Students must normally have A-level Mathematics, Grade A, or equivalent, in order to undertake this unit.
Aims & Learning Objectives:
Aims: This module is designed to cover standard methods of differentiation and integration, and the methods of solving particular classes of differential equations, to guarantee a solid foundation for the applications of calculus to follow in later courses.
The objective is to ensure familiarity with methods of differentiation and integration and their applications in problems involving differential equations. In particular, students will learn to recognise the classical functions whose derivatives and integrals must be committed to memory. In independent private study, students should be capable of identifying, and executing the detailed calculations specific to, particular classes of problems by the end of the course.
Review of basic formulae from trigonometry and algebra: polynomials, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, exponentials and logs. Integration by substitution. Integration of rational functions by partial fractions. Integration of parameter dependent functions. Interchange of differentiation and integration for parameter dependent functions. Definite integrals as area and the fundamental theorem of calculus in practice. Particular definite integrals by ad hoc methods. Definite integrals by substitution and by parts. Volumes and surfaces of revolution. Definition of the order of a differential equation. Notion of linear independence of solutions. Statement of theorem on number of linear independent solutions. General Solutions. CF+PI. First order linear differential equations by integrating factors; general solution. Second order linear equations, characteristic equations; real and complex roots, general real solutions. Simple harmonic motion. Variation of constants for inhomogeneous equations. Reduction of order for higher order equations. Separable equations, homogeneous equations, exact equations. First and second order difference equations.