Department of Chemistry


Professor on Inorganic Chemistry

1 South 1.12


Tel: +44 (0) 1225 383183 


Prof Paul Raithby


Paul Raithby has held the Chair of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Bath since 2000.  He is currently an EPSRC Senior Research Fellow (2006-2011) working on the development of time resolved crystallography.  In his research he uses synchrotron radiation as one of his key research tools and has worked extensively at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory, and at the ESRF, Grenoble.  He was chair of the working party that is developing the new “small molecule” single-crystal X-ray diffraction beamline (I19) that has been built at the Diamond synchrotron at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot.  He is the immediate past President of the British Crystallographic Association (2006-2009) and is currently a member of the EPSRC Technical Opportunities Panel (TOP). He is also the Champion of the EPSRC Grand Challenge entitled "Directed Assembly of Extended Structures with Targeted Properties".   

Paul Raithby’s research interests are in the area of solid state materials and materials science where he uses a range of synthetic, spectroscopic, diffraction and knowledge mining techniques to probe the correlation between materials and their properties.  He is currently working on the development of new organometallic oligomers and polymers that have applications in the opto-electronics industry and on coordination complexes that can act as sensors and data storage materials.

Research Interests

  • Time resolved Crystallography
  • Solid State Reactions
  • Organometallic Oligomers and Polymers
  • Transition Metal Clusters
  • Structural Systematics in Organic and Organometallic Materials
  • Luminescent and Triboluminescent Lanthanide Complexes


Shah, H.H., Al-Balushi, R.A., Al-Suti, M.K., Khan, M.S., Marken, F., Sudlow, A.L., Kociok-Kohn, G., Woodall, C.H., Raithby, P.R. and Molloy, K.C., 2014. New di-ferrocenyl-ethynylpyridinyl triphenylphosphine copper halide complexes and related di-ferricenyl electro-crystallized materials. Dalton Transactions, 43 (25), pp. 9497-9507.

Hamdy, L. B., Raithby, P. R., Thomas, L. H. and Wilson, C. C., 2014. Self-assembly synthesis of precursors to potential open framework alkali earth metal-organic complexes. New Journal of Chemistry, 38 (5), pp. 2135-2143.

Warren, M.R., Easun, T.L., Brayshaw, S.K., Deeth, R.J., George, M.W., Johnson, A.L., Schiffers, S., Teat, S.J., Warren, A.J., Warren, J.E., Wilson, C.C., Woodall, C.H. and Raithby, P.R., 2014. Solid-state interconversions : Unique 100 % reversible transformations between the ground and metastable states in single-crystals of a series of nickel(II) nitro complexes. Chemistry - A European Journal, 20 (18), pp. 5468-5477.

Harford, P. J., Peel, A. J., Taylor, J. P., Komagawa, S., Raithby, P.R., Robinson, T. P., Uchiyama, M. and Wheatley, A. E. H., 2014. Structural effects in lithiocuprate chemistry : the elucidation of reactive pentametallic complexes. Chemistry - A European Journal, 20 (14), pp. 3908-3912.

Woodall, C. H., Brayshaw, S. K., Schiffers, S., Allan, D. R., Parsons, S., Valiente, R. and Raithby, P. R., 2014. High-pressure crystallographic and spectroscopic studies on two molecular dithienylethene switches. CrystEngComm, 16 (11), pp. 2119-2128.

Hatcher, L. E., Christensen, J., Hamilton, M. L., Trincao, J., Allan, D. R., Warren, M. R., Clarke, I. P., Towrie, M., Fuertes, D. S., Wilson, C. C., Woodall, C. H. and Raithby, P. R., 2014. Steady-state and pseudo-steady-state photocrystallographic studies on linkage isomers of [Ni(Et4dien)(η2-O,ON)(η1-NO2)] : Identification of a new linkage isomer. Chemistry - A European Journal, 20 (11), pp. 3128-3134.

Hatcher, L. E. and Raithby, P. R., 2014. Forthcoming. Dynamic single-crystal diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation. Coordination Chemistry Reviews

Hatcher, L. E. and Raithby, P. R., 2013. Solid-state photochemistry of molecular photo-switchable species : the role of photocrystallographic techniques. Acta Crystallographica Section C-Crystal Structure Communications, 69 (12), pp. 1448-1456.

Woodall, C. H., Beavers, C. M., Christensen, J., Hatcher, L. E., Intissar, M., Parlett, A., Teat, S. J., Reber, C. and Raithby, P. R., 2013. Hingeless negative linear compression in the mechanochromic gold complex [(C6F5Au)2(μ-1,4-diisocyanobenzene)]. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 52 (37), pp. 9691-9694.

Shah, H.H., Al-Balushi, R.A., Al-Suti, M.K., Khan, M.S., Woodall, C. H., Molloy, K.C., Raithby, P.R., Robinson, T.P., Dale, S.E.C. and Marken, F., 2013. Long-range intramolecular electronic communication in bis(ferrocenylethynyl) complexes incorporating conjugated heterocyclic spacers : Synthesis, crystallography, and electrochemistry. Inorganic Chemistry, 52 (9), pp. 4898-4908.

Ward, M. D. and Raithby, P. R., 2013. Functional behaviour from controlled self-assembly : Challenges and prospects. Chemical Society Reviews, 42 (4), pp. 1619-1636.

Shah, H. H., Al-balushi, R. A., Al-suti, M. K., Khan, M. S., Woodall, C. H., Sudlow, A. L., Raithby, P. R., Kociok-Kohn, G., Molloy, K. C. and Marken, F., 2013. New multi-ferrocenyl- and multi-ferricenyl- materials via coordination-driven self-assembly and via charge-driven electro-crystallization. Inorganic Chemistry, 52 (20), pp. 12012-12022.

Warren, M.R., Brayshaw, S.K., Hatcher, L.E., Johnson, A.L., Schiffers, S., Warren, A.J., Woodall, C.H., Raithby, P.R., Teat, S.J. and Warren, J.E., 2012. Photoactivated linkage isomerism in single crystals of nickel, palladium and platinum di-nitro complexes: A photocrystallographic investigation. Dalton Transactions, 41 (42), pp. 13173-13179.

Jarvis, A.G., Sparkes, H.A., Tallentire, S.E., Hatcher, L.E., Warren, M.R., Raithby, P.R., Allan, D.R., Whitwood, A.C., Cockett, M.C.R., Duckett, S.B., Clark, J.L. and Fairlamb, I.J.S., 2012. Photochemical-mediated solid-state [2+2]-cycloaddition reactions of an unsymmetrical dibenzylidene acetone (monothiophos-dba). CrystEngComm, 14 (17), pp. 5564-5571.

Fuertes, S., Woodall, C. H., Raithby, P. R. and Sicilia, V., 2012. Heteropolynuclear Pt(II)–M(I) clusters with a C∧N∧C biscyclometalated ligand. Organometallics, 31 (11), pp. 4228-4240.

Bajwa, S. E., Storr, T. E., Hatcher, L. E., Williams, T. J., Baumann, C. G., Whitwood, A. C., Allan, D. R., Teat, S. J., Raithby, P. R. and Fairlamb, I. J. S., 2012. On the appearance of nitrite anion in [PdX(OAc)L2] and [Pd(X)(C∧N)L] syntheses (X = OAc or NO2): Photocrystallographic identification of metastable Pd(η1-ONO)(C∧N)PPh3. Chemical Science, 3 (5), pp. 1656-1661.

Brayshaw, S. K., Easun, T. L., George, M. W., Griffin, A. M. E., Johnson, A. L., Raithby, P. R., Savarese, T. L., Schiffers, S., Warren, J. E., Warren, M. R. and Teat, S. J., 2012. Photocrystallographic identification of metastable nitrito linkage isomers in a series of nickel(II) complexes. Dalton Transactions, 41 (1), pp. 90-97.

Harford, P. J., Haywood, J., Smith, M. R., Bhawal, B. N., Raithby, P. R., Uchiyama, M. and Wheatley, A. E. H., 2012. Expanding the tools available for direct ortho cupration - Targeting lithium phosphidocuprates. Dalton Transactions, 41 (20), pp. 6148-6154.

Jura, M., Raithby, P.R. and Wilson, P.J., 2012. Metal acetylide complexes, oligomers and polymers in photofunctional materials chemistry. In: Wong, W.-Y. and Abu-El-Aziz, A. S., eds. Molecular Design and Applications of Photofunctional Polymers and Materials. Cambridge: RSC, pp. 56-84.

Fuertes Lorda, S., Brayshaw, S. K., Raithby, P. R., Schiffers, S. and Warren, M. R., 2012. New C∧N∧C Bis-Cyclometalated Platinum(II) Complexes: Synthesis, Structures, and Photophysical Properties. Organometallics, 31 (1), pp. 105-119.

Burrows, A. D., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R., Warren, A. J., Teat, S. J. and Warren, J. E., 2012. The effect of carboxylate and N,N′-ditopic ligand lengths on the structures of copper and zinc coordination polymers. CrystEngComm, 14 (10), pp. 3658-3666.

Tong, L. H., Pengo, P., Clegg, W., Lowe, J. P., Raithby, P. R., Sanders, J. K. M. and Pascu, S. I., 2011. Complexes of aryl-substituted porphyrins and naphthalenediimide (NDI): Investigations by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy. Dalton Transactions, 40 (41), pp. 10833-10842.

Bou-Moreno, R., Cotton, S. A., Hunter, V., Leonard, K., Platt, A. W. G., Raithby, P. R. and Schiffers, S., 2011. Systematic structural studies on cobalt(II) complexes of tricyclohexylphosphine oxide and related ligands. Polyhedron, 30 (17), pp. 2832-2836.

Khan, M. S., Al-Suti, M. K., Shah, H. H., Al-Humaimi, S., Al-Battashi, F. R., Bjernemose, J. K., Male, L., Raithby, P. R., Zhang, N., Kohler, A. and Warren, J. E., 2011. Synthesis and characterization of platinum(ii) di-ynes and poly-ynes incorporating ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) spacers in the backbone. Dalton Transactions, 40 (39), pp. 10174-10183.

Hatcher, L. E., Warren, M. R., Allan, D. R., Brayshaw, S. K., Johnson, A. L., Fuertes, S., Schiffers, S., Stevenson, A. J., Teat, S. J., Woodall, C. H. and Raithby, P. R., 2011. Metastable linkage isomerism in [Ni(Et4dien)(NO2)2]: A combined thermal and photocrystallographic structural investigation of a nitro/nitrito interconversion. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 50 (36), pp. 8371-8374.

Brayshaw, S. K., Clarke, L. P., Homanen, P., Koentjoro, O. F., Warren, J. E. and Raithby, P. R., 2011. Coordination behavior and transformations of thienyl-substituted diacetylenes upon coordination to Os3H2(CO)10. Organometallics, 30 (15), pp. 3955-3965.

Willcocks, A. M., Johnson, A. L., Raithby, P. R., Schiffers, S. and Warren, J. E., 2011. Bis(tert-butyl isocyanide-kappa C) 4-fluoro-N-({2- N-(4-fluorophenyl)carboximidoyl cyclopenta-2,4-dien-1 -yl-idene}methyl)anilinido-kappa(2)N,N ' -copper(I). Acta Crystallographica Section C-Crystal Structure Communications, 67 (7), M215-M217.

Brayshaw, S. K., Schiffers, S., Stevenson, A. J., Teat, S. J., Warren, M. R., Bennett, R. D., Sazanovich, I. V., Buckley, A. R., Weinstein, J. A. and Raithby, P. R., 2011. Highly efficient visible-light driven photochromism: developments towards a solid-state molecular switch operating through a triplet-sensitised pathway. Chemistry - A European Journal, 17 (16), pp. 4385-4395.

Mole, R. A., Stride, J. A., Henry, P. F., Hoelzel, M., Senyshyn, A., Alberola, A., Garcia, C. J. G., Raithby, P. R. and Wood, P. T., 2011. Two stage magnetic ordering and spin idle behavior of the coordination polymer Co-3(OH)(2)(C4O4)(2)center dot 3H(2)O determined using neutron diffraction. Inorganic Chemistry, 50 (6), pp. 2246-2251.

Perez, Y., Johnson, A. L. and Raithby, P. R., 2011. Synthesis of complexes with the polydentate ligand N,N '-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide. Polyhedron, 30 (2), pp. 284-292.

Burrows, A. D., Kelly, D. J., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R., Richardson, C. and Stevenson, A. J., 2011. Silver coordination networks and cages based on a semi-rigid bis(isoxazolyl) ligand. Dalton Transactions, 40 (20), pp. 5483-5493.

Nahar, S., Davies, J. E., Shields, G. P. and Raithby, P. R., 2010. Routes to higher nuclearity mixed-metal carbonyl clusters using the Rh(eta(5)-C5Me5)(NCMe)(3) (2+) dication as a building block. Journal of Cluster Science, 21 (3), pp. 379-396.

White, J. R., Price, G. J., Schiffers, S., Raithby, P. R., Plucinski, P. K. and Frost, C. G., 2010. A modular approach to catalytic synthesis using a dual-functional linker for Click and Suzuki coupling reactions. Tetrahedron Letters, 51 (30), pp. 3913-3917.

Burrows, A. D., Frost, C. G., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R., Renouf, C. L., Richardson, C. and Stevenson, A., 2010. Dipyridyl β-diketonate complexes: versatile polydentate metalloligands for metal-organic frameworks and hydrogen-bonded networks. Chemical Communications, 46 (28), pp. 5067-5069.

Burrows, A. D., Frost, C. G., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R., Richardson, C. and Stevenson, A., 2010. Solid state interconversion of cages and coordination networks via conformational change of a semi-rigid ligand. Chemical Communications, 46 (28), pp. 5064-5066.

Jones, M., Cooper, C., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R., Apperley, D., Wolowska, J. and Collison, D., 2010. Cu(II) homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the asymmetric Henry reaction. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 325 (1-2), pp. 8-14.

Babu, K. F., Kulandainathan, M. A., Katsounaros, I., Rassaei, L., Burrows, A. D., Raithby, P. R. and Marken, F., 2010. Electrocatalytic activity of Basolite (TM) F300 metal-organic-framework structures. Electrochemistry Communications, 12 (5), pp. 632-635.

Buntem, R., Punyain, K., Tantirungrotechai, Y., Raithby, P. R. and Lewis, J., 2010. A density functional theory investigation on intramolecular hydrogen transfer of the [Os3(CO)11P(OMe)3(Ru(n5- C5H5))2] cluster. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 31 (4), pp. 934-940.

Torres-Sandoval, I., Brayshaw, S. K., Raithby, P. R. and Rosales-Hoz, M. J., 2010. Reaction of the diyne complex Os-3(mu-CO)(CO)(9){mu(3)-eta(2)-Me3SiCCC CSiMe3} with phosphines and phosphites: Characterization of monophosphine substituted clusters Os-3(mu-CO)(CO)(8)(PR3){mu(3)-eta(2)-Me3SiCCC CSiMe3} (PR3 = PPh3, P(OEt)(3), PEt3, PHPh2 and Ph2PCH2PPh2). Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 695 (2), pp. 156-161.

Brayshaw, S. K., Knight, J. W., Raithby, P. R., Savarese, T. L., Schiffers, S., Teat, S. J., Warren, J. E. and Warren, M. R., 2010. Photocrystallography – design and methodology for the use of a light-emitting diode device. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 43 (2), pp. 337-340.

Warren, M. R., Brayshaw, S. K., Johnson, A. L., Schiffers, S., Raithby, P. R., Easun, T. L., George, M. W., Warren, J. E. and Teat, S. J., 2009. Reversible 100% linkage isomerization in a single-crystal to single-crystal transformation: photocrystallographic identification of the metastable [Ni(dppe)(η1-ONO)Cl] isomer. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, 48 (31), pp. 5711-5714.

Moskalenko, A. V., Gordeev, S. N., Koentjoro, O. F., Raithby, P. R., French, R. W., Marken, F. and Savel’ev, S. E., 2009. Nanomechanical electron shuttle consisting of a gold nanoparticle embedded within the gap between two gold electrodes. Physical Review B, 79 (24), 241403.

Johnson, A. L., Willcocks, A. M., Raithby, P. R., Warren, M. R., Kingsley, A. J. and Odedra, R., 2009. Unprecedented double migratory insertion of phenyl isocyanide into cyclopentadienyl C-H bonds. Dalton Transactions, 2009 (6), pp. 922-924.

Towrie, M., Parker, A. W., Ronayne, K. L., Bowes, K. F., Cole, J. M., Raithby, P. R. and Warren, J. E., 2009. A Time-Resolved Infrared Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of the Photo-Dynamics of Crystalline Materials. Applied Spectroscopy, 63 (1), pp. 57-65.

Warren, J. E., Pritchard, R. G., Abram, D., Davies, H. M., Savarese, T. L., Cash, R. J., Raithby, P. R., Morris, R., Jones, R. H. and Teat, S. J., 2009. A prototype environmental gas cell for in situ small-molecule X-ray diffraction. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 42, pp. 457-460.

Moskalenko, A. V., Gordeev, S., Koentjoro, O. F., Raithby, P., French, R., Marken, F. and Savel’ev, S., 2009. Fabrication of shuttle-junctions for nanomechanical transfer of electrons. Nanotechnology, 20 (48), 485202.

Haywood, J., Morey, J. V., Wheatley, A. E. H., Liu, C. Y., Yasuike, S., Kurita, J., Uchiyama, M. and Raithby, P. R., 2009. Gilman-Type versus Lipshutz-Type Reagents: Competition in Lithiocuprate Chemistry. Organometallics, 28 (1), pp. 38-41.

French, R. W., Gordeev, S. N., Raithby, P. R. and Marken, F., 2009. Paired gold junction electrodes with submicrometer gap. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 632 (1-2), pp. 206-210.

Abbaspour, A., Shamsipur, M., Siroueinejad, A., Kia, R. and Raithby, P. R., 2009. Renewable-surface sol-gel derived carbon ceramic-modified electrode fabricated by a newly synthesized polypyridil and phosphine Ru (II) complex and its application as an amperometric sensor for hydrazine. Electrochimica Acta, 54 (10), pp. 2916-2923.

Richter, I., Warren, M. R., Minari, J., Elfeky, S. A., Chen, W., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P., James, T. D., Sakurai, K., Teat, S. J., Bull, S. D. and Fossey, J. S., 2009. Solid-State Structures and Solution Analyses of a Phenylpropylpyridine N-Oxide and an N-Methyl Phenylpropylpyridine. Chemistry - An Asian Journal, 4 (1), pp. 194-198.

Sudha Devi, L., Al-Suti, M. K., Zhang, N., Teat, S. J., Male, L., Sparkes, H. A., Raithby, P. R., Khan, M. S. and Köhler, A., 2009. Synthesis and comparison of the optical properties of platinum(II) poly-ynes with fused and non-fused oligothiophenes. Macromolecules, 42 (4), pp. 1131-1141.

Johnson, A. L., Davidson, M. G., Pérez, Y., Jones, M. D., Merle, N., Raithby, P. R. and Richards, S. P., 2009. Synthesis and structure of aluminium amine-phenolate complexes. Dalton Transactions, 2009 (28), pp. 5551-5558.

Howard, J. A. K., Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R. and Sparkes, H. A., 2009. Trans-cinnamic acid and coumarin-3-carboxylic acid: experimental charge-density studies to shed light on [2+2] cycloaddition reactions. Acta Crystallographica Section B-Structural Science, B65, pp. 230-237.

Tong, L. H., Wietor, J.-L., Clegg, W., Raithby, P. R., Pascu, S. I. and Sanders, J. K. M., 2008. Supramolecular assemblies of tripodal porphyrin hosts and C60. Chemistry - A European Journal, 14 (10), pp. 3035-3044.

Weller, Andrew, 2008. Hydrogen Storage. C01B3/00D2D-WO2008009944 (A2), 24 January 2008.

Fun, H. K., Kia, R. and Raithby, P. R., 2008. 2-[(E)-(5-Amino-2,3-diphenylquinoxalin-6-yl)iminomethyl]-4-bromophenol. Acta Crystallographica Section E-Structure Reports Online, 64, O1271-U1989.

Li, P., Ahrens, B., Bond, A. D., Davies, J. E., Koentjoro, O. F., Raithby, P. R. and Teat, S. J., 2008. A new series of dinuclear Au(I) complexes linked by diethynylpyridine groups. Dalton Transactions

Mahon, M. F., Raithby, P. R. and Sparkes, H. A., 2008. Investigation of the factors favouring solid state [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions; the [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid. CrystEngComm, 10 (5), pp. 573-576.

Ahrens, B., Clarke, L. P., Feeder, N., Khan, M. S., Li, P. Y., Martin, J. N. and Raithby, P. R., 2008. Reactions of [Os-3(CO)(10)(MeCN)(2)] with ethynyl thiophenes: The formation of linked clusters. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 361 (11), pp. 3117-3124.

Douglas, T. M., Brayshaw, S. K., Raithby, P. R. and Weller, A. S., 2008. Reversible addition of water to the high-hydride-content cluster [Rh-6((PPr3)-Pr-i)(6)H-12][BAr4F](2). Synthesis and structure of [Rh-6((PPr3)-Pr-i)(6)H-11(OH)][BAr4F](2). Inorganic Chemistry, 47 (3), pp. 778-780.

Cotton, S. A., Fisher, V. M. A., Raithby, P. R., Schiffers, S. and Teat, S. J., 2008. Synthesis and structure of a dimeric scandium bis(mu-methoxy) complex. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 11 (7), pp. 822-824.

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