|Owning Department/School:||Department of Physics|
|Level:||Intermediate (FHEQ level 5)|
|Supplementary Assessment:||PH20014 - Mandatory Extra Work (where allowed by programme regulations)|
|Requisites:||Before taking this unit you must (take PH10005 or take PH10053) and (take PH10006 or take PH10051) and take PH20019|
The aims of this unit are to develop a vectorial description of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in infinite materials and at boundaries between materials, to derive some individual solutions and to make use of them in a few important applications. A further aim is to provide an introduction to the operation of lasers.
After taking this unit the student should be able to:
* derive and interpret Maxwell's equations and their solution in vacuum;
* list the distinguishing features of electromagnetic plane waves and write down a mathematical expression for a linearly or circularly polarised light wave;
* analyse in detail the propogation of vectorial plane waves in vacuum and in various materials;
* describe the origins of polarisation and magnetisation in materials;
* match electric and magnetic fields at boundaries between materials and explain the origins of Brewster's angle and total internal reflection;
* describe how lasting action is obtained and maintained and outline the main properties of laser light.
Numeracy T/F A, Problem Solving T/F A.
Introduction to Maxwell's equations (7 hours): Derivation of integral and differential forms of Maxwell's equations and continuity equation. The wave equation in source-free vacuum. Plane wave solutions.
Electromagnetic plane waves (3 hours): 3D plane waves, vector nature of electromagnetic wavesl relationships between E, B and k. Impedance. Electromagnetic energy and the Poynting vector. Radiation pressure. Polarisation; Law of Malus, circular and elliptical polarisation. Birefringence, wave plates.
Maxwell's equations in infinite materials (6 hours): Concepts of linearity, isotropy and homogeneity. Characterisation of materials in terms of macroscopic parameters. Dipoles, susceptibility and polarisation / magnetisation. The modified wave equation; solution in conductors, dielectrics, lossy media and plasmas.
Boundaries between media (4 hours): The general electromagnetic boundary conditions. Plane waves at a planar boudary, general angle of incidence (Fresnel equations). Total internal reflection and evanescent waves. Coefficients of transmission and reflection. Brewster and critical angles.
Lasers (2 hours): Interaction between light and matter. The Einstein relations. Obtaining and maintaining lasing action. Cavity modes. The properties of laser light.
PH20014 is Compulsory on the following programmes:Department of Physics
PH20014 is Optional on the following programmes:Department of Mathematical Sciences