Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Unit Catalogue 2007/08
PA50249 Pharmacist independent prescribing
| Credits: 18 |
| Modular: no specific semester|
|Assessment: CW 70%, EX 20%, OR 10%, OT 0%|
Aims: This unit is in three parts and each has distinct aims. The aim of:
* Part 1 'Prescribing in Context' is to: update underpinning knowledge about prescribing in the context of legal, professional and ethical frameworks, and to introduce the student to prescribing within the multiprofessional framework of the Clinical Management Plan (CMP);
* Part 2 'Communication Skills for Prescribing' is to: Ensure that the student independent prescriber (SIP) achieves competency in undertaking a clinical examination of the patient, which will include: relevant physical examination skills, as well as clinical, communication and negotiation skills. It will also cover issues such as teamwork, documentation, shared-decision making strategies, medical records, the Clinical Management Plan (CMP) and the Treatment Plan;
* Part 3 'Prescribing Effectively' is to: ensure that, as an independent prescriber, students prescribe safely, accurately and appropriately. Therefore updates in evidence-based practice; underpinning knowledge of the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics that affect prescribing (especially in relation to special patient groups such as paediatrics and the older patient); methods to reduce medication errors and relevant clinical governance issues will be presented.
* Develop and maintain an effective relationship with the Independent Prescriber; patient and wider care team;
* Demonstrate how they will prescribe safely, appropriately, clinically and cost effectively;
* Identify sources of information, advice and decision support and explain how they will use them in prescribing practice taking into account evidence based practice and national/local guidelines;
* Recognise, critically evaluate and respond to influences on prescribing practice at individual, local and national levels;
* Develop and document a clinical management plan within the context of a prescribing partnership;
* Evaluate and assess the legal and professional framework for accountability and responsibility in relation to supplementary and independent prescribing;
* Demonstrate a critically reflective approach to continuing professional development in prescribing practice.
* Communicate and consult effectively with patients and carers;
* Understand and employ a differential diagnosis process;
* Conduct relevant physical examination of patients with those conditions for which they may prescribe;
* Request and interpret relevant laboratory tests as appropriate;
* Monitor response to therapy and modify treatment or refer the patient as appropriate;
* Critically assess patients' needs for medicines, taking account of their wishes and values in prescribing decisions;
* Identify, evaluate and respond to influences on prescribing practice at individual, local and national levels;
* Develop and document a clinical management and treatment plan within the context of a prescribing partnership and critically assess their own performance in its preparation;
* Practice professionally such that they prescribe safely, appropriately, clinically, cost effectively and autonomously;
* Identify and develop an audit tool for monitoring the safety of their prescribing practice;
* Develop and document a clinical management or treatment plan within their individual clinical area of prescribing and critically assess their own performance in its preparation;
* Undertake a therapeutic medication review in a specific area of their prescribing specialism.
* Analyse the local guidance on patient consent and confidentiality in relation to national guidance (knowledge and understanding).
* Explain the underpinning ethical issues involved in the use of unlicensed medicines in their specialist area of prescribing (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill).
* Critically evaluate the influential sources of medicines and prescribing information in their specialist area (intellectual skill).
* Assess the role of each memberr of the healthcare team involved in prescribing for an individual patient (professional practical skill)
* Reflect on their own practice as a student in supplementary and independent prescribing and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill).
* Present findings on specific patient conditions and recommend appropriate prescribing regiments (key skill - presentations).
* Analyse the differences in approaches to patient examination techniques (knowledge and understanding)
* Explain the effect that personal, patient and national influences may have on prescribing (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill).
* Critically evaluate the use of a national guideline in the context of a Clinical Management or treatment Plan (intellectual skill).
* Reflect on their own practice in prescribing within the context of a Clinical Management and/or treatment Plan and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill).
* Present findings on communication skills needed within a consultation setting using the Calgary-Cambridge Guide (key skill - presentations).
* Analyse the difference in disease monitoring for different patient groups within their prescribing specialty (knowledge and understanding). Explain the benefit of an evidence-based approach to prescribing in terms of patient safety and clinical management plans (knowledge and understanding, professional practical skill).
* Critically evaluate the use of a therapeutic class of medicines in their area of prescribing (intellectual skill).
* Assess the role self-audit in maintaining the safety and efficacy of the process of supplementary prescribing (professional practical skill).
* Reflect on their own development as an independent prescriber and identify areas for continuous improvement (personal transferable skill).
* Present findings on specific patient conditions, recommend appropriate prescribing and justify decision-making (key skill - presentations).
1. Legal Framework for Supplementary and Independent Prescribing
2. The Clinical Management and Treatment Plan
3. Ethical Aspects of Prescribing
4. Prescribing and Confidentiality
5. Prescribing Medicines
7. Influences on Prescribing
8. Prescribing and Health Economy
9. The Clinical Management and Treatment Plan
10. The Psychology of Prescribing
11. Communication and Consultation Skills
12. Clinical and Examination Skills
13. Treatment Choice
14. Patient Monitoring
15. Critical Appraisal and Evidence-based Practice
16. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles of Prescribing
17. Prescribing for Special Patient Groups
18. Prescribing Safely
19. Clinical Governance and Prescribing.