Department of Chemistry

Christopher Frost


1 South 0.08


Tel: +44 (0) 1225 386142 


Academic Biography

  • BSc(Hons) at the University of Loughborough 1987-1991
  • PhD in Asymmetric Catalysis (with Jonathan M. J. Williams) at the University of Loughborough-1991-1994.
  • Post-doctoral research fellowship with Prof. Philip D. Magnus at the University of Texas at Austin 1994-1996.
  • Lecturer/Reader/Professor at the University of Bath 1996–Present.

Prof Chris Frost


Research Interests

Research in the Frost group involves creating new chemical tools for catalysis and biosensing. We are dedicated to developing sustainable approaches to synthesis through efficient catalysis and we have made some creative and important contributions to this area. The delivery of distinct structural complexity with scalability in an efficient and innovative manner is central to drug discovery programmes. Tandem catalysis presents a number of opportunities for the synthetic chemist to improve chemical transformations. The realisation of new tandem synthetic methodology forms a significant part of our research programme. The objective is to produce highly functionalised drug-like molecules from readily available feedstocks. Current projects involve transition metal catalysed conjugate addition, cross-coupling and exploring new concepts and selectivities in C-H activation.

To date, only a very narrow range of cutting-edge synthetic methods has been exploited to prepare designer biomolecules, despite the great attractiveness and potential high impact of using adventurous chemistry to access (for instance) custom bioconjugation, novel biotracers and other new functionalised biochemical tools to aid drug discovery. The synthetic modification of proteins is a growing area at the interface of chemistry and biology. The selective conjugation of biochemical probes can help understand how a natural protein functions or change a proteins function entirely. The tethering of “capture” sites to proteins can help identify new inhibitors of protein-protein and protein-DNA binding which in turn can lead to new drugs. We have developed new synthetic methods and new reagents for the conjugation of functional molecules to proteins and oligonucleotides. We also lead an inter-disciplinary research program developing a bioelectronic approach to the detection of specific DNA segments and protein markers. This technology contributed to the launch of a University spin out Atlas Genetics Ltd, a diagnostic company developing ultra-rapid point-of-care tests for a range of infectious diseases.


Yang, Z., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Frost, C., Estrela, P. and Thomas, K. V., 2015. Community Sewage Sensors for Monitoring Public Health. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (10), pp. 5845-5846.

Yang, Z., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Goggins, S., Frost, C. and Estrela, P., 2015. A novel immobilization strategy for electrochemical detection of cancer biomarkers: DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors for sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen. Analyst, 140 (8), pp. 2628-2633.

Edwards, H. J., Goggins, S. and Frost, C. G., 2015. Trans-selective rhodium catalysed conjugate addition of organoboron reagents to dihydropyranones. Molecules, 20 (4), pp. 6153-6166.

Jolly, P., Formisano, N., Tkac, J., Kasak, P., Frost, C. and Estrela, P., 2015. Label-Free Impedimetric Aptasensor with Antifouling Surface Chemistry: a Prostate Specific Antigen Case Study. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 209, pp. 306-312.

Yang, Z., Anglès d'Auriac, M., Goggins, S., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Thomas, K.V., Frost, C. and Estrela, P., 2015. A novel ferrocenyl intercalator based electrochemical biosensor for the detection of human-specific mitochondrial DNA in wastewater: identification of potential population biomarker for public health. In: 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology, 2015-05-10 - 2015-05-13, Lisbon.

Goggins, S., Naz, C., Marsh, B. J. and Frost, C. G., 2015. Ratiometric electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase. Chemical Communications, 51 (3), pp. 561-564.

Marsh, B. J., Hampton, L., Goggins, S. and Frost, C. G., 2014. Fine-tuning of ferrocene redox potentials towards multiplex DNA detection. New Journal of Chemistry, 38 (11), pp. 5260-5263.

Reynolds, W., Plucinski, P. and Frost, C. G., 2014. Robust and reusable supported palladium catalysts for cross-coupling reactions in flow. Catalysis Science and Technology, 4 (4), pp. 948-954.

Goggins, S., Rosevere, E., Bellini, C., Allen, J. C., Marsh, B. J., Mahon, M. F. and Frost, C. G., 2014. Silyl-protected dioxaborinanes:Application in the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 12 (1), pp. 47-52.

Yang, Z., Jolly, P., Goggins, S., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Frost, C. G. and Estrela, P., 2014. A novel method of aptamer immobilization for sensitive cancer biomarker detection. In: Sensors in Medicine 2014, 2014-03-25 - 2014-03-26, London.

Mahy, W., Plucinski, P.K. and Frost, C.G., 2014. Copper-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of N-Aryl oxazolidinones from amino alcohol carbamates. Organic Letters, 16 (19), pp. 5020-5023.

Reynolds, W. R., Liu, P. M., Kociok-Kohn, G. and Frost, C. G., 2013. Sequential chelation-assisted aromatic C–H functionalisation via catalytic meta sulfonation. Synlett, 24 (20), ST-2013-D0836-L.

Liu, P. M. and Frost, C. G., 2013. Ruthenium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of arylpyrazoles:Regioselective acylation with acid chlorides. Organic Letters, 15 (22), pp. 5862-5865.

Reynolds, W. and Frost, C., 2013. Coupling reactions in continuous-flow systems. In: Molnar, A., ed. Palladium-Catalysed Coupling Reactions. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, pp. 409-440.

Ferreira, P.M.T., Monteiro, L.S., Pereira, G., Castanheira, E.M.S. and Frost, C.G., 2013. Synthesis of fluorescent alanines by a rhodium-catalysed conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to dehydroalanine derivatives. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2013 (3), pp. 550-556.

Flower, Stephen, 2012. Novel Ferrocene Labels For Electrochemical Assay and Their Use in Analytical Methods. C07F 17/02(2006.01)-WO 2012/085591 A1, 28 June 2012.

Lawrence, K., Flower, S.E., Kociok-Kohn, G., Frost, C.G. and James, T.D., 2012. A simple and effective colorimetric technique for the detection of boronic acids and their derivatives. Analytical Methods, 4 (8), pp. 2215-2217.

Allen, J. C., Kociok-Kohn, G. and Frost, C. G., 2012. Rhodium-catalysed enantioselective synthesis of 4-arylchroman-2-ones. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 10 (1), pp. 32-35.

Saidi, O., Marafie, J., Ledger, A. E. W., Liu, P. M., Mahon, M. F., Kociok-Kohn, G., Whittlesey, M. K. and Frost, C. G., 2011. Ruthenium-catalyzed meta sulfonation of 2-phenylpyridines. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133 (48), pp. 19298-19301.

Burrows, A. D., Frost, C. G., Kandiah, M., Keenan, L. L., Mahon, M. F., Savarese, T. L. and Warren, J. E., 2011. The effect of reaction conditions on the nature of cadmium 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate metal-organic frameworks. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 366 (1), pp. 303-309.

Hargrave, J. D., Bish, G., Kociok-Kohn, G. and Frost, C. G., 2010. Rhodium-catalysed conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to enantiopure dehydroamino acid derivatives. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 8 (22), pp. 5120-5125.

Frost, C. G., Edwards, H. J., Penrose, S. D. and Gleave, R., 2010. Exploring rhodium-catalysed conjugate addition of chiral alkenylboronates using chiral olefin ligands. Synthesis, 2010 (19), pp. 3243-3247.

Frost, C. G. and Mutton, L., 2010. Heterogeneous catalytic synthesis using microreactor technology. Green Chemistry, 12 (10), pp. 1687-1703.

White, J. R., Price, G. J., Schiffers, S., Raithby, P. R., Plucinski, P. K. and Frost, C. G., 2010. A modular approach to catalytic synthesis using a dual-functional linker for Click and Suzuki coupling reactions. Tetrahedron Letters, 51 (30), pp. 3913-3917.

Burrows, A. D., Frost, C. G., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R., Renouf, C. L., Richardson, C. and Stevenson, A., 2010. Dipyridyl β-diketonate complexes: versatile polydentate metalloligands for metal-organic frameworks and hydrogen-bonded networks. Chemical Communications, 46 (28), pp. 5067-5069.

Burrows, A. D., Frost, C. G., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R., Richardson, C. and Stevenson, A., 2010. Solid state interconversion of cages and coordination networks via conformational change of a semi-rigid ligand. Chemical Communications, 46 (28), pp. 5064-5066.

Hargrave, J. D., Frost, C. G. and Allen, J. C., 2010. First catalytic enantioselective Dieckmann-type annulation. Synthesis, 2010 (11), A50-A52.

Edwards, H. J., Hargrave, J. D., Penrose, S. D. and Frost, C. G., 2010. Synthetic applications of rhodium catalysed conjugate addition. Chemical Society Reviews, 39 (6), pp. 2093-2105.

Hargrave, J.D., Allen, J.C. and Frost, C.G., 2010. Alternatives to organoboron reagents in rhodium-catalyzed conjugate additions. Chemistry - An Asian Journal, 5 (3), pp. 386-396.

Hargrave, J. D., Allen, J. C., Kociok-Kohn, G., Bish, G. and Frost, C. G., 2010. Catalytic enantioselective Dieckmann-type annulation: Synthesis of pyrrolidines with quaternary stereogenic centers. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 49 (10), pp. 1825-1829.

Burrows, A., Frost, C., Mahon, M. and Richardson, C., 2010. Post-synthetic modification : Playing tag with metal-organic frameworks. In: 2nd International Conference on Metal-Organic Frameworks and Open Framework Materials, (MOF2010), 2010-09-05 - 2010-09-09, Marseille.

Burrows, A., Frost, C., Mahon, M., Raithby, P., Richardson, C. and Stevenson, A., 2010. Solid state interconversion of cages and coordination networks via conformational change of a semi-rigid ligand. In: Gordon Research Conference on Crystal Engineering, 2010-06-06 - 2010-06-11, Waterville Valley Resort, New Hampshire.

White, J.R., Price, G.J., Plucinski, P.K. and Frost, C.G., 2009. The rhodium-catalysed 1,2-addition of arylboronic acids to aldehydes and ketones with sulfonated S-Phos. Tetrahedron Letters, 50 (52), pp. 7365-7368.

Laska, U., Frost, C. G., Price, G. J. and Plucinski, P. K., 2009. Easy-separable magnetic nanoparticle-supported Pd catalysts: Kinetics, stability and catalyst re-use. Journal of Catalysis, 268 (2), pp. 318-328.

Burrows, A. D., Frost, C. G., Mahon, M. F. and Richardson, C., 2009. Sulfur-tagged metal–organic frameworks and their post-synthetic oxidation. Chemical Communications, 28, pp. 4218-4220.

Zoute, L., Kociok-Kohn, G. and Frost, C. G., 2009. Rhodium-catalyzed 1,4-additions to enantiopure acceptors: asymmetric synthesis of functionalized pyrrolizidinones. Organic Letters, 11 (12), pp. 2491-2494.

Frost, C. G., Penrose, S. D. and Gleave, R., 2009. A Practical Synthesis of α-Substituted tert-Butyl Acrylates from Meldrum's Acid and Aldehydes. Synthesis, 4, pp. 627-635.

Frost, C. G. and Hartley, B. C., 2009. Lewis Base-Promoted Hydrosilylation of Cyclic Malonates: Synthesis of β-Substituted Aldehydes and γ-Substituted Amines. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 74 (9), pp. 3599-3602.

Burrows, A. D., Frost, C. G., Mahon, M. F. and Richardson, C., 2008. Post-synthetic modification of tagged metal-organic frameworks. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 47 (44), pp. 8482-8486.

Nôtre, J.L. and Frost, C.G., 2008. Rhodium-catalysed 1,4-addition-halogenation:the crucial role of lithium halide. Tetrahedron Letters, 49 (43), pp. 6217-6219.

Kruck, M., Munoz, M.P., Bishop, H.L., Butts, C.P., Lloyd-Jones, G.C., Frost, C.G., Chapman, C.J. and Kociok-Kohn, G., 2008. BINOL-3,3′-triflone N,N-dimethyl phosphoramidites:Through-space 19F31P spin-spin coupling with a remarkable dependency on temperature and solvent internal pressure. Chemistry - A European Journal, 14 (26), pp. 7808-7812.

Le Nôtre, J., Allen, J. C. and Frost, C. G., 2008. Enantioselective rhodium-catalysed 1,4-additions of 2-heteroarylzinc donors using Me-DUPHOS. Chemical Communications, 2008 (32), pp. 3795-3797.

Laska, U., Frost, C. G., Plucinski, P. K. and Price, G. J., 2008. Rhodium containing magnetic nanoparticles: effective catalysts for hydrogenation and the 1,4-addition of boronic acids. Catalysis Letters, 122 (1-2), pp. 68-75.

Chapman, C. J., Hargrave, J. D., Bish, G. and Frost, C. G., 2008. Peptide modification through site-selective residue interconversion: application of the rhodium-catalysed 1,4-addition of aryl siloxanes and boronates. Tetrahedron, 64 (40), pp. 9528-9539.

Burrows, A., Frost, C., Mahon, M. and Richardson, C., 2008. Post-synthetic modification of tagged metal-organic frameworks. In: 1st International Conference on Metal-Organic Frameworks and Open Framework Materials, (MOF2008), 2008-10-08 - 2008-10-10, Augsburg.

Frost, C., Penrose, S. and Gleave, R., 2008. Rhodium catalysed conjugate addition of a chiral alkenyltrifluoroborate salt: The enantioselective synthesis of hermitamides A and B. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 6 (23), pp. 4340-4347.

Burrows, A. D., Frost, C. G., Mahon, M. F., Winsper, M., Richardson, C., Attfield, J. P. and Rodgers, J. A., 2008. Subtle structural variation in copper metal-organic frameworks: Syntheses, structures, magnetic properties and catalytic behaviour. Dalton Transactions, 2008 (47), pp. 6788-6795.

This list was generated on Fri Jul 31 16:41:07 2015 IST.

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