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PH20063: Condensed matter physics 1 [WL]

Follow this link for further information on academic years Academic Year: 2019/0
Further information on owning departmentsOwning Department/School: Department of Physics
Further information on credits Credits: 6      [equivalent to 12 CATS credits]
Further information on notional study hours Notional Study Hours: 120
Further information on unit levels Level: Intermediate (FHEQ level 5)
Further information on teaching periods Period:
Semester 2
Further information on unit assessment Assessment Summary: EX 85%, PR 15%
Further information on unit assessment Assessment Detail:
  • Examination (EX 85%)
  • Practical (PR 15%)
Further information on supplementary assessment Supplementary Assessment:
PH20063 - OT reassessment (where allowed by programme regulations)
Further information on requisites Requisites: Before or while taking this module you must ( take PH20013 OR take PH20060 ) AND ( take PH20107 OR take MA20216 ) AND ( take PH20029 OR take PH20067 )
Further information on descriptions Description: Aims:
The aims of this unit are to introduce students to the basic ideas that underlie solid state physics, with emphasis on the behaviour of electrons in crystalline structures, particularly in materials that are metallic or semiconducting.

Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit the student should be able to:
* know the ways in which crystal structures are described formally and relate structures in real space to those in reciprocal space;
* describe how X-ray and neutron diffraction is related to the properties of the reciprocal lattice, and used in structural studies;
* discuss why classical theories of electrons in solids fail, and why they have to be treated quantum mechanically;
* explain the concept of density of states;
* describe how allowed and forbidden energy bands arise as a result of crystal potentials and how the properties of electrons in allowed energy bands determine the electrical and optical behaviour;
* appreciate the difference between metals, semiconductors and insulators;
* discuss the factors that control the electrical conductivity of metals and semiconductors;
* describe classical theories of diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and the ferromagnetic properties of materials;
* describe how crystalline structures vibrate, and the associated theories of heat capacity;
* conduct short experiments on various topics, record details of experimental method and results to an appropriate standard, and write a scientific report displaying an appropriate standard of presentation, style, structure, attention to detail and analysis.

Skills:
Written Communication T/F A, Numeracy T/F A, Data Acquisition, Handling, and Analysis T/F A, Information Technology T/F A, Problem Solving T/F A, Working as part of a group T/F, Practical laboratory skills T/F A.

Content:
Crystal structures (4 hours): Translational symmetry; lattices and basis, Miller indices. Diffraction of waves in crystalline structures; Bragg law, the reciprocal lattice and Brillouin zones. X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of crystal structures.
Electrons in solids (7 hours): Classical Drude theory and its failures. The Hall effect. Quantum (Sommerfeld) theory. Density of states and the Fermi sphere. The effect of crystalline periodicity. Energy band diagrams and effective masses. The distinction between metals, semiconductors and insulators.
Semiconductors (4 hours): Holes. Basic properties of intrinsic semiconductors; H-model of doped semiconductors, donors and acceptors; p-n junction.
Magnetism (3 hours): Magnetic susceptibility. The origin of magnetic moments in solids. Classical models of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. Ferromagnetism and the exchange interaction.
Lattice dynamics (4 hours): Optical and acoustic vibrations. Phonons. Classical and quantum theories of heat capacity.
Laboratory: Performance of experiments designed further to develop practical skills and support lecture material.
Further information on programme availabilityProgramme availability:

PH20063 is Compulsory on the following programmes:

Programmes in Natural Sciences
  • UXXX-AFB01 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) with Year long work placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFB01 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) with Year long work placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFB01 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Environmental Science with Physics stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Environmental Science with Physics stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Environmental Science with Physics stream) with Year long work placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFB01 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) with Year long work placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFB01 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) with Year long work placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFB01 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Environmental Science stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Environmental Science stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKB02 : BSc(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Environmental Science stream) with Year long work placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) with Professional Placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) with Professional Placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) with Professional Placement (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AAM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • UXXX-AKM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) with Professional Placement (Year 2)

PH20063 is Optional on the following programmes:

Department of Physics
  • USXX-AFB03 : BSc(Hons) Mathematics and Physics (Year 2)
  • USXX-AAB04 : BSc(Hons) Mathematics and Physics with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • USXX-AKB04 : BSc(Hons) Mathematics and Physics with Year long work placement (Year 2)
  • USXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Mathematics and Physics (Year 2)
  • USXX-AAM01 : MSci(Hons) Mathematics and Physics with Study year abroad (Year 2)
  • USXX-AKM01 : MSci(Hons) Mathematics and Physics with Year long work placement (Year 2)

Notes: