. Radiochemical calculations. Open-ended problem solving practical mini-project utilising chromatographic, spectroscopic, volumetric or potentiometric methods.

PA20022: Biosynthetic sources of pharmaceutical materials (medicinal & biological chemistry 5)

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX90PR10
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA20015

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop the student's understanding of biosynthetic sources of pharmaceutical materials. To illustrate spectroscopic methods can be used to obtain stereochemical information and to explain the biosynthesis of drugs and secondary metabolites. After completion of this unit the student should be able to:
(a) demonstrate an awareness of natural sources of pharmaceutical materials;
(b) demonstrate an outline understanding (at the level of chemical structures and mechanisms) of major pathways of biosynthesis;
(c) demonstrate an understanding of the value of spectroscopic data in stereochemical and conformational analysis;
(d) follow biosynthetic pathways mechanistically, understanding the limits of their knowledge.
Content:
Plant and animal sources of pharmaceutical materials. Molecular aspects of biosynthetic pathways. Problem-solving workshops in stereochemical analysis using spectroscopy. Calculations of natural product concentrations and serial dilutions.

PA20023: Physiology, pathology & pharmacology 4 (Pharmacology of the central nervous system)

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
An understanding of drugs affecting the brain and spinal cord.
Content:
Physiology, pathology and pharmacology of the brain and spinal cord.

PA20024: Applied pharmaceutical microbiology (Medicines Design 2)

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce the principles of control of microbial contamination and sterilisation as applied to pharmaceutical products. After taking this unit the student should be able to: explain (I) the microbiological and physico-chemical properties of non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents and justify their use in pharmaceutical formulation and (II) the principles and the technology of the various methods of sterilising pharmaceutical products and the illustrate the associated procedures concerned with quality assurance.
Content:
Sources of microbial contamination. Kinetics of microbial inactivation and the construction and interpretation of survivor curves. Disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives; their modes of action, assessment of efficacy and formulation parameters. Introduction to sterilisation methods; comparative advantages and disadvantages of heat, irradiation, gaseous and filtration methods. Validation of all methods. Pyrogens. Sterility testing. Facility Design.

PA20025: Introduction to clinical and community pharmacy

Credits: 12
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX50PR50
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To provide an introduction to: pharmacy law, ethics and codes of professional practice: clinical pharmacy and therapeutics: practical procedures and techniques employed in pharmacy practice.
Objectives: After taking this unit the student should be able to:
1) demonstrate and apply knowledge of pharmacy law, ethics and practice, clinical pharmacy and therapeutics and the social science perspective applied to pharmacy practice;
2) identify patient and prescription problems and advise suitable solutions;
3) dispense medication and complete any necessary administration;
4) communicate with other health care professionals and with patients.
Content:
Legislation: Introduction to the structure of British Legislation. Legislation relating to the practice of Pharmacy. Legislation controlling poisons and dangerous substances. Pharmacy Practice: Principles of Good Dispensing Practice. Pharmacist's liabilities and responsibilities. Introduction to the supply of medicines. The Drug Tariff. Patient Medication Records. Pharmaceutical services to Residential and Nursing homes. Responding to symptoms. Clinical Pharmacy: Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy. Evidence Based Practice. Care Pathways. Laboratory & Biochemical Testing. Behavioural sciences: Introduction to Behavioural Science relating to the Practice of Pharmacy. Interpersonal skills. Patient Compliance.

PA20046: Experimental pharmacology 2

Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce the student to the pharmacology of the different divisions of the nervous system, the kidney and cardiovascular system.
Content:
Neuromuscular transmission and blocking agents, parasympathetic nerves, cholinergic receptors, ganglion blocking drugs and muscarinic receptor antagonists, sympathetic neurotransmission, adrenoceptors and ion channels in nerves and smooth muscle. Actions of diuretics on urinary ionic composition, inotropic and chronotropic effects of drugs on cardiac preparations, mechanisms involved in control of blood vessel diameter.

PA20047: Experimental pharmacology 3

Credits: 18
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW75PR25
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA20046

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce the student to practical techniques used to study the release, fate and actions of endogenous substances with potent biological activities on isolated cells and tissues, and those used to investigate the mechanism of action of drugs acting on the respiratory and central nervous systems with assessment of the resulting behavioural changes. To introduce the student to working in a small team. After taking this unit, the student should be familiar with the techniques (cellular, tissue, systemic) used to study the pharmacology of a range of mediators and drugs, able to design experiments and to allot tasks within a team, and to present experimental data in written form.
Content:
Illustration of the pharmacology of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, eicosanoids , nitric oxide, kinins, endothelins and platelet-activating factor using smooth muscle and platelet aggregometry. Antibody-based assays - cell surface expression, flow cytometry, immunoassays. Drug action on lung function. Neurotransmitter release from brain slices, microdialysis, behavioural changes as assessed by locomotor activity, exploratory behaviour etc.

PA20050: Biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics & variability in drug response

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX70OR15OT15
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce the causes of variablility in drug response, with emphasis on pharmacokinetic factors. To introduce the theoretical basis of pharmacokinetics and describe its uses in development of medicines and in clinical applications. After completing this unit, the student will be able to describe the theory underlying the practice of pharmacokinetics, interpret pharmacokinetic data, and perform basic pharmacokinetic analysis of clinical data.
Content:
Sources of variablilty in drug response and options for monitoring and improving the quality of drug therapy. Mechanisms of drug absorption, distribution and elimination, and the factors with affect each process. Pharmacokinetic modelling: mathematical methods and uses of various strategies. Effect of genetics, age, weight, and disease on pharmacokinetics. Case studies of clinical pharmacokinetic alanyses to aid understanding of differences in drug activity. Scope of existing knowledge of biopharmaceutics and clinical pharmacokinetics in man.

PA20122: Industrial placement

Credits: 60
Level: Intermediate
Academic Year
Assessment:
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Please see the Director of Studies for further information about the industrial placement year.

PA20138: Recombinant DNA technology - pharmaceutical applications

Credits: 3
Level: Intermediate
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The unit provides a basic understanding of recombinant DNA technology for application in molecular pharmacology, the molecular basis of disease including infectious disease, production of recombinant proteins as pharmaceutical products and as general tools in biological research, gene therapy. After taking this unit, the student will have a basic understanding of gene cloning and associated technical procedures and an appreciation of applications of this technology in pharmaceutical and medicinal science.
Content:
DNA vectors, including plasmids and viral vectors, genomic DNA and cDNA libraries. Manipulation of DNA including the use of restriction enzymes. Agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing, hybridisation techniques, polymerase chain reaction.

PA30028: Inflammation

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Aims: To introduce the inflammatory process and its role in health and disease. To illustrate the importance of inflammation in the pathology of arthritis, atherosclerosis and airways disease. To describe the pharmacology of current anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat these conditions.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit the student should be able to describe the factors that mediate the inflammatory process in health and in a range of disease states, and to demontrate knowledge and understanding of the pharmacology of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Skills:
Oral communication (T/F).
Content:
The topics in this unit include mechanisms of acute and chronic inflammation, the role of the inflammatory process in joint, vascular and respiratory diseases and the actions of major families of anti-inflammatory drugs used in their treatment.

PA30029: Endocrinology

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
While taking this unit you must take PA30028

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce the student to the functioning of the major endocrine glands in health and disease. After taking the course the student will be able to identify the major endocrine glands, describe the regulatory networks that control their activity and demonstrate an understanding of the mode of action of hormones in their target tissues. In addition, he or she will be able to describe the clinical consequences and management of endocrine diseases resulting from the hypersecretion and hyposecretion of hormones (primary and secondary in each case) and from end-organ hyporesponsiveness and hyperresponsiveness.
Content:
Overview of the endocrine system, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, endocrine function of the adrenal medulla, endocrine function of the adrenal cortex, the thyroid gland, reproductive endocrinology, endocrine function of the pancreas, hormones of the gastrointestinal tract, hormonal control of calcium metabolism.

PA30032: Clinical pharmacy & pharmacy practice 4 (developments in community pharmacy)

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To build on and extend the range of knowledge and skills acquired in Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Practice 1-3.
Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit, the student should be able to: critically review the legality, appropriateness of therapy and dosage and the risk of potential drug interactions in proposed patient therapy; to extemporaneously prepare simple products for internal and external use; apply the ethical decision-making model to ethical dilemmas; communicate with patients, their carers and representatives; discuss patients' therapy with prescribers; assess the appropriateness of counter-prescribed OTC medicines; be able to describe the concept of clinical governance and state its importance to pharmacy within the NHS; be able to respond to symptoms of opthalmic disorders, and infestations.
Content:
Legislation: NHS Acts. Practice: Developments in Pharmacy Practice. The RPSGB. Professional ethics. NHS information technology developments. The practical course widens the student's experience of clinical pharmacy with more complex patient histories. Practical skills are further developed using a variety of extemporaneous formulary and magistral exercises.

PA30034: Pharmacy practice 3

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA20025 and take PA30032

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To encourage continued study and application of knowledge and skills to pharmacy practice scenarios.Learning objectives: Literature review of current practice (evidence based practice); Develop treatment and outcome protocols; Management of patient case scenarios. Outline: Patient management problems will be presented in the form of case scenarios. The patient will transfer between primary and secondary care, thus encouraging the student to investigate the opportunities for the pharmacist to improve seamless care.
Content:
Patient management problems (PMPs). Each step in the patient's treatment will require some course of action by the student, either a literature review of current practice, answering short answer questions or providing an outline of proposed action in the form of a treatment protocol.

PA30035: Dissertation in pharmacy

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: DS80OR20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of the unit is that the students gain skills in conducting a literature survey on a chosen topic, reviewing their findings and presenting them orally and in a well-organised piece of writing. When the students have completed the unit, they should be able to:
1. Use methods of searching for information, papers and reviews on a pharmaceutically related topic in a library and in electronic media.
2. Analyse, evaluate and critically review this information.
3. Assess the reliability and importance of individual pieces of information according to their source and relevance to the topic.
4. Draw conclusion from the information collected.
5. Prepare and construct an organised, well-argued and concise written dissertation.
6. Prepare, produce and present a short oral presentation, including appropriate responses to oral questions from peers.
Content:
A topic related to the science and practice of pharmacy will be chosen by each student from a list provided. A tutor will be assigned to each student to monitor progress, give advice and assess the dissertation and oral presentation. One lecture will be given to all the students to introduce the unit and to give general guidance on planning library work, assessing the quality and relevance of data, preparing the oral presentation and writing the dissertation. Three tutorials will be given by the tutors to assigned groups of students; in these tutorials, the student will be given further guidance and their progress will be monitored.

PA30052: Anti-microbial chemotherapy

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must (take PA10003 and take PA10011) or (take BB10005 and take BB10006)

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of this half-unit is to familiarise the student with the molecular actions of antibiotics, anti-viral and anti-protozoal drugs, and to identify the molecular basis for the target selectivity of these agents. After taking this unit, the student will have acquired knowledge of the pharmacology of these drug classes, and an outline of their clinical use.
Content:
Antibiotic treatment, modes of action and resistance including penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, b-lactamase inhibitors, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, 4-quinolones, vancomycin and fusidic acid and anti-tuberculosis agents. Antiviral drugs, treatment of Herpes, Varicella and HIV. Treatment of protozoal infections, including malaria.

PA30055: Project

Credits: 18
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: RT100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of this unit is to allow the student to develop practical research skills. At the end of the unit the student should be able to demonstrate an ability to generate original data, to analyse the data appropriately and to present conclusions drawn from the data.
Content:
The student will be offered a choice of research project from a wide range of topics in pharmacology.

PA30126: Placement (MPharmacology)

Credits: 48
Level: Honours
Academic Year
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of this unit is to allow the student to develop practical research skills. At the end of the unit the student should be able to demonstrate an ability to generate original data, to analyse the data appropriately and to present conclusions drawn from the data.
Content:
The student will undertake a research project in the laboratories of the placement provider. The results of this project will be presented as a written report and as an oral communication.

PA30127: Dissertation

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: DS100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of this unit is to allow the student to undertake a structured piece of library-based research, and to present the findings in an extended written form. At the end of the unit the student should be able to demonstrate an ability to acquire information from library sources, to assimilate and collate such information and to present a coherent account of the topic in the form of a dissertation.
Content:
The student will undertake this unit using the facilities of the placement provider, and with the advice and support of the placement supervisor. The subject of the dissertation will reflect the research activities of the placement, but may involve technological developments or therapeutic opportunities within a given area of pharmacological interest.

PA30128: Landmarks in Pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of this unit is to allow the student to appreciate the scientific background to specific areas of pharmacology, and to evaluate the significance of particular experimental approaches to the development of current understanding of pharmacology. At the end of the unit the student should be able to demonstrate an ability to analyse seminal findings from early pharmacological literature, and to appreciate the relevance of historical observations to current areas of research in pharmacology.
Content:
The student will undertake this unit using the facilities of the placement provider, and with the advice and support of the placement supervisor. The subjects of the essays may in part reflect the research activities of the placement, but will emphasise the historical significance of specific experiments and published reports within given areas of pharmacological interest.

PA30140: Critical and communicative skills in pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX80ES20
Requisites:
Aims: The aim of this unit is to develop cognitive and transferable skills through critical analysis and interpretation of research publications in pharmacology, and by the practice of oral and written communication of scientific information.
Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit, the student should be able to demonstrate an ability to identify the key points and conclusions of research papers, and to interpret research findings in a logical and critical manner. The student will also have undertaken exercises in verbal and written communication.
Skills:
* Study skills, handling information and data interpretation (T/F/A)
* Oral communication (T/F)
* Written communication (T/F/A)
Content:
Exercises in rapid analysis of scientific literature to identify key findings; more measured critical analysis of sample papers, with a written commentary of key conclusions and their validity; essays on selected topics in pharmacology; Viva voce exercise based on project results and/or other scientific data.

PA30141: Advanced experimental pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA20046 and take PA20047

Aims & Learning Objectives:
to introduce the student to more advanced practical techniques used to evaluate 3 areas of current research interest in pharmacology, and to promote team interactions in acquiring and integrating complementary data. After taking this unit, the student will demonstate an understanding of the methods available to study drug effects in the chosen areas, and an ability to work within a small team to generate a pool of related experimental data for further analysis.
Content:
Three blocks of linked practical classes, each introduced by a single lecture, and each offering a series of techniques relevant to a current research topic within the pharmaceutical industry.

PA30142: Molecular pharmacology

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop knowledge and understanding of techniques in molecular biology and their applicability to problems in pharmacological research. After taking this course, the student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of commonly used techniques in molecular biology, and to appreciate the relevance of this molecular approach to research in pharmacology.
Content:
Gene manipulation - the polymerase chain reaction, site-directed mutagenesis, expression systems. Generation of cellular reagents for high throughput screening of drug candidates. Genomics and microarrays. Transgenic animal models, gene targeting and therapy.

PA30143: Practical medicinal and biological chemistry

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES20PR80
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce students to fundamental aspects of the practical procedures involved in the synthesis of biologically active small molecules. An emphasis will be upon functional group recognition and interchange, and we will also illustrate the importance of the 3-dimensional structure in medicinal and biological chemistry. To report the results of a practical investigation in poster form. After taking this Unit the student should be able to evaluate and analyse the factors involved in simple synthetic transformations of common functional groups and also compare and contrast the 3-dimensional shapes of molecules with respect to their functional groups.
Content:
The topics covered in this practical course include a systematic understanding of key aspects of structural factors that affect reactivity, functional groups and their interconversion at practical and mechanistic levels, and stereochemistry in pharmaceutical and biological molecules. Preparation and analysis of drugs and their synthetic intermediates will be carried out. Successful students will have demonstrated an ability accurately to deploy established techniques of analysis and synthesis.

PA30144: Experimental pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW20PR20OT60
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with the methods used to measure functional pharmacological responses and to develop skills in using these techniques to study the systematic pharmacology of different organs within the body and in presenting scientific data in report and poster format. After taking this unit, the student should demonstrate (1) an understanding of the pharmacological techniques used to study the actions of drugs in the kidney and in intestinal, bronchial and vascular smooth muscle and (2) an ability to write a scientific report and to plan, prepare and present a scientific poster.
Content:
Methods of measurement in pharmacology; actions of diuretic drugs on urinary levels of sodium, potassium and hydrogen; influence of route of administration of a drug on its onset and duration of action; agonist and antagonist response curves; actions of drugs on vascular, cardiac and respiratory smooth muscle.

PA30145: Practical pharmacognosy and the analysis of natural products

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES20PR80
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce students to the practical procedures involved in the evaluation of crude drugs, the extraction and chemical characterisation of low molecular weight compounds of natural origin. To report the results of a practical investigation in poster form. After taking this Unit the student should be able to
(a) carry out a microscopical and chromatographic evaluation of a dried plant material,
(b) demonstrate familiarity with the methods available for the extraction and isolation of low molecular weight compounds from natural sources;
(c) be able to elucidate the chemical structure of simple natural products from spectroscopic data;
(d) evaluate a scientific paper in the field, and
(e) the student will produce a simple and informative scientific poster based upon a short practical investigation of a natural material.
Content:
Identification of plant materials using microscopical techniques. Extraction techniques including solvent extractions, steam distillation, acid/base cycles. Separation techniques including thin layer and column chromatography, gas chromatography and GC/MS. Chemical structure elucidation of natural products. Choice of methodology for specific examples. Poster design and preparation.

PA30146: Practical pharmaceutics

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW60OT40
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To challenge students to solve typical problems of pharmecutical formulation, giving them experience of team work, poster presentation, experimental design, analytical methods in formulation, selection of criteria for optimisation, and establishment of specifications for pharmecutical products. After attending the course, students should be able to identify key issues in formulation of typical medicines, design a strategy for pre-formulation research, carry out such research, draw conclusions from the results, present those data in poster format and make recommendations for future work.
Content:
Students will work in small groups to study a number of formulation problems during the unit. Each week will involve preparation/tutorial work followed by practical work. Each group of students will study all problems during the course, and will be required to present a poster-style report on one of their projects, at the end of the unit. Formulation exercises will be selected from examples such as the following: dermatological gel formulation (including use of co-solvents, rheological analysis, preservation); cream formulation (inclusion of drugs, volume ratio of oil, rheological analysis, preservation); tablet formulation (wet granulation, compression conditions); opthalmic solutions (drug stability, buffering, isotonicity); parenteral solution formulation (as opthalmic); suspension formulation (wetting, flocculation, physical stability).

PA30147: Design of drug synthesis (synthetic design)

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX60OR40
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA10001 and take PA10008

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To introduce students to fundamental aspects of the design of drug syntheses. An emphasis will be upon functional group recognition and interchange, and planning of synthetic routes.After taking this unit, the student should be able to:
1. Demonstrate an understanding of the factors involved in planning synthetic approaches to drugs by simple synthetic transformations of common functional groups.
2. Use the retrosynthetic method to design syntheses of common drugs and related compounds. Evaluate and analyse a scientific paper or chemical synthesis and to present this critical review orally.
Content:
The topics in this course include the need for good synthetic planning, retrosynthetic analysis, and disconnections at appropriate functional groups.

PA30148: Central nervous system pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with recent advances in the pharmacology of the central nervous system (CNS), and to examine selected topics in greater depth. After taking this unit, the student should demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses of the major groups of centrally-acting drugs, and an appreciation of the current understanding of disease processes in the brain.
Content:
Selected topics covering recent advances in CNS pharmacology, such as: chronobiology and chronopharmacology, the rhythmicity of pathological processes and drug responses, jet lag, shift work, seasonal affective disorder. Neuromodulators and neurotransmitters including tachykinins, pancreatic polypeptides, opioids, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and oxytocin, abnormal peptides in Alzheimers disease.

PA30150: Cardiovascular pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with recent advances in cardiovascular pharmacology and current areas of research of particular importance and interest. After taking this unit, the student should demonstrate an understanding of the regulation of vascular smooth muscle and its modulation by drugs, occlusive vascular disease and targets for future drug development.
Content:
Selected topics covering recent advances in cardiovascular pharmacology, such as: regulation of blood vessel tone, calcium and potassium channels, endothelium-derived vasorelaxant factors. Vascular disease, including stroke and pulmonary hypertension; Angiogenesis.

PA30151: Medicinal uses of natural products

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
After completing this unit the student should be able to:
(a) select natural product examples to illustrate the relation of chemical structur to activity or function in drug compounds and pharmaceutical excipients;
(b) use examples from herbal medicine to illustrate the value of evidence based practice;
(c) show how natural substances may be modified chemically in order to modify biological activity;
(d) show how natural substances may form valuable 'lead components' in medicial chemistry.
Content:
Selected topics such as: natural product drugs in the British Pharmacopoeia, natural substances as pharmaceutical excipients, herbal medicines from European and Oriental perspectives and their chemical constituents, pharmaceutically useful agents from the terpenoid and other biosynthetic pathways, insecticidal natural products, large scale production of natural products for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

PA30152: Molecular biology and drug design

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW20EX80
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To build upon earlier material from Recombinant DNA Technology to demonstrate how the techniques and knowledge base of molecular biology is changing the practice of drug discovery. After completing this unit, the student will be able to demonstrate an understanding of molecular cloning and associated methodology, genomics, methods for structural characterisation of macromolecules, development of assays for target molecules, bioinformatics, use of arrays of molecules, and the current practice of drug discovery utilising molecular biological techniques.
Content:
Introduction to genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics; strategies and methods for cloning genes (ie within superfamilies); strategies for identification of molecular targets; use of databases for drug design and discovery; uses of arrays of biological molecules (eg gene chips); basic principles of structural biology: typical motifs within proteins; introduction to X-ray crystallography; NMR of proteins and nucleic acids; MS techniques in protein analysis; structural studies of ligand-protein binding, molecular modelling of drug-protein interactions; DNA recognition; transcriptional activation; phage display libraries; evolutionary techniques; population genetics and pharmacogenomics; design of high throughput screening systems; interface with chemical structure-based discovery approaches.

PA30153: Respiratory pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with recent advances in respiratory pharmacology and current areas of research of particular importance and interest. After taking this unit the student should demonstrate an understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of lung disease and targets for pharmacological intervention.
Content:
Selected topics covering recent developments in the understanding of respiratory diseases and identification of new pharmacological targets, such as: Cystic Fibrosis: molecular biology and regulation of CFTR, relationship between CFTR and disease, pharmacological regulation of CFTR, host defence in cystic fibrosis. Asthma: chemical and cellular mediators, neuronal control of the airways, new and prospective treatments. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: gene transcription and potential for therapy. Pulmonary hypertension and oedema, hypoxia and anoxia: mechanisms and pharmacological targets

PA30157: The molecular biology and treatment of cancer

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA20017
Aims: To familiarise the student with recent advances in molecular and cellular processes underlying tumour development and its treatment.
Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this unit, the student should be able to demonstrate a systematic understanding of the disease process in cancer, and the complexity of its treatment, and to apply this knowledge to resolve conflicting issues and thus identify and evaluate rational treatment in their professional practice.
Skills:
Handling information (F/A), Problem solving (T/F/A).
Content:
Epidemiological studies of cancer and a recognition of how this approach retains validity. Chemical mutagenesis. Cellular biology of tumour development including apoptosis, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. The molecular mechanisms of action of the major classes of medicines currently in use and their shortcomings. Immunotherapy and immunotoxins as therapeutic agents. The clinical setting; palliative or curative treatment, relationship to surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, risk-benefit analysis and an awareness of the CRM Guidelines on safe handling of cytotoxic agents.

PA30168: Immunopharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To extend the students knowledge of the immune system to include the various target cells and molecules that are being investigated for their potential therapeutic use in diseases characterised either by inadequate or excessive immune reactivity. After completing this unit, the student will have acquired knowledge of the current situation regarding therapeutic intervention to modulate the immune response, the most important target structures and the impact of immunotherapy in treating autoimmunity, cancer and immunodeficiencies.
Content:
Identification of potential drug targets in the immune system - antigen specific/non-specific. Monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics, immunotoxins. Inhibitory cytokines, cytokine inhibitors. Inhibitors of T cell signalling, antioxidants. Th1/Th2 cells, costimulation, anergy, apoptosis. Apoptosis induction in treating cancer. Class II MHC blockade, altered peptide ligands, T cell receptor vaccination. Tolerance induction, oral tolerance. Treatment of autoimmune diseases.

PA30169: Molecular signalling

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA30142

Aims & Learning Objectives:
This unit will familiarise the student with aspects of molecular signalling and current areas of research which are of particular interest and importance. Knowledge gained from previous units in cell biology, and in particular molecular pharmacology, will be built on with more advanced and specialised treatment of specific topics encompassing cellular signalling events in different model systems. After taking this unit the student should demonstrate an understanding of different cellular signalling mechanisms.
Content:
Selected topics covering recent advances in molecular signalling. The areas to be covered include signalling events occuring in immune cells in response to cytokines and other mediators; protein interaction modules; kinase cascades; tyrosine kinases; tyrosine phosphatases; lipid signalling; regulation of transcription.

PA30171: Infections

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: ES50EX50
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA20020

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with the major infections and their treatment with anti-microbial agents. After completing the unit, it is expected that the learner should be able to evaluate the clinical presentation of infectious diseases and justify and defend their treatment with antimicrobial agents. The student should be able to compare and contrast the different antimicrobial agents, question their usage and critically assess the impact of antibiotic resistance.
Content:
Bacterial infections including those caused by Staphylococcus sp, Streptococcus sp, Clostridium sp, Neisseria sp., Enterobacterial species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium sp. Antibiotic treatment, modes of action, resistance and clinical usage including penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, b-lactamase inhibitors, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, 4-quinolones, vancomycin and fusidic acid and anti-tuberculosis agents. Viral infections and their treatment including Herpes, Varicella and HIV. Fungal infections including dermatophytes and Candida albicans and treatment with amphotericin and azole agents. Treatment of protozoal infections including malaria. Helminths and arthropods. Anti-microbial susceptibility/pharmacokinetics will be investigated in the practicals and workshops.

PA30172: Formulation of solid dose, liquid & semi solid medications & aseptic processing (Medicines Design 3)

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA20018 and take PA20024

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To provide an overview of aseptic processing and associated quality assurance systems. Illustrate the importance of isotonicity in liquid dosage forms. Examine the principles of the formulation of solid dose, liquid and semi-solid medications. Learning
Objectives: At the end of the unit the student will be able to i) prepare and compare formulations used in emulsions and creams, ii) explain the underlying physicochemical principles involved in the formulation of aqueous solution of drugs, emulsions, creams, parenterals and opthalmics, iii) evaluate the physical and chemical basis for the choice of particular solid dose formulated systems, iv) process a request for a parenteral dose, v) appraise aseptic techniques and, vi) apply a quality assurance system to aseptic processing.
Content:
Milling, mixing, granulation and drying in the production of solid dose pharmaceuticals. Direct compression tablet production, formulation of tablets for wet and dry granulation, the physics of tablet compaction, and capsule production. Coating: sugar coating, polymer film coating and controlled release coating. Making aseptic products and their assessment using clinical checks and broth fill validation. QA systems, including environmental monitoring, approved procedures and QC checks. Osmosis and isotonicity adjustments. Formulation and preparation of emulsions and creams. Production of opthalmics and parenterals. Organoleptics and solubility in liquid doses.

PA30173: Pharmaceutical development and manufacturing

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA20024 and take PA30172

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To develop further understanding of the role of pharmaceutical research and development in the manufacture and marketing of medicines. To review the industrial development and optimisation of liquid, semi-solid and parenteral products. After completing the course the student will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the role and practice of pharmaceutical R&D in an industrial context, and discuss technical R&D issues in relation to development of liquid, semi-solid and parenteral products.
Content:
Review of the drug development process; clinical trials design; interaction of research and development with clinical trials and toxicology programmes; regulation of pharmaceuticals; GMP issues; data and information management; pharmaco-economic issues in drug development; dosage form design; review of excipients for liquid and semi-solid products; controlling the performance of dermatological formulations; parenteral production issues; case studies in liquid and semi-solid formulation.

PA30174: Clinical pharmacy & pharmacy practice: health education

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim :To develop the concept of health education as a method of achieving a reduction in patient morbidity and mortality. Objectives:On successful completion of this Unit, the student will have a systematic understanding of basic health education theory and methods; evaluate the pharmacist's role in health education; demonstrate the health education needs of particular patient groups; and demonstrate how to run a questionnaire-based study relevant to the content of the Unit.
Content:
Health education theory and methods. The pharmacist's role. Drug misuse. Health and travel. HIV / sexual health. Coronary heart disease prevention. Nutrition. Mental health. Health education for special patient groups. Practice research methodology applied to health education.

PA30179: Practical clinical pharmacy

Credits: 3
Level: Honours
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA10014 and take PA20025 and while taking this unit you must take PA30032 and take PA30034 and take and take PA40038 and take PA40041

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To build on and extend the range of knowledge and skills acquired in PA10014 and PA20025 and apply this to case studies in class and in practice on placement.
Objectives: After taking this unit, the student should be able to:
(1) Prepare appropriate pharmaceutical care plans for patients. This includes: review of prescriptions and medication charts; review of case studies followed by comment and action on the appropriateness of therapy and dosage, the risk of potential drug interactions and adverse drug reactions.
(2) Describe the role of the pharmacist in practice based on their placement experience.
(3) Recognise effective communication methods for use with patients and healthcare professionals.
(4) Summarise key facts relating to supplementary prescribing by pharmacists.
Content:
Lectures: Ten lectures to introduce students to the unit, give an overview of supplementary prescribing, inform students on the therapeutic areas studied in class and the role of specialist pharmacists in these areas. Outside speakers deliver some of these lectures. Practicals: 4 x 2 hour practical classes to study patient scenarios presented on video and develop care plans for these patients. Clinical Placement Scheme: to provide practical experience of real life pharmacy practice.

PA30180: Placement (MPharm)

Credits: 24
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of this unit is to allow the student to experience pharmaceutical education and practice in an overseas country. After completing the unit the students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of pharmacy education and practice in the host country.
Content:
The student will spend approximately 12 weeks in an overseas School of Pharmacy. During this time they will, under the supervision of an approved tutor, either (a) participate in a research project in the laboratories of the placement provider, or (b) participate in an exercise in pharmacy practice, or (c) undertake any other pharmaceutical activity designated by the host tutor and approved by the Department Courses Committee at Bath.

PA30222: Pharmacology dissertation for Natural Sciences

Credits: 12
Level: Honours
Academic Year
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: The aim of the unit is that the students gain skills in conducting a literature survey on a chosen topic, collating and reviewing their findings and presenting them both as a short oral mini-lecture and in a well-organised piece of writing.
Learning Outcomes:
When the student have completed the unit, they should be able to: use methods of searching for information on a pharmacologically related topic in a library and other information sources, critically review this information and assess the reliability and importance of individual pieces of information according to their source and relevance to the topic, construct an organised, well argued and concise dissertation using this information, give a short oral presentation based on the dissertation material.
Skills:
Planning and organisation (T/F/A), Study skills (F), Information and communication technology (T/F/A), Written communication (T/F/A), Oral communication (T/F/A).
Content:
A topic related to the science of pharmacology will be chosen by each student from a list provided. A tutor will be assigned to each student to monitor progress, give advice and assess the dissertation and oral presentation. An introductory lecture will be give to all the students to give general guidance on planning library and electronic database work, assessing the quality and relevance of data and writing the dissertation. Three tutorials will be given by the tutors to assigned groups of students; in these tutorials, the student will be given further guidance and their progress will be monitored.

PA30231: Research methods in pharmacy practice

Credits: 6
Level: Honours
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX50CW50
Requisites:
Aims: To familiarise students with a range of research methods used in pharmacy practice research, and to develop the appropriate critical and communicative skills both to evaluate published research and prepare an original research protocol.
Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the unit, the student should be able to:
a) demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the theory underpinning a range of common research methods,
b) justify the choice of appropriate research methodology, including ethical considerations, in a number of scenarios taken from pharmacy practice,
c) design and produce a research protocol.
Skills:
* Study skills, problem solving, data handling (T/F)
* Oral and written communication (T/F/A)
* Information and communication technology skills (T/F)
Content:
Qualitative and quantitative research, the research process, critical evaluation of research literature, ethical considerations, questionnaire design and construction, research significance including appropriate statistics, the interview process, focus groups, the analysis of text-based qualitative data.

PA40036: Medicines design 4 (Solid state formulation & pulmonary delivery)

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To demonstrate the need for aseptic processing, methods of validation and assessing technique. To show how solid dose medications and inhaled systems are formulated and to give a physical and chemical basis for the choice of particular formulated systems. On completing this unit, the student will demonstrate an understanding of the processes involved in generating solid dose pharmaceuticals and the various means of formulating such materials.
Content:
The need for aseptic processing, and the systems of work employed, including QA and QC. The students will be taught aseptic technique which will be assessed by broth fill and quantitative analysis of a CIVAS exercise. processing techniques common to the production of solid dose pharmaceuticals: milling, mixing, granulation and drying. The physics of tablet compaction. Direct compression tablet compaction. Formualtion of tablets for wet and dry granulation. Techniques of capsule production. Coating: sugar coating, polymer film coating and coatings for controlled release. Controlled release: physiological basis and need. Controlled oral release achieved by matrix, film coated and osmotic systems. Formulation of pMDI, DPI and nebulisable formulations.

PA40037: Further developments in professional pharmacy

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX50PR50
Requisites:
Aims: To integrate and further develop the knowledge and skills acquired in earlier Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice Units and to evaluate critically current and future developments in Pharmacy practice.
Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit, the student should be able to: Demonstrate the application of pharmaceutical knowledge, behavioural science and legislation to professional practice, as a prerequisite to commencing pre-registration training and, in due course, application for admission to the Register of Pharmaceutical Chemists in Great Britain.
Skills:
Study skills, problem solving, data handling (T/F/A). Oral and written communication (T/F/A). Information and communication technology skills (T/F).
Content:
Pharmaceutical Organisations The Profession of Pharmacy. Current and future developments in Pharmacy Practice. Case studies in Pharmaceutical Legislation. The practical course addresses more complex practice scenarios, building on experience gained in Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice Units in years 2, & 3. Revision of Practice and Legislation covered to date.

PA40038: Clinical pharmacy & therapeutics A

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:
Aims: To integrate and develop further the knowledge and skills acquired in earlier Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice Units and to evaluate critically current and future developments in Clinical Pharmacy.
Learning Outcomes:
After completing this unit, the student should be able to: relate aspects of prior knowledge from years 1 to 3 to the developing pharmaco-therapeutic knowledge gained in this unit; critically evaluate current treatment guidelines and then develop, design and manage a patient care plan for medicines and medicines review; solve complex patient care problems and be able to defend and justify the selected treatment chosen to peers and members of the multidisciplinary healthcare team; develop the interpersonal communication skills necessary to interview a patient; elicit information from several healthcare sources and prepare a pharmaceutical care plan; develop a holistic approach to patient care including an appreciation of integrated and interprofessional care; demonstrate self-direction and continue to advance their knowledge and understanding to high levels; demonstrate the qualities and transferable skills necessary for employment requiring the exercise of initiative and personal responsibility, decision-making in complex situations and the independent learning ability required for continuing professional development.
Skills:
Study skills, problem solving, data handling (T/F/A). Oral and written communication (T/F/A). Information and communication technology skills (T/F)
Content:
Lectures & Workshops: Topics selected from the following: Clinical Ethics, GI Disorders & Nutrition, Renal Medicine, Coagulation, Surgery & Thromboprophylaxis, Paediatric Medicine, Respiratory Disease, Diabetes, Liver Disease, Acute & Chronic Pain Control, Eldery care, Anaesthesia & ITU, Wound Care, Dermatology, Cardiovascular disease, Risk management, Critical appraisal skills, Cancer Care, Hormonal Contraception.
Ward-based teaching: Medical Specialties x 3.

PA40039: Project 1

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
After taking this unit you must take PA40042

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of the unit is that the student gain skills in setting up an hypothesis and in devizing experiments designed to test that hypothesis. At the end of the unit the student should be able to present and explain the background to the chosen research area, formulate the hypothesis to be addressed and select the means by which it is to be tested
Content:
A wide range of project topics will be made available from which the student will chose one and work as part of a small team.

PA40040: Advanced pharmaceutical studies

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To provide an opportunity to integrate selected areas of pharmaceutical interest in depth; to structure and formulate the relationships between specialised subject areas and their wider relevance in the world of pharmaceutical science. At the end of the unit, the student will be able to evaluate critically current research and advanced scholarship, develop critiques of them, integrating knowledge gained from all aspects of the M.Pharm course, making sound judgements in the absence of complete data.
Content:
Areas of topical or potential interest in the pharmaceutical and related sciences will be chosen for study. The nature of the course dictates that the topics chosen will change from year to year. It is proposed to introduce each topic by means of an invited lecture or structured symposium; the subject will be further explored by directed student-centred learning, including the use of informal debates and formal small group tutorials.

PA40041: Clinical pharmacy & therapeutics B

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX60CW40
Requisites:
Aims: To integrate and develop further the knowledge and skills acquired in earlier Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice Units and to evaluate critically current and future developments in Clinical Pharmacy.
Learning Outcomes:
After completing this unit, the student should be able to: relate aspects of prior knowledge from years 1 to 3 to the developing pharmaco-therapeutic knowledge gained in this unit; critically evaluate current treatment guidelines and then develop, design and manage a patient care plan for medicines and medicines review; solve complex patient care problems and be able to defend and justify the selected treatment chosen to peers and members of the multidisciplinary healthcare team; develop the interpersonal communication skills necessary to interview a patient; elicit information from several healthcare sources and prepare a pharmaceutical care plan; develop a holistic approach to patient care including an appreciation of integrated and interprofessional care; demonstrate self-direction and continue to advance their knowledge and understanding to high levels; demonstrate the qualities and transferable skills necessary for employment requiring the exercise of initiative and personal responsibility, decision-making in complex situations and the independent learning ability required for continuing professional development.
Skills:
Study skills, problem solving, data handling (T/F/A). Oral and written communication (T/F/A). Information and communication technology skills (T/F).
Content:
Lectures & Workshops: Topics selected from the following: Clinical Ethics, GI Disorders & Nutrition, Renal Medicine, Coagulation, Surgery & Thromboprophylaxis, Paediatric Medicine, Respiratory Disease, Diabetes, Liver Disease, Acute & Chronic Pain Control, Eldery care, Anaesthesia & ITU, Wound Care, Dermatology, Cardiovascular disease, Risk management, Critical appraisal skills, Cancer Care, Hormonal Contraception.
Ward-based teaching: Medical Specialties x 3.

PA40042: Project 2

Credits: 12
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: RT100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA40039

Aims & Learning Objectives:
The aim of these units is to allow the student to develop practical research skills. At the end of the units the student should be able (a) to generate original data; (b) to analyse the data appropriately and (c) to present conclusions drawn from the data in the form of a well organised and well argued report modelled on a research paper.
Content:
Students will be offered a choice of research project from a wide range of topics in the pharmaceutical sciences.

PA40130: Research project

Credits: 18
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: RT100
Requisites:

Content:
Research project

PA40155: Research topics in natural products

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To explore current areas of research interest in the field of biologically active natural products and their derivatives. After taking this unit the student should be aware of higher plants and animals in the causation of disease states. the student should be able to evaluate critically the topics covered and of the scope and limitations of natural products as chemical and biological leads in drug discovery and as pharmaceutical tools and be able to discuss appropriate examples.
Content:
Selected topics such as: poisonous plants, animal toxins and venoms, natural anticancer agents, phorbol and related diterpenoid esters, natural glycosidase inhibitors, biotechnology and natural products, natural anti-oxidants, modern techniques of structure elucidation.

PA40156: Infection and immunity

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: EX100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To provide a knowledge base of the major components of the immune response, how this system is regulated in health and in combating infection, and how dysregulation can lead to autoimmunity and disease. After completing this unit, the student will appreciate the role of several processes in protecting the host from infectious micro-organisms, and how failure of immune regulation can be associated with a number of pathological states.
Content:
Fundamentals of the immune system - self/non-self discrimination. Antibodies. Antigen presentation to T cells and B cells, the MHC, costimulation, Th1/Th2 cells, cytokine production. Regulation of immune responses - suppression, idiotypes, tolerance - the thymus, apoptosis. Microbial perturbation of host immune response and the contribution of the host response to the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Mechanisms underlying autoimmunity. Effector mechanisms targeting intra- and extra-cellular pathogens, mucosal immunity, oral vaccination, oral tolerance.

PA40159: Recent advances in cardiovascular pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES20EX80
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with recent advances in cardiovascular pharmacology and current areas of research of particular importance and interest, and to practise key skills. Knowledge gained from previous units in pharmacology will be built upon with more advanced and specialised treatment of specific topics. The tutorials are integral to the unit, allowing for open discussion of pertinent current research papers. After taking this unit, the student should demonstrate an understanding of the regulation of vascular smooth muscle and its modulation by drugs, occlusive vascular disease and targets for future drug development, and an ability to interpret relevant research data in a logical and critical manner.
Content:
An in-depth treatment of selected topics covering recent advances in cardiovascular pharmacology, such as: regulation of blood vessel tone, calcium and potassium channels, endothelium-derived vasorelaxant factors. Occlusive vascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke.

PA40160: Recent advances in central nervous system pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES20EX80
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with recent advances in the pharmacology of the central nervous system (CNS), to examine selected topics in greater depth and to practise cognitive skills. Knowledge gained from previous units in pharmacology will be built upon with more advanced and specialised treatment of specific topics. The tutorials are integral to the unit, allowing for open discussion of pertinent current research papers. After taking this unit, the student should demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses of the major groups of centrally-acting drugs, an appreciation of the current understanding of disease processes in the brain, and an ability to interpret relevant research data in a logical and critical manner.
Content:
In-depth treatment of selected topics covering recent advances in CNS pharmacology, such as: chronobiology and chronopharmacology, the rhythmicity of pathological processes and drug responses, jet lag, shift work, seasonal affective disorder. Neuromodulators and neurotransmitters including tachykinins, pancreatic polypeptides, opioids, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and oxytocin, abnormal peptides in Alzheimer's disease.

PA40161: Recent advances in respiratory pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES20EX80
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To familiarise the student with recent advances in respiratory pharmacology and current areas of research of particular importance and interest. Knowledge gained from previous units in pharmacology will be built upon with more advanced and specialised treatment of specific topics. The tutorials are integral to the unit, allowing for open discussion of pertinent current research papers. After taking this unit the student should demonstrate an understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of lung disease and targets for pharmacological intervention; and be able to interpret relevant research data in a logical and critical manner.
Content:
An in-depth treatment of selected topics covering recent developments in the understanding of respiratory diseases and identification of pharmacological targets, such as: Cystic Fibrosis: molecular biology and regulation of CFTR, relationship between CFTR and disease, pharmacological regulation of CFTR, host defence in cystic fibrosis. Asthma: chemical and cellular mediators, neuronal control of the airways, new and prospective treatments. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: gene transcription and potential for therapy. Pulmonary hypertension and oedema, hypoxia and anoxia: mechanisms and pharmacological targets.

PA40162: Recent advances in immunopharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES20EX80
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
To extend the student's knowledge of the immune system to include the various target cells and molecules that are being investigated for their potential therapeutic use in diseases characterised either by inadequate or excessive immune reactivity, and to practise cognitive skills. Knowledge gained from previous units in pharmacology will be built upon with more advanced and specialised treatment of specific topics. The tutorials are integral to the unit, allowing for open discussion of pertinent current research papers. After completing this unit, the student will have acquired knowledge of therapeutic interventions to modulate the immune response, and of the impact of immunotherapy in treating autoimmunity, cancer and immunodeficiencies, and will show an ability to interpret relevant research data in a logical and critical manner.
Content:
Identification of potential drug targets in the immune system - antigen specific/non-specific. Monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics, immunotoxins. Inhibitory cytokines, cytokine inhibitors. Inhibitors of T cell signalling, antioxidants. Th1/Th2 cells, anergy, costimulation, apoptosis. Apoptosis induction in treating cancer. Class II MHC blockade, altered peptide ligands, T cell receptor vaccination. Tolerance induction, oral tolerance. Treatment of autoimmune diseases.

PA40163: Recent advances in molecular signalling

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: ES20EX80
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA30142

Aims & Learning Objectives:
This unit will familiarise the student with recent advances in molecular signalling and current areas of research which are of particular interest and importance. Knowledge gained from previous units in cell biology, and in particular molecular pharmacology, will be built upon with more advanced and specialised treatment of specific topics encompassing cellular signalling events in different model systems. The tutorials are integral to the unit, allowing for open discussion of pertinent current research papers. After taking this unit the student should have an in depth understanding of the complex interactions which occur in cellular signalling events. They should have developed the ability to read and interpret original research papers in this area in a logical and critical manner and recognise the intricacies of cellular signalling mechanisms.
Content:
An in-depth treatment of selected topics covering recent advances in molecular signalling, to include signalling events occuring in immune cells in response to cytokines and other mediators; protein interaction modules; kinase cascades; tyrosine kinases and phosphatases; lipid signalling; regulation of transcription.

PA40177: Cognitive skills in pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: EX80CW20
Requisites:
Aims: The aim of this unit is to develop cognitive and transferable skills through manipulation of numerical data, critical analysis and interpretation of recent research publications in pharmacology, and practice of oral and written communication of scientific information.
Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit, the student should be able to demonstrate an ability to identify the key points and conclusions of research papers, and to interpret research data in a logical and critical manner. The student will also have undertaken exercises in verbal and written communication of scientific information.
Skills:
* Study skills, handling information and data interpretation (T/F/A)
* Data handling (T/F/A)
* Oral communication (T/F)
* Written communication (T/F/A)
Content:
Exercises in rapid analysis of scientific literature to identify key findings; more measured critical analysis of sample papers, with a written commentary of key conclusions and their validity; data handling exercise; Viva voce exercise based on project results and/or other scientific data.

PA40214: Recent advances in drug discovery

Credits: 3
Level: Masters
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To extend the student's knowledge of how pharmaceutical companies are utilising contemporary scientific advances to identify drug targets and develop new drugs.
Learning Outcomes:
After completing this unit the student will have acquired an in-depth appreciation of current developments in drug discovery programmes within the pharmaceutical industry. In the process they will practise and improve their skills in information retrieval as well as develop the ability to read and interpret original research papers in a critical manner.
Skills:
ICT (T/F/A). Critical analysis (T/F/A). Written communication (T/F/A). Verbal communication (F).
Content:
Guest lecturers from pharmaceutical companies will speak on various aspects of drug target identification and validation as well as drug discovery within the biomedical field. The workshops will develop themes raised in the lectures and introduce the written assessment.

PA40234: Communicative skills in pharmacology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Semester: 2
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To develop further key skills in information retrieval, organisation and communication leading to an extended seminar presentation.
Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit the student should demonstrate an ability to undertake literature searches, to assimilate and critically evaluate scientific information and to present a given topic as an oral communication supported by a written abstract.
Skills:
* ICT, handling information (T/F/A)
* Oral and written communication (T/F/A)
Content:
Each student will prepare and present a 30-minute oral seminar and written abstract on a topic selected from a list of subjects that includes aspects of inflammation, molecular medicine, ion channels and the global impact of research in pharmacology.

Postgraduate units:


PA50181: Introduction to clinical skills & pharmaceutical care

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50OT50
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To develop an understanding of the principles of pharmaceutical care and a problem solving approach to clinical practice.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1) Describe and critically discuss the concept of pharmaceutical care (knowledge and understanding);
2) Describe a systematic approach to problem solving in the clinical setting (professional practical skills);
3) Describe the key factors involved in taking a comprehensive medication history and demonstrate their use (professional practical skills);
4) Identify the different types of laboratory test, demonstrate their use and interpretation, and critically assess their use (knowledge and understanding);
5) Reflect on their own performance in compiling patient histories and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* Introduction to clinical skills;
* Case note analysis and medication review;
* Pharmaceutical Care;
* Clinical laboratory investigations;
* Multi-disciplinary team working, Problem solving and Reflective Practice;
* Developing a Clinical Case Portfolio.

PA50186: Cardiovascular therapeutics

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW90OR10
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim - To update underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical knowledge in this therapeutic area.
Learning Objectives - By the end of the Unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding)
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill)
3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill)
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill)
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic area and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* Ischaemic heart disease (angina, MI & revascularisations)
* Cardiovascular disease (hypertension and heart failure)
* Cardiac arrhythmias (AF; iatrogenic arrhythmia).

PA50187: Gastro-intestinal therapeutics

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50ES50
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To update underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical knowledge in this therapeutic area.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding);
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill);
3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill);
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill);
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic area and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* Oesophageal disease including: GORD; DU; PU;
* Inflammatory Bowel Disease;
* Nutritional and stoma care of IBD;
* Hepatic functioning and medicines management;
* Alcoholic liver disease;
* Hepatitis including subtypes; management; public health issues.

PA50188: Oncology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50OR10OT40
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To update underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical knowledge in this therapeutic area.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the Unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding);
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill); 3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill);
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill);
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic area and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* Clinical indicators used in differential diagnosis;
* Solid Tumours (including lymphoma, melanomas etc);
* Clinical practice guidelines;
* Pharmacogenomics;
* Carcinomas (including breast; gynaecological; prostate);
* Outcome measurements (including disease classification, progression and patient QoL indicators).

PA50189: Clinical governance

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW90OR10
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To understand and to be able to apply in practice, the principals and key methodologies of Clinical Governance in order to improve and maintain the quality of clinical practice.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the Unit the student will be able to:
1. Describe and critically evaluate the guidelines for practice (knowledge and understanding);
2. Appraise the data quality and data handling issues as they impinge on clinical governance (intellectual skill);
3. Assess the roles of staff and clients within the health care context (professional practical skill);
4. Reflect on their own practice in this area and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* The development of standards and guidelines for practice;
* Data quality and data handling for clinical governance;
* Audit and reflective practice;
* Documenting and learning from critical incidents, near misses and complaints;
* Staff development; CE and CPD;
* User involvement in clinical governance;
* Controls assurance for medicines management;
* Participation in research, development and the application of evidence based practice as a means of delivering high standard services.

PA50190: Public health pharmacy

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW90OR10
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To review and evaluate the key issues in public health pharmacy.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. Critically appraise the overall aim of public health services (knowledge and understanding, intellectual skill);
2. describe and assess the elements of public health strategy and services that are relevant to pharmacy services and medicines use (knowledge and understanding).
Content:
* Socioeconomic determinants of health and disease;
* Legal framework for public health;
* NHS planning;
* Cross boundary working;
* Prioritisation of resource use;
* Evidence based practice;
* Health needs assessment;
* Pharmacoepidemiology; systems, data, interpretation;
* Pharmacovigilance; systems, data, interpretation;
* Health Promotion; areas and communication strategies; changing behaviours;
* Drug misuse, Accident prevention, Dental public health, sexual health, mental health, cancer, communicable disease and antibiotic resistance.

PA50195: Parenteral drug administration

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment:
Requisites:
No description available

PA50196: Systems design & validation

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment:
Requisites:
No description available

PA50197: Evidence based practice

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW80OR20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: To provide an overview of the science of evidence based medicine (EBM) and to understand the importance of classifying evidence. To critically evaluate the quality of evidence sources that are used in clinical decision making.
Learning outcomes: At the end of the unit students will be able to:
1. List the types of evidence from an EBM perspective (knowledge and understanding);
2. Describe the key components of a systematic review (knowledge and understanding);
3. Critically appraise a systematic review (knowledge and understanding, intellectual skill);
4. Explain and calculate numbers needed to treat and similar concepts (professional practical skill);
5. Describe and critically evaluate the role of national and international bodies producing reviews (knowledge and understanding, intellectual skill);
6. Reflect on their own interaction with the evidence base and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* Overview of evidence based medicine;
* Systematic reviews - what they are and why we need them;
* How to critically appraise a systematic review;
* Assessment of randomised controlled trials and calculating measures of effectiveness such as numbers needed to treat;
* The Cochrane Collaboration as a source of reviews and international health technology assessment programmes.

PA50198: Practice-based research

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW80OR20
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims of Unit: To provide a thorough grounding in the various research methodologies and planning techniques that are used in practice-based research; To select and use appropriate methodologies in the design and organisation of an independent research project.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the Unit students will be able to:
1. Differentiate/discriminate between the different types of research techniques available to the health professional and make judgements about their use in particular practice contexts (knowledge and understanding; intellectual skills);
2. Critically evaluate the role of research in pharmacy practice and health services research (intellectual skills);
3. Identify and design a small scale practice-based research project and present the project plan (knowledge and understanding, professional and practical; transferable key skills);
4. Evaluate the ethical issues involved in undertaking research in practice and describe the procedure for seeking ethical approval for research in their particular practice context (knowledge and understanding, intellectual skills).
Content:
Introduction to Research Methods: The research question Qualitative Research Methods Quantitative Research Methods (including a basic review of statistics) Pharmacy practice and health services research The relationship with evidence-based practice and critical appraisal - how research informs practice Ethical issues in research and ethics approval of research

PA50199: Respiratory therapeutics

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To update underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical knowledge in this therapeutic area.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding);
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill);
3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill);
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill);
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic area and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* Allergen-mediated disorder (process and treatment);
* Respiratory disease (asthma; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); pneumonia);
* Inherited disease (Cystic Fibrosis including dietary supplements; nutrition; antibiotic use and transplantation);
* Medication delivery;
* Pharmacist assessment roles

PA50200: Mental health

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To update underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical knowledge in this therapeutic area.
Learning Objectives: By the end of this Unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding);
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill);
3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill);
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill);
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic area and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* An introduction to good mental health (public health role, 'Health of the Nation', 'National Service Framework' etc);
* The affective disorders;
* Psychosis and associated disorders;
* Neurodegenerative disorders (dementias);
* Bipolar disorders and mania;
* Drug misuse and addiction

PA50201: Endocrinology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To updated underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical knowledge of diseases of the endocrine system.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding).
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill).
3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill).
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill).
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic area and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill).
Skills:
These skills are classified according to learning outcome in the section above:
* Knowledge and understanding
* Intellectual skills
* Professional practical skills
* Personal and key skills (specifically presentation skills and reflection on practice).
Content:
* Hormone Replacement Therapy
* The Pill and Fertility
* Diabetes (Type 1, Type 2 and Complications)
* Thyroid conditions
* Pituitary Disorders
* Osteoporosis.

PA50202: Neurology

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To update underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical knowledge in this therapeutic area.
Learning Objectives: By the end of this unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding);
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill);
3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill);
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill);
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic area and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill).
Content:
* Parkinson's disease (diagnosis, early, mid and late treatment stages);
* Multiple Sclerosis & demyelinating disorders;
* Epilepsy;
* Behavioural problems in neurodegenerative disorders;
* Migraine and headaches.

PA50212: Clinical skills placement

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50OR10OT40
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA50181 and take PA50182 and while taking this unit you must take 4 modules from (PA50186, PA50187, PA50188, PA50199, PA50200, PA50201, PA50202, PA50203, PA50204)

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To provide a coherent clinical placement within either a hospital or community pharmacy setting, in order to develop clinical practice skills and to enable the student to complete the necessary clinical practice components of therapeutic modules.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the Unit the student will be able to:
1. Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the advanced practice-based pharmaceutical techniques applicable in the hospital or community contexts (including disease monitoring; patient monitoring; medicines management issues; primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals (knowledge and understanding; programme level learning outcome 2);
2. Demonstrate high level communication skills through the development of effective working relationships with both patient groups and other health professionals (professional practice skill, programme level learning outcome 5);
3. Prepare and present information on complex pharmaceutical issues to a variety of client groups (Personal Transferable Skill, programme level learning outcome 8);
4. Reflect on their own practice in a range of therapeutic areas and identify areas for improvement (Professional Practical Skill, programme level learning outcome 5).
Content:
Clinical placement in a hospital or community pharmacy to observe, and contribute to pharmaceutical practice. The precise content will vary depending on the therapeutic areas being covered in the placement and in discussion with the Programme Director.

PA50213: Masters dissertation

Credits: 24
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: DS100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA50198

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim: To enable students to conduct a piece of independent research and to present their findings as a dissertation.
Learning Objectives: After completion of the dissertation the student will be able to:
1. Design a piece of independent study (Knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill);
2. Follow the process for obtaining ethical approval for research work (professional practical skill);
3. Collect data using appropriate tools and methodologies (knowledge and understanding);
4. Critically analyse data and draw appropriate conclusions/recommendations from these data (intellectual skill);
5. Critically evaluate the literature associated with a given research topic (intellectual skill);
6. Present information in an appropriate format. (personal transferable skill).
Content:
The student will undertake a piece of work which will entail the following stages:
* Project Design;
* Ethics Committee Approval;
* Instrument/experimental design and piloting;
* Data Collection;
* Data Analysis;
* Preparation of Conclusions;
* Presentation of completed dissertation.

PA50215: Practice-based learning and teaching for health professionals

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW80OR20
Requisites:
Aims: To develop a range of learning and teaching skills for health professionals.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of this unit, students will be able to:
1. Describe a range of learning theories, approaches to learning and learning styles and evaluate their impact on individual student learning (knowledge and understanding, intellectual skills) (taught facilitated and assessed).
2. Critically evaluate a range of teaching styles and methods to embed student learning and make judgements about the use of these teaching styles in different learning contexts (professional practical skills, knowledge and understanding, intellectual skills) (taught, facilitated and assessed).
3. Outline the issues in the organisation and delivery of work based learning (knowledge and understanding) (taught, facilitated and assessed).
4. Critically evaluate methods and techniques for supporting learners (intellectual skills, knowledge and understanding, professional practical skills) (taught, facilitated and assessed).
5. Discuss a range of assessment techniques appropriate for testing practice based learning and identify issues in marking and giving feedback (knowledge and understanding) (taught and assessed).
6. Evaluate a range of evaluation techniques used in assessing the quality and appropriateness of the teaching and/or learning (professional practical skill, knowledge and understanding) (taught, facilitated and assessed).
7. Reflect on their own practice as supporters of learning (professional practical skill, personal and key skill) (facilitated and assessed).
Skills:
These skills are classified according to learning outcome in the section above.
* Knowledge and understanding.
* Intellectual skills.
* Professional practical skills.
* Personal and Key skills (specifically presentation skills and reflection on practice).
Content:
* How people learn.
* How people teach.
* Planning and designing learning.
* Work based learning - organisation and delivery.
* Supporting learners.
* Assessing, marking and giving feedback.
* Evaluating teaching and learning.
* Reflective practice in teaching and learning.

PA50216: Medicines management in general practice

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW80OR20
Requisites:
Aims: This six-credit unit aims to provide a broad overview of the medicines management service in primary care and to outline the key processes involved at the practice level and teh role and responsibility of the Pharmaceutical Adviser.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
* Describe and evaluate the role of the medicines management in primary care (assessed by formative tasks within the study guide).
* Describe, map and critically evaluate (or audit) the processes a PCT must have in place to manage medicines effectively (assessed summatively as part of the rinal coursework submitted for this unit, e.g. using the PDSA tool).
* Identify and critically evaluate the key influences on prescribing decisions (assessed by formative tasks within the study guide).
* Define and assess the role of the pharmaceutical adviser in the primary care team (assessed by formative tasks within the study guide).
* Demonstrate high level communication skills through the development of effective working relationships with both patient/client groups and other health professionals in the primary care context and through presenting the findings of work-based projects to fellow students and other primary care colleagues (assessed summatively by making a presentation at the face to face workshop).
* Locate, critically evaluate and utilise evidence from published sources (evidence-based practice) to influence prescribing decisions (assessed summatively as part of the final coursework for this unit).
* Demonstrate a critically reflective approach to continuing professional development in medicines management practice.
Skills:
* Presentation and communication skills - oral presentation of case and report for coursework assignment (to demonstrate ability to influence other members of the primary care team).
* Intellectual skills - identify appropriate sources of evidence and interpret this for use in practice.
* Professional Practice skills - able to critically reflect on practice.
Content:
* Introduction to Medicines Mangement in Primary Care;
* The process of medicines management:
- The consultation;
- Medication choice;
- Supply of medicine;
- Medication review;
* Influences on prescribing decisions:
- The team, industry, new drugs, key agencies, care pathways, frameworks, ethics, etc.
* The role of the medicines mangement team:
- Analysing prescribing data, prescribing indicators, sources of evaluated information, GP information systems, communication.

PA50217: Medicines management in the NHS

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW80OR20
Requisites:
Aims: This unit aims to provide a broad overview of the medicines management service in primary care and to outline the key processes involved at the NHS organisational level.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of this unit the student will be able to:
* Describe and critically discuss the structure and organisation of the NHS.
* Outline the functions of the PCT and critically evaluate its role in fulfilling it's functions related to MM.
* Assess the role of agencies, for example the NPSA, Modernisation Agency, PPA, NICE, NPC, etc in medicines management.
* Demonstrate high level communication skills through the development of effective working relationships with both patient/client groups and other health professionals in the primary care context.
* Prepare and present information on complex contemporary pharmaceutical issues to a variety of primary care client groups.
* Reflect on and have the ability to manage the implications of ethical dilemmas and legal issues, and to work proactively with others to formulate solutions in this context.
* Demonstrate a critically reflective approach to continuing professional development in medicines management practice.
Skills:
* Presentation and communication skills - oral presentation of case and report for coursework assignment (to demonstrate ability to influence other members of the primary care team).
* Intellectual skills - identify appropriate sources of evidence and interpret this for use in practice.
* Professional Practical skills - able to critically reflect on practice.
Content:
* Structure, function, processes and operation of the NHS;
* Organisation of PCTs, Trusts, and the role of the PEC;
* Management of change;
* Statutory functions:
- Commissioning;
- Primary care contractors;
- Risk management;
* NHS plan;
* Special Health Authorities;
* Clinical Governance, quality management and modernisation;
* Finance and budgets;
* Ethical considerations in PCTs;
* Legal issues in PCTs.

PA50218: Prescribing in context

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: The aim of this unit is to update underpinning knowledge about prescribing in the context of legal, professional and ethical frameworks.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. Develop an effective relationship with the Independent Prescriber; patient and wider care team
2. Demonstrate how they will prescribe safely, appropriately, clinically and cost effectively
3. Identify sources of information, advice and decision support and explain how they will use them in prescribing practice taking into account evidence based practice and national/local guidelines
4. Recognise, critically evaluate and respond to influences on prescribing practice at individual, local and national levels
5. Develop and document a clinical management plan within the context of a prescribing partnership
6. Evaluate and assess the legal and professional framework for accountability and responsibility in relation to supplementary prescribing
7. Demonstrate a critically reflective approach to continuing professional development in prescribing practice.
Skills:
On completion of this unit the student will be able to:
* Analyse the local guidance on patient consent and confidentiality in relation to national guidance (knowledge and understanding)
* Explain the underpinning ethical issues involved in the use of unlicensed medicines in your specialist area of prescribing (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill)
* Critically evaluate the influential sources of medicines and prescribing information in their specialist area (Intellectual skill)
* Assess the role of each member of the healthcare team involved in prescribing for an individual patient (Professional practical skill)
* Reflect on their own practice as a student in supplementary prescribing and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill)
* Present findings on specific patient conditions and recommend appropriate prescribing regiments (key skill - presentations).
Content:
1. The Legal Framework for Prescribing
2. The Clinical Management Plan
3. Ethical Aspects of Prescribing
4. Prescribing and Confidentiality
5. Prescribing Medicines
6. Professionalism
7. Influences on Prescribing
8. Prescribing and Health Economy.

PA50219: Consultation skills for prescribing

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA50218
Aims: The aim of this unit is to develop knowledge and competence in undertaking a clinical examination of the patient, which will include: the relevant physical examination skills, and communication and negotiation skills.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. Develop and maintain an effective relationship with the Independent Prescriber, patient and wider care team
2. Communicate and consult effectively with patients and carers
3. Conduct a relevant physical examination of patients with those conditions for which they may prescribe
4. Monitor response to therapy and modify treatment or refer the patient as appropriate
5. Critically assess patients& needs for medicines, taking account of their wishes and values in prescribing decisions
6. Describe the actions key to prescribing safely, appropriately, clinically and cost effectively
7. Identify and critically evaluate sources of information, advice and decision support an explain how they will use them in prescribing practice taking into account evidence based practice and national/local guidelines
8. Identify, evaluate and respond to influences on prescribing practice at individual, local and national levels
9. Develop and document a clinical management plan within the context of a prescribing partnership and critically assess their own performance in its preparation
10. Demonstrate a critically reflective approach to continuing professional development of prescribing practice
Skills:
On completion of this unit the student will be able to:
* Analyse the differences in approaches to patient examination techniques (knowledge and understanding)
* Explain the effect that personal, patient and national influences may have on prescribing (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill)
* Critically evaluate the use of a national guideline in the context of a Clinical management Plan (Intellectual skill)
* Assess the role of prescribing audit tools in maintaining competency and cost efficacy in prescribing (Professional practical skill)
* Reflect on their own practice in prescribing within the context of a Clinical Management Plan and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill)
* Present findings on specific patient conditions and recommend appropriate prescribing regiments (key skill - presentations)
Content:
1. The Clinical Management Plan
2. The Psychology of Prescribing
3. Communication and Consultation Skills
4. Clinical and Examination Skills
5. Treatment Choices
6. Patient Monitoring.

PA50220: Prescribing effectively

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW60EX20OT20
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA50218 and take PA50219
Aims: The aim of this unit is to update underpinning knowledge about prescribing safely, appropriately, clinically and cost effectively within the framework of the Clinical management Plan (CMP) any local and national guidelines.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. Develop and maintain an effective relationship with the Independent Prescriber; patient and wider care team
2. Monitor response to therapy and modify treatment or refer the patient as appropriate
3. Practice professionally such that they prescribe safely, appropriately, clinically and cost effectively
4. Identify and critically evaluate sources of information, advice and decision support an explain how they will use them in prescribing practice taking into account evidence based practice and national/local guidelines
5. Locate, critically evaluate and respond to influences on prescribing practice at individual, local and national levels
6. Develop and document a clinical management plan within the context of a prescribing partnership and critically assess their own performance in its preparation
7. Demonstrate a critically reflective approach to continuing professional development of prescribing practice.
Skills:
On completion of this unit the student will be able to:
* Analyse the difference in disease monitoring for different patient groups within their prescribing specialty (knowledge and understanding)
* Explain the benefit of an evidence-based approach to prescribing in terms of patient safety and clinical management plans(knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill)
* Critically evaluate the use of a therapeutic class of medicines in their area of prescribing (Intellectual skill)
* Assess the role self-audit in maintaining the safety and efficacy of the process of supplementary prescribing (Professional practical skill)
* Reflect on their own development as a supplementary prescriber and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill)
* Present findings on specific patient conditions and recommend appropriate prescribing regiments (key skill - presentations).
Content:
1. Critical Appraisal and Evidence-based Practice
2. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles of Prescribing
3. Prescribing for Special Patient Groups
4. Prescribing Safely
5. Clinical Governance and Prescribing.

PA50221: Prescribing for special groups

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: To develop knowledge and skills in prescribing and medicines management in special patient groups.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. Analyse the differences in disease monitoring in these patient groups.
2. Explain the effect that physiological changes have on the handling of medicines in these patient groups.
3. Critically evaluate the medicines management issues in each of these patient groups (Intellectual skill).
4. Assess the role of the healthcare professional/pharmacist in the prescribing and monitoring of medication in these patient groups (Professional practical skill).
5. Reflect on their own practice in prescribing and medicines management issues in these patient groups and identify areas for continuous improvement (Personal transferable skill).
Skills:
Knowledge and Understanding
* Analyse the differences in disease monitoring in these patient groups.
* Explain the effect that physiological changes have on the handling of medicines in these patient groups.
* Critically evaluate the medicines management issues in each of these patient groups.
Professional Practical Skill
* Demonstrate appropriate patient counselling and advising skills re medications.
* Assess the role of the healthcare professional/pharmacist in the prescribing and monitoring of medication in these patient groups.
Key Skills
* Present their recommendations for patient care in the form of pharmaceutical care plans.
* Reflect on their own practice in prescribing and medicines management.
Content:
* Introduction to legal guidance in prescribing.
* Introduction to ethical and professional regulations in prescribing.
* Prescribing in paediatrics.
* Prescribing in patients with renal disease.
* Prescribing in patients on Intensive Care.
* Prescribing in elderly patients.
* Prescribing in mental health.
* Administration of medicines.
* Multi-disciplinary team working, problem solving and reflective practice.

PA50223: Surgery

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:
Aims: The aim of this unit is to update pharmacists on the disease and patient monitoring factors that should be considered when prescribing for surgical patients.
Learning Outcomes:
1. Analyse the role of the healthcare professional / pharmacist in prescribing and monitoring medication for surgical patients (knowledge & understanding skill).
2. Explain the disease and patient monitoring factors that are influenced before, during and after surgery (knowledge & understanding skill).
3. Critically evaluate the evidence base for management of thromboembolic disease, analgesia, infection and post operative nausea and vomiting (Intellectual skill).
4. Assess the role of the pharmacist in developing guidelines and protocols for use in a multidisciplinary team for the management of surgical patients (professional skill).
5. Reflect on their own practice in prescribing and medicines management issues for surgical patients and identify areas for continuous improvement (Professional skill).
Skills:
1. Knowledge and understanding through monitoring of medicines and patients.
2. intellectual skills of critical evaluation of evidence.
3. Communication skills through working in multidisciplinary teams; undertaking patient monitoring; report writing.
4. Professional skills of reflection on practice.
Content:
* Pharmaceutical care for surgical patients
* Surgery 1 - inc cardiothoracics, vascular, orthopaedics etc
* Surgery 2 - inc B&P, neuro, ENT etc
* Anaesthesia & Radiology for pharmacists
* Thromboembolic disease
* PONV
* Analgesia
* Management of surgical complications
* Protocol and guideline development.

PA50232: Palliative care

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50OT50
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim
To update underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical care knowledge for patients with palliative care needs
Learning Objectives
By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in patients with palliative care needs (knowledge and understanding)
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in patients with palliative care needs (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill)
3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill)
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill)
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic area and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill)
Content:
* Principles of palliative care
* Symptom Control
* Chronic Pain Management to include use of opioids, Adjuncts and the management of neuropathic pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Gastro-intestinal symptom control
* Agitation, restlessness & confusion
* Sedation and care in the terminal phase
* Palliative Care Emergencies
* Other symptoms to include dyspnoea and hypercalcaemia
* Multi-disciplinary working.

PA50233: Infections

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW50OT50
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim
To update underpinning pharmacology, physiology and pharmaceutical knowledge
Learning Objectives
By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the disease monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding)
2. explain the patient monitoring factors in this therapeutic area (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill)
3. critically evaluate the medicines management issues in this therapeutic area (intellectual skill)
4. assess the primary and secondary care roles for healthcare professionals/pharmacists in this therapeutic area (professional practical skill)
5. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic are and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill)
Content:
* Mode of action of antibiotics
* Community based Infections
* Hospital Acquired Infections
* HIV and AIDS
* Respiratory Infections
* Cellulitis and skin infections
* STDs
* Endocarditis
* Meningitis
* Infection management
* Economic Prescribing.

PA50235: Management of minor ailments

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Semester: 1
Assessment: CW100
Requisites:

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aim - This unit aims to provide learners with a broad overview of the management of minor ailments in primary care and an understanding of the contribution that the pharmacist can make in responding to patients& symptoms.
Learning Objectives - By the end of the unit the student will be able to:
1. analyse the current public policy in the management of minor illnesses (knowledge and understanding)
2. evaluate the routes of access to OTC medicines (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill)
3. critically evaluate the role of the pharmacist and medicines counter assistant in the OTC supply process(intellectual skill))
4. reflect on their own practice in this therapeutic are and identify areas for improvement (personal transferable skill).
Skills:
* Medicines regulation in the UK. The legal journey of a medicinal product from POM to P to GSL.
* Government, professional and patient perspectives on self care
* The pharmacist's role in diagnosing in response to symptoms and in providing OTC medicines
* Management of commonly presenting symptoms
* An evidence-based approach to supplying OTC medicines.

PA50240: Using evidence in practice

Credits: 6
Level: Masters
Modular: no specific semester
Assessment: CW85OR15
Requisites:
Before taking this unit you must take PA50181

Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims - To increase students' knowledge and develop students' competence in searching, accessing and using information relating to medicines. To provide an overview of the science of evidence based medicine (EBM) and to understand the importance of classifying and evaluating the evidence that is used to inform your practice and clinical decision making.
Learning outcomes - At the end of the unit students will be able to:
1. Describe the type and functions of commonly available information resources and be able to list the types of evidence from an EBM perspective
2. Demonstrate proficiency in the use of the internet and/or local intranet.
3. Use and critically evaluate standard databases to retrieve information.
4. Critically appraise common types and sources of literature including systematic reviews, and to identify the key components of a systematic review.
5. Explain key elements of statistical methods used in literature and calculate numbers needed to treat and similar concepts.
6. Compare and critically evaluate the use and role of UKMi specialist centres, national and international bodies producing reviews, practice interest groups, governmental and professional bodies, the pharmaceutical industry, and private agencies.
7. Reflect on their own interaction with the evidence base and practice in retrieval and use of medicines information and identify areas for continuous improvement .
Content:
* Introduction to Medicines Information
* Answering Enquiries - The Process, Searching for Information, Preparing and Providing an Answer
* Introduction to Evidence Based Practice
* Tools of evidence based medicine
* Systematic review and meta analysis.
* Critical Appraisal 1
* CATs and PoEMs
* Critical Appraisal 2
* Searching
* Advanced EBM.

 

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