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1.1 Car

Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory
September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.
J.O. Jansson
The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the 'production period' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.


Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives
September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.
M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton
Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.


Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study

September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.
E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer
The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.


The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline

September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.
A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro
The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.


Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal

January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.
P. Bonsall
Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.


Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach

September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.
A.C. Goodman
Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.


Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices

January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.
R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic
US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.


The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables

September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.
P.D. Loeb
traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.


The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence

May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.
D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith
A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.


The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach

September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.
F. Jorgensen J. Polak
This paper develops simple models of drivers' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.


An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars

January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.
J. Rouwendal
The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.


1.2 Metro Bus


Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.
N. Lee I. Steedman
This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.


Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience

January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.
R.K. Koshal
In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.


A Stagger Enquiry

September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.
G. Walshe
Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.


Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System

May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.
S. trench
Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.


The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study

January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.
W.J. Tyson
A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.


Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience

May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.
R.K. Koshal
The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.


The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment

May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.
D.P.C. Fletcher
A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.


Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses

September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.
R.H. brown C.A. Nash
An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.


An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles

January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.
W.J. Tyson
Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.


The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions

September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.
M.H. Fairhurst
This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.


break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems

September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.
D.S. Sawicki
The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.


The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas

May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.
S. Wabe O.B. Coles
The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.


Optimal Bus Fares

September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.
R. Turvey H. Mohring
The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.


The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis

January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.
R.W. Schmenner
Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.


The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities

January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.
H.G. Wilson
The author's aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.


Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport

January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.
C.A. Nash
Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.


The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada

September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.
M.W. Frankena
Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.


Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring's Theory of Optimal Bus Fares

September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.
J.O. Jansson
The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.


The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur

September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.
A.A. Walters
The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.


A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size

January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.
J.O. Jansson
If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.


The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service

September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.
P.A. Viton
Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.


Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation

January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.
C.W. Boyd
In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.


The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment

January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.
P.R. White
A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation

May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.
C.W. Boyd
One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.


Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare

January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.
P.A. Viton
The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.


Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport

January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.
J. Berechman
The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.


Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry

January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.
H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert
The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.


"Unnecessary and Wasteful" Competition in Bus transport

September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.
I.P. Savage
In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.


Competition on an Urban Bus Route

January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.
S. Glaister
Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.


Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport

May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.
M. Kim
Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.


Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution

May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.
K. Obeng
In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.


Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.

C.A. Nash
A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author's rejoinder.


Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services

January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.

P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield
Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.


Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.

T.E. Galvez
A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.


Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition

May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.

C. Foster J. Golay
Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.


Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size

May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.

S. Glaister
A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.


A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services

January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.
A. Evans
The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.


Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation

September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.
J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos
The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.


Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation

September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.

A. Evans
Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.


Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry

January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.

K.M. Gwilliam
Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.


Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry

May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.

M.E. Beesley
Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.


The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs

September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.

P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock
This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.


Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets

September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.

A. Evans
The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government's expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.


Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas

September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.

W.J. Tyson
The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author's judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.


Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet

September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.

P.R. White
A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.


The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets

September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.

K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde
Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.


A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation

May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.

N.J. Ireland
Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.


Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation

May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.

J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton
An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional "rule-of-reason" approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.


The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway

September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.

F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll
This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.


Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.

P. White S. Tough
When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.


1.3 Taxi


Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry

May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.

G.W. Douglas
In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.


The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs

September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.

C. Shreiber
In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.


The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment

September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.

R.B. Coffman
A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


Competition and Supply in London Taxis

January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.

M.E. Beesley
The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.


The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment

January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.

D.J. Williams
A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.


The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder

January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.

C. Shreiber
Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.


Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne

May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.

D.J. Williams
The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.


Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States

September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.

A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight
There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.


The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA

January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.

R.F. Teal M. Berglund
Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.


Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution

May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.

J. Hackner S. Nyberg
This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.


Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market

January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.

J. Mansson
The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.


1.4 Metro Rail


The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population

May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.

G.W. Davies
An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.


A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality

September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.

D.N. Dewees
Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.


Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety

January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.

M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes
The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.


The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices

January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.

D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward
Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.


Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis

May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.
P. Wunsch
This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.


1.5 Heavy Rail


Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification

January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.

A.W. Evans
Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.


Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services

May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.

P.K. Else M. Howe
How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.


The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968

May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.

C.D. Jones
The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.


Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations

January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.

W.D. Shipman
Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.


The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line

September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.

G. Richards
A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.


Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis

September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.

R.D. Evans
This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.


The Demand for Commuter Rail transport

May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.

C.C. McDonough
Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.


A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers

September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.

J.G. Gibson
Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.


A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment

January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.

C.A. Nash
A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.


A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment

September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.

A. Grey
The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.


Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand

May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.

S. Glaister
The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.


The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence

May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.

I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols
Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.


Railway Costs and Closures

September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.

J.S. Dodgson
The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.


Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland

September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.

H. McGeehan
The author's model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.


The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail

January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.

S.D. trotter
This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.


The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation

September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.

A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips
The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.


Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain

May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.

J.D. Rickard
Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.


Railway Costs and Planning

January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.

S. Joy
Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.


Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services

May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.

J. Preston
It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.


Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries' Railways

May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.

T.H. Oum C. Yu
The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.


Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel

September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.

M. Wardman
This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.


1.6 Coach

Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.

January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.

J. Hibbs
The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.


Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty

September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.

R.E. Burns
The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.


1.7 General

Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers

September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.

R. Sherman
A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.


Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings

September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.

D.A. Quarmby
Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.


transit Validation for City Centres

January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.

E.W. Segelhorst
To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.


Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion

January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.

R Sherman
Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.


Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry

September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.

D.G. Rhys
Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.


Free Public transport

January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.

H.J. Baum
After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.


An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services

January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.

E. Smith
Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.


Parking Bias in transit Choice

January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.

E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus
The practice of subsidising the parking of employees' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.


Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies

September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.

M. Frankena
Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.


Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.

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    1.1 Car

    Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory
    September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.
    J.O. Jansson
    The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the \'production period\' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.


    Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives
    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.
    M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton
    Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.


    Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.
    E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer
    The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.


    The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.
    A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro
    The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.


    Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.
    P. Bonsall
    Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.


    Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.
    A.C. Goodman
    Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.


    Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.
    R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic
    US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.


    The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.
    P.D. Loeb
    traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.


    The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.
    D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith
    A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors\' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.


    The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers\' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach

    September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.
    F. Jorgensen J. Polak
    This paper develops simple models of drivers\' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers\' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.


    An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.
    J. Rouwendal
    The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.


    1.2 Metro Bus


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.
    N. Lee I. Steedman
    This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.
    R.K. Koshal
    In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.


    A Stagger Enquiry

    September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.
    G. Walshe
    Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers\' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.


    Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System

    May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.
    S. trench
    Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.
    W.J. Tyson
    A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.


    Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.
    R.K. Koshal
    The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.
    D.P.C. Fletcher
    A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.
    R.H. brown C.A. Nash
    An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.


    An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.
    W.J. Tyson
    Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators\' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.


    The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.
    M.H. Fairhurst
    This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.


    break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.
    D.S. Sawicki
    The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.


    The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas

    May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.
    S. Wabe O.B. Coles
    The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.


    Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.
    R. Turvey H. Mohring
    The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers\' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.
    R.W. Schmenner
    Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.


    The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities

    January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.
    H.G. Wilson
    The author\'s aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.


    Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport

    January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.
    C.A. Nash
    Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.
    M.W. Frankena
    Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.


    Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring\'s Theory of Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.
    J.O. Jansson
    The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.


    The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.
    A.A. Walters
    The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.


    A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.
    J.O. Jansson
    If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.


    The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service

    September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.
    P.A. Viton
    Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.
    C.W. Boyd
    In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.


    The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.
    C.W. Boyd
    One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.


    Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.
    P.A. Viton
    The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.


    Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.
    J. Berechman
    The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.


    Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.
    H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert
    The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.


    "Unnecessary and Wasteful" Competition in Bus transport

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.
    I.P. Savage
    In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.
    S. Glaister
    Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.


    Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.
    M. Kim
    Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.


    Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.
    K. Obeng
    In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.

    P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield
    Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.

    T.E. Galvez
    A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.


    Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.

    C. Foster J. Golay
    Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.


    Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.

    S. Glaister
    A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.


    A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.
    A. Evans
    The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.


    Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.
    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos
    The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers\' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.


    Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.

    A. Evans
    Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.


    Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.

    K.M. Gwilliam
    Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.


    Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.

    M.E. Beesley
    Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.


    The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.

    P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock
    This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.


    Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.

    A. Evans
    The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government\'s expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.


    Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.

    W.J. Tyson
    The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author\'s judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.


    Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.

    P.R. White
    A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.


    The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.

    K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde
    Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.


    A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.

    N.J. Ireland
    Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.


    Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation

    May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.

    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton
    An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional "rule-of-reason" approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.


    The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.

    F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll
    This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.


    Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.

    P. White S. Tough
    When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.


    1.3 Taxi


    Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.

    G.W. Douglas
    In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers\' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.

    C. Shreiber
    In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment

    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.

    R.B. Coffman
    A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    Competition and Supply in London Taxis

    January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.

    M.E. Beesley
    The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.

    D.J. Williams
    A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.

    C. Shreiber
    Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.


    Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.

    D.J. Williams
    The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.


    Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.

    A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight
    There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.


    The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.

    R.F. Teal M. Berglund
    Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.


    Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution

    May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.

    J. Hackner S. Nyberg
    This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.


    Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.

    J. Mansson
    The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.


    1.4 Metro Rail


    The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population

    May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.

    G.W. Davies
    An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.


    A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.

    D.N. Dewees
    Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.


    Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.

    M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes
    The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.


    The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.

    D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward
    Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.


    Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis

    May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.
    P. Wunsch
    This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.


    1.5 Heavy Rail


    Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification

    January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.

    A.W. Evans
    Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.


    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services

    May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.

    P.K. Else M. Howe
    How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.


    The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968

    May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.

    C.D. Jones
    The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.


    Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.

    W.D. Shipman
    Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.


    The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.

    G. Richards
    A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.


    Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.

    R.D. Evans
    This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.


    The Demand for Commuter Rail transport

    May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.

    C.C. McDonough
    Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail\'s London and South-East Commuter Passengers

    September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.

    J.G. Gibson
    Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail\'s London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment

    September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.

    A. Grey
    The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.


    Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.

    S. Glaister
    The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.


    The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.

    I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols
    Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.


    Railway Costs and Closures

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.

    J.S. Dodgson
    The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.


    Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.

    H. McGeehan
    The author\'s model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.


    The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.

    S.D. trotter
    This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.


    The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.

    A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips
    The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.


    Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.

    J.D. Rickard
    Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.


    Railway Costs and Planning

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.

    S. Joy
    Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.


    Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.

    J. Preston
    It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.


    Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries\' Railways

    May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.

    T.H. Oum C. Yu
    The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.


    Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel

    September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.

    M. Wardman
    This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.


    1.6 Coach

    Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.

    J. Hibbs
    The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.


    Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty

    September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.

    R.E. Burns
    The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.


    1.7 General

    Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.

    R. Sherman
    A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.


    Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.

    D.A. Quarmby
    Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.


    transit Validation for City Centres

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.

    E.W. Segelhorst
    To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers\' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.


    Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.

    R Sherman
    Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.


    Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.

    D.G. Rhys
    Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.


    Free Public transport

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.

    H.J. Baum
    After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.

    E. Smith
    Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.


    Parking Bias in transit Choice

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.

    E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus
    The practice of subsidising the parking of employees\' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.


    Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.

    M. Frankena
    Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.


    Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 291.

    J.G. Ody
    A comment on a contribution to the September 1972 issue of the Journal by D.G. Rhys, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services.

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 294.

    P.R. White O.B. Coles
    A comment on an article in the Journal by Mr. E. Smith in January 1973, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    Use of Public transport in Towns and Cities of Great Britain and Ireland

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 26.

    P.R. White
    Mr White reviews the experience of municipal transport undertakings and is optimistic about their future. Public transport is still important for shopping trips, and small towns are doing as well as larger ones.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services. A Comment.

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 89, 92.

    J.G. Todd J.A. Baggs
    A Comment on the article by E. Smith in the January 1973 issue of the journal, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 237.

    M.S.P. Kerridge
    The British government grant scheme discriminates in favour of rear-engined rather than front-engined double-deck buses. This gives an artificial impetus to one-man operation, which has serious disadvantages in congested areas. The author suggests that other means should be used to help buses.


    Optimal Subsidies for Public transit

    January 1975, Vol. 9, No. 1, Page 3.

    R. Jackson
    Professor Jackson presents a model for determining (1) optimal fare subsidies and (2) optimal subsidies for increasing transit speed. He concludes that no significant improvement is apparent unless marginal social cost per car passenger mile is at least 80 per cent above private cost in the highway sector.


    The Influence of Public transport on Car Ownership in London

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 193.

    M.H. Fairhurst
    Variations in car ownership between districts are accounted for by household income, household size and access to public transport. transport planning can thus influence not only modal split in the short term but future decisions by households on whether to own a car.


    Urban Express Bus and Railroad Performance. Some Toronto Simulations

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 16.

    D.N. Dewees
    Simulation by a computer program showed that a proposed commuter railroad would be inferior in both time and money to express buses which could operate locally in the suburban area, travel along an expressway, and then make several stops in the central business district.


    Computing Passenger Miles in London transport

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 87.

    D.A. Baggaley
    The author describes methods used to compute passenger miles by London transport, which has various systems of graduated and flat fares, period tickets, and tickets for free travel.


    The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport. A Comment

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 90.

    J.B. Naylor
    A comment on the article by M.S.P. Kerridge published in this Journal in September 1974.


    Optimal transit Prices under Increasing Returns to Scale and a Loss Constraint

    May 1977, Vol. 11, No. 2, Page 185.

    K. train
    Welfare loss might be reduced by requiring total revenues from all units in an urban transport system to meet a proportion of total costs, instead of applying the constraint to each unit separately. This may need an agency to administer prices and cross-subsidisation. Prices are calculated for the East Bay Area of the San Francisco Bay Area.


    Maximisation of Passenger Miles in Theory and Practice

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 304.

    S. Glaister J.J. Collings
    Maximisation of passenger miles in public transport has the advantage of simplicity. The authors derive weights for passenger miles to reduce the disadvantages shown by a comparison with other objectives. There is a risk of loss of welfare.


    Distributional Effects of Maximisation of Passenger Miles

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 322.

    D. Bos
    Maximisation of passenger miles leads to loss of welfare. It is impossible to prove theoretically whether its distributional effects will be positive (that is, favourable to the lower income classes) or negative, but this can be determined in practice in each case. In London transport they are positive.


    "travelcard" Tickets in Urban Public transport

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 17.

    P.R. White
    travelcards (regional intermodal season tickets) have grown rapidly in importance, especially in Western Europe. After introduction at a low price, moderate increases in price have little effect on sales, and there are important benefits.


    A Methodological Note on Welfare Calculus

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 69.

    Y. Shilony
    A comment on the article on "Optimal Subsidies for Public transit" published in this Journal in January 1975, with a rejoinder by the author.


    transit Service Elasticities. Evidence from Demonstrations and Demand Models

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 99.

    A.M. Lago P. Mayworm J.M. McEnroe
    There is little elasticity of demand for improvements in transit service, especially where service is already good. Headways are more important than in-vehicle time. Information is lacking on reliability, availability of seats, and transfers.


    The Efficiency of Public transport Objectives and Subsidy Formulas

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 67.

    M.W. Frankena
    Maximisation of ridership appears to be inefficient, but this depends on the demand and cost functions. It is also necessary to know these to judge the efficiency of any subsidy formula.


    More Methodological Notes on Welfare Calculus

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 95.
    Y. Shilony
    A follow-up to the exchange between Yuval Shilony and Raymond Jackson in this Journal in January 1981.


    Impacts of Subsidies on the Costs of Urban Public transport

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 155.
    J. Pucher A. Markstedt I. Hirschman
    The authors find strong evidence that Federal and State subsidies have the effect of increasing costs. They suggest changes to improve the system.


    Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes

    January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 7.
    L.B. Doxsey
    A monthly transit pass is bought only by heavy users. They pay less than before, and light users do not pay more. The direct result is a loss of revenue to the operator.


    Part-Time Labour, Work Rules, and Urban transit Costs

    January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 63.
    K.M. Chomitz C.A. Lave
    Computer simulations are used in a study of the financial effects of possible changes in union work rules governing split shifts and the use of part-time drivers.


    Equalising Grants for the Public transport Subsidy

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 105.
    A. Evans
    If the principle of equalisation were applied to central government grants for public transport, almost all would go to rural counties. Subsidies for urban transport should be paid from local taxes.


    Optimal Pricing and Subsidies for Scheduled transport Services

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 263.
    P.K. Else
    Building on previous discussion in this Journal, the author suggests that optimum subsidies could possibly be as high as 60 per cent of an operator\'s costs. But fares and the level of service should also be controlled. travel cards may provide a form of two-part tariff for public transport.


    Rising Deficits and the Uses of transit Subsidies in the United States

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 281.
    D.H. Pickrell
    The author finds that most of the increase in subsidies to transit in recent years has been absorbed by increased costs, expanded services, and reduction in real fares, rather than compensating for decreased demand. It is suggested that the increased availability of subsidies may itself be a cause of increased costs and deficits.


    Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 305.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article under this title in the January 1984 issue of the Journal, with a rejoinder by the author.


    An Urban transit Firm Providing transit, Paratransit and Contracted-Out Services. A Cost Analysis

    September 1986, Vol. 20, No. 3, Page 353.
    W.K. Talley E.E. Anderson
    Public transit firms may be able to reduce operating deficits by providing paratransit and contracted-out services. Contracting out can induce employees and their unions, fearful of job losses, to accept changes in working agreements which reduce costs to the firm.
    Benefit-Cost Rules for Urban transit Subsidies. An Integration of Allocational,

    Distributional and Public Finance Issues
    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 57.
    J.S. Dodgson N. Topham
    In determining the level of subsidy, and its use in reducing fares or increasing frequencies, weight should be given to the comparative benefits accruing to different income groups. A local authority will be influenced in its decision by the proportion of the cost that is borne by central government.


    The Economics of travel Passes. Non-Uniform Pricing in transport

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 153.
    J.C. Carbajo
    Pricing rules are derived under different objectives for schemes including travelcards and ordinary tickets. To calculate the effects on revenue of different combinations of fares it is necessary to know the distribution of the population in terms of trip behaviour.


    Fare Evasion and Non-Compliance. A Simple Model

    May 1989, Vol. 23, No. 2, Page 189.
    C. Boyd C. Martini J. Rickard A. Russell
    The authors construct a model to find appropriate levels of random inspection of tickets under honour systems. They consider the implications for policy.


    Public transport Demand Elasticities in Spain

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 189.
    G. de Rus
    From his study of elasticities the author concludes that patronage of public transport in Spanish cities could be increased by adjustment of the proportionate charges for cash fares and multiple-ride tickets, and by increasing fares to provide higher frequencies.


    The Demand for travel and for travelcards on London Regional transport

    January 1991, Vol. 25, No. 1, Page 3.
    C.L. Gilbert H. Jalilian
    The authors develop a joint model for the demand for travel and the demand for travelcards. The estimates are that demand for underground travel is inelastic while the demand for bus travel is elastic. Simulation analysis attributes between one third and one half of the rise in demand for underground travel in the period 1982-87 to employment growth; and between one half and two thirds to the introduction of travelcards.


    Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency

    January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 33.
    K. Jansson
    Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.


    Fare Evasion as a Result of Expected Utility Maximisation. Some empirical Support

    January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 69.
    P. Kooreman
    In public transport systems with self-service fare collection passengers can decide whether to pay the fare or not. A passenger who does not pay is subject to a risk of being fined. The paper provides some empirical support for the hypothesis that passengers behave as expected utility maximisers.


    Road Casualties in London in Relation to Public transport Policy

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 61.
    R.E. Allsop S.A. Robertson
    Exceptional changes in bus and underground rail fares in London in the early 1980s prompted analyses of the effects of fare levels and petrol prices upon the numbers of road casualties in London. Earlier estimates of the number of extra casualties associated with a period of unusually high fares in the early 1980s are shown to have probably been too high.


    Optimal Pricing of Urban Passenger transport: A Simulation Exercise for Belgium

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 31.
    B. de Borger I. Mayeres S. Proost S. Wouters
    First, a simple theoretical model is developed that determines optimal prices for private and urban transport services in both the peak and off-peak periods of the day, taking into account all relevant private and external costs. Second, the model is implemented to study pricing policies in Belgium, using recent estimates of private and social marginal costs. Several applications are then considered.

     

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    1.1 Car

    Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory
    September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.
    J.O. Jansson
    The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the 'production period' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.


    Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives
    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.
    M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton
    Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.


    Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.
    E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer
    The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.


    The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.
    A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro
    The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.


    Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.
    P. Bonsall
    Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.


    Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.
    A.C. Goodman
    Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.


    Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.
    R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic
    US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.


    The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.
    P.D. Loeb
    traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.


    The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.
    D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith
    A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.


    The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach

    September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.
    F. Jorgensen J. Polak
    This paper develops simple models of drivers' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.


    An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.
    J. Rouwendal
    The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.


    1.2 Metro Bus


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.
    N. Lee I. Steedman
    This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.
    R.K. Koshal
    In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.


    A Stagger Enquiry

    September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.
    G. Walshe
    Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.


    Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System

    May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.
    S. trench
    Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.
    W.J. Tyson
    A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.


    Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.
    R.K. Koshal
    The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.
    D.P.C. Fletcher
    A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.
    R.H. brown C.A. Nash
    An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.


    An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.
    W.J. Tyson
    Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.


    The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.
    M.H. Fairhurst
    This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.


    break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.
    D.S. Sawicki
    The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.


    The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas

    May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.
    S. Wabe O.B. Coles
    The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.


    Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.
    R. Turvey H. Mohring
    The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.
    R.W. Schmenner
    Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.


    The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities

    January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.
    H.G. Wilson
    The author's aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.


    Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport

    January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.
    C.A. Nash
    Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.
    M.W. Frankena
    Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.


    Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring's Theory of Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.
    J.O. Jansson
    The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.


    The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.
    A.A. Walters
    The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.


    A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.
    J.O. Jansson
    If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.


    The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service

    September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.
    P.A. Viton
    Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.
    C.W. Boyd
    In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.


    The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


    The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.
    C.W. Boyd
    One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.


    Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.
    P.A. Viton
    The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.


    Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.
    J. Berechman
    The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.


    Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.
    H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert
    The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.


    "Unnecessary and Wasteful" Competition in Bus transport

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.
    I.P. Savage
    In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.
    S. Glaister
    Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.


    Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.
    M. Kim
    Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.


    Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.
    K. Obeng
    In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author's rejoinder.


    Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.

    P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield
    Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.

    T.E. Galvez
    A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.


    Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.

    C. Foster J. Golay
    Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.


    Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.

    S. Glaister
    A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.


    A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.
    A. Evans
    The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.


    Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.
    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos
    The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.


    Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.

    A. Evans
    Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.


    Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.

    K.M. Gwilliam
    Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.


    Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.

    M.E. Beesley
    Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.


    The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.

    P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock
    This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.


    Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.

    A. Evans
    The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government's expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.


    Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.

    W.J. Tyson
    The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author's judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.


    Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.

    P.R. White
    A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.


    The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.

    K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde
    Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.


    A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.

    N.J. Ireland
    Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.


    Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation

    May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.

    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton
    An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional "rule-of-reason" approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.


    The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.

    F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll
    This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.


    Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.

    P. White S. Tough
    When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.


    1.3 Taxi


    Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.

    G.W. Douglas
    In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.

    C. Shreiber
    In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment

    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.

    R.B. Coffman
    A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


    Competition and Supply in London Taxis

    January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.

    M.E. Beesley
    The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.

    D.J. Williams
    A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.

    C. Shreiber
    Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.


    Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.

    D.J. Williams
    The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.


    Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.

    A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight
    There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.


    The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.

    R.F. Teal M. Berglund
    Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.


    Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution

    May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.

    J. Hackner S. Nyberg
    This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.


    Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.

    J. Mansson
    The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.


    1.4 Metro Rail


    The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population

    May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.

    G.W. Davies
    An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.


    A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.

    D.N. Dewees
    Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.


    Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.

    M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes
    The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.


    The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.

    D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward
    Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.


    Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis

    May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.
    P. Wunsch
    This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.


    1.5 Heavy Rail


    Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification

    January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.

    A.W. Evans
    Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.


    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services

    May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.

    P.K. Else M. Howe
    How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.


    The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968

    May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.

    C.D. Jones
    The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.


    Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.

    W.D. Shipman
    Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.


    The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.

    G. Richards
    A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.


    Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.

    R.D. Evans
    This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.


    The Demand for Commuter Rail transport

    May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.

    C.C. McDonough
    Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers

    September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.

    J.G. Gibson
    Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment

    September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.

    A. Grey
    The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.


    Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.

    S. Glaister
    The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.


    The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.

    I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols
    Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.


    Railway Costs and Closures

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.

    J.S. Dodgson
    The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.


    Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.

    H. McGeehan
    The author's model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.


    The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.

    S.D. trotter
    This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.


    The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.

    A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips
    The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.


    Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.

    J.D. Rickard
    Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.


    Railway Costs and Planning

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.

    S. Joy
    Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.


    Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.

    J. Preston
    It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.


    Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries' Railways

    May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.

    T.H. Oum C. Yu
    The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.


    Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel

    September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.

    M. Wardman
    This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.


    1.6 Coach

    Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.

    J. Hibbs
    The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.


    Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty

    September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.

    R.E. Burns
    The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.


    1.7 General

    Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.

    R. Sherman
    A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.


    Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.

    D.A. Quarmby
    Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.


    transit Validation for City Centres

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.

    E.W. Segelhorst
    To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.


    Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.

    R Sherman
    Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.


    Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.

    D.G. Rhys
    Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.


    Free Public transport

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.

    H.J. Baum
    After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.

    E. Smith
    Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.


    Parking Bias in transit Choice

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.

    E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus
    The practice of subsidising the parking of employees' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.


    Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.

    M. Frankena
    Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.


    Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.

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    1.1 Car

    Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory
    September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.
    J.O. Jansson
    The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the \'production period\' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.


    Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives
    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.
    M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton
    Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.


    Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.
    E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer
    The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.


    The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.
    A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro
    The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.


    Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.
    P. Bonsall
    Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.


    Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.
    A.C. Goodman
    Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.


    Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.
    R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic
    US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.


    The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.
    P.D. Loeb
    traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.


    The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.
    D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith
    A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors\' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.


    The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers\' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach

    September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.
    F. Jorgensen J. Polak
    This paper develops simple models of drivers\' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers\' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.


    An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.
    J. Rouwendal
    The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.


    1.2 Metro Bus


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.
    N. Lee I. Steedman
    This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.
    R.K. Koshal
    In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.


    A Stagger Enquiry

    September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.
    G. Walshe
    Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers\' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.


    Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System

    May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.
    S. trench
    Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.
    W.J. Tyson
    A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.


    Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.
    R.K. Koshal
    The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.
    D.P.C. Fletcher
    A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.
    R.H. brown C.A. Nash
    An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.


    An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.
    W.J. Tyson
    Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators\' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.


    The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.
    M.H. Fairhurst
    This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.


    break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.
    D.S. Sawicki
    The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.


    The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas

    May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.
    S. Wabe O.B. Coles
    The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.


    Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.
    R. Turvey H. Mohring
    The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers\' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.
    R.W. Schmenner
    Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.


    The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities

    January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.
    H.G. Wilson
    The author\'s aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.


    Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport

    January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.
    C.A. Nash
    Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.
    M.W. Frankena
    Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.


    Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring\'s Theory of Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.
    J.O. Jansson
    The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.


    The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.
    A.A. Walters
    The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.


    A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.
    J.O. Jansson
    If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.


    The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service

    September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.
    P.A. Viton
    Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.
    C.W. Boyd
    In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.


    The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.
    C.W. Boyd
    One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.


    Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.
    P.A. Viton
    The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.


    Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.
    J. Berechman
    The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.


    Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.
    H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert
    The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.


    "Unnecessary and Wasteful" Competition in Bus transport

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.
    I.P. Savage
    In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.
    S. Glaister
    Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.


    Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.
    M. Kim
    Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.


    Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.
    K. Obeng
    In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.

    P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield
    Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.

    T.E. Galvez
    A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.


    Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.

    C. Foster J. Golay
    Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.


    Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.

    S. Glaister
    A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.


    A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.
    A. Evans
    The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.


    Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.
    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos
    The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers\' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.


    Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.

    A. Evans
    Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.


    Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.

    K.M. Gwilliam
    Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.


    Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.

    M.E. Beesley
    Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.


    The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.

    P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock
    This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.


    Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.

    A. Evans
    The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government\'s expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.


    Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.

    W.J. Tyson
    The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author\'s judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.


    Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.

    P.R. White
    A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.


    The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.

    K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde
    Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.


    A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.

    N.J. Ireland
    Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.


    Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation

    May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.

    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton
    An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional "rule-of-reason" approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.


    The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.

    F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll
    This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.


    Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.

    P. White S. Tough
    When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.


    1.3 Taxi


    Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.

    G.W. Douglas
    In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers\' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.

    C. Shreiber
    In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment

    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.

    R.B. Coffman
    A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    Competition and Supply in London Taxis

    January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.

    M.E. Beesley
    The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.

    D.J. Williams
    A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.

    C. Shreiber
    Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.


    Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.

    D.J. Williams
    The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.


    Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.

    A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight
    There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.


    The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.

    R.F. Teal M. Berglund
    Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.


    Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution

    May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.

    J. Hackner S. Nyberg
    This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.


    Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.

    J. Mansson
    The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.


    1.4 Metro Rail


    The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population

    May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.

    G.W. Davies
    An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.


    A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.

    D.N. Dewees
    Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.


    Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.

    M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes
    The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.


    The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.

    D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward
    Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.


    Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis

    May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.
    P. Wunsch
    This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.


    1.5 Heavy Rail


    Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification

    January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.

    A.W. Evans
    Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.


    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services

    May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.

    P.K. Else M. Howe
    How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.


    The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968

    May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.

    C.D. Jones
    The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.


    Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.

    W.D. Shipman
    Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.


    The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.

    G. Richards
    A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.


    Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.

    R.D. Evans
    This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.


    The Demand for Commuter Rail transport

    May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.

    C.C. McDonough
    Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail\'s London and South-East Commuter Passengers

    September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.

    J.G. Gibson
    Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail\'s London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment

    September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.

    A. Grey
    The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.


    Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.

    S. Glaister
    The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.


    The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.

    I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols
    Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.


    Railway Costs and Closures

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.

    J.S. Dodgson
    The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.


    Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.

    H. McGeehan
    The author\'s model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.


    The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.

    S.D. trotter
    This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.


    The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.

    A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips
    The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.


    Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.

    J.D. Rickard
    Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.


    Railway Costs and Planning

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.

    S. Joy
    Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.


    Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.

    J. Preston
    It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.


    Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries\' Railways

    May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.

    T.H. Oum C. Yu
    The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.


    Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel

    September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.

    M. Wardman
    This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.


    1.6 Coach

    Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.

    J. Hibbs
    The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.


    Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty

    September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.

    R.E. Burns
    The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.


    1.7 General

    Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.

    R. Sherman
    A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.


    Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.

    D.A. Quarmby
    Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.


    transit Validation for City Centres

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.

    E.W. Segelhorst
    To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers\' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.


    Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.

    R Sherman
    Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.


    Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.

    D.G. Rhys
    Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.


    Free Public transport

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.

    H.J. Baum
    After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.

    E. Smith
    Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.


    Parking Bias in transit Choice

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.

    E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus
    The practice of subsidising the parking of employees\' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.


    Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.

    M. Frankena
    Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.


    Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 291.

    J.G. Ody
    A comment on a contribution to the September 1972 issue of the Journal by D.G. Rhys, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services.

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 294.

    P.R. White O.B. Coles
    A comment on an article in the Journal by Mr. E. Smith in January 1973, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    Use of Public transport in Towns and Cities of Great Britain and Ireland

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 26.

    P.R. White
    Mr White reviews the experience of municipal transport undertakings and is optimistic about their future. Public transport is still important for shopping trips, and small towns are doing as well as larger ones.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services. A Comment.

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 89, 92.

    J.G. Todd J.A. Baggs
    A Comment on the article by E. Smith in the January 1973 issue of the journal, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 237.

    M.S.P. Kerridge
    The British government grant scheme discriminates in favour of rear-engined rather than front-engined double-deck buses. This gives an artificial impetus to one-man operation, which has serious disadvantages in congested areas. The author suggests that other means should be used to help buses.


    Optimal Subsidies for Public transit

    January 1975, Vol. 9, No. 1, Page 3.

    R. Jackson
    Professor Jackson presents a model for determining (1) optimal fare subsidies and (2) optimal subsidies for increasing transit speed. He concludes that no significant improvement is apparent unless marginal social cost per car passenger mile is at least 80 per cent above private cost in the highway sector.


    The Influence of Public transport on Car Ownership in London

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 193.

    M.H. Fairhurst
    Variations in car ownership between districts are accounted for by household income, household size and access to public transport. transport planning can thus influence not only modal split in the short term but future decisions by households on whether to own a car.


    Urban Express Bus and Railroad Performance. Some Toronto Simulations

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 16.

    D.N. Dewees
    Simulation by a computer program showed that a proposed commuter railroad would be inferior in both time and money to express buses which could operate locally in the suburban area, travel along an expressway, and then make several stops in the central business district.


    Computing Passenger Miles in London transport

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 87.

    D.A. Baggaley
    The author describes methods used to compute passenger miles by London transport, which has various systems of graduated and flat fares, period tickets, and tickets for free travel.


    The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport. A Comment

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 90.

    J.B. Naylor
    A comment on the article by M.S.P. Kerridge published in this Journal in September 1974.


    Optimal transit Prices under Increasing Returns to Scale and a Loss Constraint

    May 1977, Vol. 11, No. 2, Page 185.

    K. train
    Welfare loss might be reduced by requiring total revenues from all units in an urban transport system to meet a proportion of total costs, instead of applying the constraint to each unit separately. This may need an agency to administer prices and cross-subsidisation. Prices are calculated for the East Bay Area of the San Francisco Bay Area.


    Maximisation of Passenger Miles in Theory and Practice

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 304.

    S. Glaister J.J. Collings
    Maximisation of passenger miles in public transport has the advantage of simplicity. The authors derive weights for passenger miles to reduce the disadvantages shown by a comparison with other objectives. There is a risk of loss of welfare.


    Distributional Effects of Maximisation of Passenger Miles

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 322.

    D. Bos
    Maximisation of passenger miles leads to loss of welfare. It is impossible to prove theoretically whether its distributional effects will be positive (that is, favourable to the lower income classes) or negative, but this can be determined in practice in each case. In London transport they are positive.


    "travelcard" Tickets in Urban Public transport

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 17.

    P.R. White
    travelcards (regional intermodal season tickets) have grown rapidly in importance, especially in Western Europe. After introduction at a low price, moderate increases in price have little effect on sales, and there are important benefits.


    A Methodological Note on Welfare Calculus

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 69.

    Y. Shilony
    A comment on the article on "Optimal Subsidies for Public transit" published in this Journal in January 1975, with a rejoinder by the author.


    transit Service Elasticities. Evidence from Demonstrations and Demand Models

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 99.

    A.M. Lago P. Mayworm J.M. McEnroe
    There is little elasticity of demand for improvements in transit service, especially where service is already good. Headways are more important than in-vehicle time. Information is lacking on reliability, availability of seats, and transfers.


    The Efficiency of Public transport Objectives and Subsidy Formulas

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 67.

    M.W. Frankena
    Maximisation of ridership appears to be inefficient, but this depends on the demand and cost functions. It is also necessary to know these to judge the efficiency of any subsidy formula.


    More Methodological Notes on Welfare Calculus

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 95.
    Y. Shilony
    A follow-up to the exchange between Yuval Shilony and Raymond Jackson in this Journal in January 1981.


    Impacts of Subsidies on the Costs of Urban Public transport

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 155.
    J. Pucher A. Markstedt I. Hirschman
    The authors find strong evidence that Federal and State subsidies have the effect of increasing costs. They suggest changes to improve the system.


    Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes

    January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 7.
    L.B. Doxsey
    A monthly transit pass is bought only by heavy users. They pay less than before, and light users do not pay more. The direct result is a loss of revenue to the operator.


    Part-Time Labour, Work Rules, and Urban transit Costs

    January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 63.
    K.M. Chomitz C.A. Lave
    Computer simulations are used in a study of the financial effects of possible changes in union work rules governing split shifts and the use of part-time drivers.


    Equalising Grants for the Public transport Subsidy

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 105.
    A. Evans
    If the principle of equalisation were applied to central government grants for public transport, almost all would go to rural counties. Subsidies for urban transport should be paid from local taxes.


    Optimal Pricing and Subsidies for Scheduled transport Services

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 263.
    P.K. Else
    Building on previous discussion in this Journal, the author suggests that optimum subsidies could possibly be as high as 60 per cent of an operator\'s costs. But fares and the level of service should also be controlled. travel cards may provide a form of two-part tariff for public transport.


    Rising Deficits and the Uses of transit Subsidies in the United States

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 281.
    D.H. Pickrell
    The author finds that most of the increase in subsidies to transit in recent years has been absorbed by increased costs, expanded services, and reduction in real fares, rather than compensating for decreased demand. It is suggested that the increased availability of subsidies may itself be a cause of increased costs and deficits.


    Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 305.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article under this title in the January 1984 issue of the Journal, with a rejoinder by the author.


    An Urban transit Firm Providing transit, Paratransit and Contracted-Out Services. A Cost Analysis

    September 1986, Vol. 20, No. 3, Page 353.
    W.K. Talley E.E. Anderson
    Public transit firms may be able to reduce operating deficits by providing paratransit and contracted-out services. Contracting out can induce employees and their unions, fearful of job losses, to accept changes in working agreements which reduce costs to the firm.
    Benefit-Cost Rules for Urban transit Subsidies. An Integration of Allocational,

    Distributional and Public Finance Issues
    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 57.
    J.S. Dodgson N. Topham
    In determining the level of subsidy, and its use in reducing fares or increasing frequencies, weight should be given to the comparative benefits accruing to different income groups. A local authority will be influenced in its decision by the proportion of the cost that is borne by central government.


    The Economics of travel Passes. Non-Uniform Pricing in transport

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 153.
    J.C. Carbajo
    Pricing rules are derived under different objectives for schemes including travelcards and ordinary tickets. To calculate the effects on revenue of different combinations of fares it is necessary to know the distribution of the population in terms of trip behaviour.


    Fare Evasion and Non-Compliance. A Simple Model

    May 1989, Vol. 23, No. 2, Page 189.
    C. Boyd C. Martini J. Rickard A. Russell
    The authors construct a model to find appropriate levels of random inspection of tickets under honour systems. They consider the implications for policy.


    Public transport Demand Elasticities in Spain

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 189.
    G. de Rus
    From his study of elasticities the author concludes that patronage of public transport in Spanish cities could be increased by adjustment of the proportionate charges for cash fares and multiple-ride tickets, and by increasing fares to provide higher frequencies.


    The Demand for travel and for travelcards on London Regional transport

    January 1991, Vol. 25, No. 1, Page 3.
    C.L. Gilbert H. Jalilian
    The authors develop a joint model for the demand for travel and the demand for travelcards. The estimates are that demand for underground travel is inelastic while the demand for bus travel is elastic. Simulation analysis attributes between one third and one half of the rise in demand for underground travel in the period 1982-87 to employment growth; and between one half and two thirds to the introduction of travelcards.


    Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency

    January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 33.
    K. Jansson
    Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.


    Fare Evasion as a Result of Expected Utility Maximisation. Some empirical Support

    January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 69.
    P. Kooreman
    In public transport systems with self-service fare collection passengers can decide whether to pay the fare or not. A passenger who does not pay is subject to a risk of being fined. The paper provides some empirical support for the hypothesis that passengers behave as expected utility maximisers.


    Road Casualties in London in Relation to Public transport Policy

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 61.
    R.E. Allsop S.A. Robertson
    Exceptional changes in bus and underground rail fares in London in the early 1980s prompted analyses of the effects of fare levels and petrol prices upon the numbers of road casualties in London. Earlier estimates of the number of extra casualties associated with a period of unusually high fares in the early 1980s are shown to have probably been too high.


    Optimal Pricing of Urban Passenger transport: A Simulation Exercise for Belgium

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 31.
    B. de Borger I. Mayeres S. Proost S. Wouters
    First, a simple theoretical model is developed that determines optimal prices for private and urban transport services in both the peak and off-peak periods of the day, taking into account all relevant private and external costs. Second, the model is implemented to study pricing policies in Belgium, using recent estimates of private and social marginal costs. Several applications are then considered.

     

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    1.1 Car

    Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory
    September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.
    J.O. Jansson
    The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the 'production period' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.


    Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives
    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.
    M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton
    Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.


    Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.
    E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer
    The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.


    The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.
    A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro
    The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.


    Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.
    P. Bonsall
    Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.


    Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.
    A.C. Goodman
    Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.


    Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.
    R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic
    US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.


    The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.
    P.D. Loeb
    traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.


    The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.
    D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith
    A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.


    The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach

    September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.
    F. Jorgensen J. Polak
    This paper develops simple models of drivers' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.


    An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.
    J. Rouwendal
    The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.


    1.2 Metro Bus


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.
    N. Lee I. Steedman
    This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.
    R.K. Koshal
    In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.


    A Stagger Enquiry

    September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.
    G. Walshe
    Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.


    Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System

    May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.
    S. trench
    Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.
    W.J. Tyson
    A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.


    Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.
    R.K. Koshal
    The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.
    D.P.C. Fletcher
    A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.
    R.H. brown C.A. Nash
    An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.


    An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.
    W.J. Tyson
    Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.


    The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.
    M.H. Fairhurst
    This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.


    break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.
    D.S. Sawicki
    The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.


    The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas

    May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.
    S. Wabe O.B. Coles
    The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.


    Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.
    R. Turvey H. Mohring
    The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.
    R.W. Schmenner
    Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.


    The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities

    January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.
    H.G. Wilson
    The author's aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.


    Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport

    January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.
    C.A. Nash
    Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.
    M.W. Frankena
    Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.


    Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring's Theory of Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.
    J.O. Jansson
    The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.


    The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.
    A.A. Walters
    The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.


    A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.
    J.O. Jansson
    If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.


    The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service

    September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.
    P.A. Viton
    Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.
    C.W. Boyd
    In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.


    The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


    The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.
    C.W. Boyd
    One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.


    Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.
    P.A. Viton
    The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.


    Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.
    J. Berechman
    The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.


    Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.
    H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert
    The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.


    "Unnecessary and Wasteful" Competition in Bus transport

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.
    I.P. Savage
    In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.
    S. Glaister
    Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.


    Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.
    M. Kim
    Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.


    Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.
    K. Obeng
    In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author's rejoinder.


    Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.

    P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield
    Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.

    T.E. Galvez
    A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.


    Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.

    C. Foster J. Golay
    Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.


    Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.

    S. Glaister
    A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.


    A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.
    A. Evans
    The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.


    Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.
    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos
    The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.


    Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.

    A. Evans
    Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.


    Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.

    K.M. Gwilliam
    Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.


    Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.

    M.E. Beesley
    Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.


    The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.

    P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock
    This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.


    Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.

    A. Evans
    The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government's expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.


    Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.

    W.J. Tyson
    The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author's judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.


    Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.

    P.R. White
    A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.


    The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.

    K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde
    Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.


    A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.

    N.J. Ireland
    Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.


    Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation

    May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.

    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton
    An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional "rule-of-reason" approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.


    The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.

    F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll
    This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.


    Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.

    P. White S. Tough
    When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.


    1.3 Taxi


    Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.

    G.W. Douglas
    In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.

    C. Shreiber
    In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment

    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.

    R.B. Coffman
    A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


    Competition and Supply in London Taxis

    January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.

    M.E. Beesley
    The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.

    D.J. Williams
    A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.

    C. Shreiber
    Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.


    Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.

    D.J. Williams
    The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.


    Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.

    A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight
    There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.


    The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.

    R.F. Teal M. Berglund
    Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.


    Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution

    May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.

    J. Hackner S. Nyberg
    This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.


    Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.

    J. Mansson
    The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.


    1.4 Metro Rail


    The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population

    May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.

    G.W. Davies
    An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.


    A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.

    D.N. Dewees
    Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.


    Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.

    M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes
    The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.


    The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.

    D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward
    Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.


    Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis

    May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.
    P. Wunsch
    This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.


    1.5 Heavy Rail


    Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification

    January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.

    A.W. Evans
    Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.


    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services

    May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.

    P.K. Else M. Howe
    How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.


    The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968

    May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.

    C.D. Jones
    The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.


    Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.

    W.D. Shipman
    Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.


    The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.

    G. Richards
    A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.


    Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.

    R.D. Evans
    This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.


    The Demand for Commuter Rail transport

    May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.

    C.C. McDonough
    Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers

    September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.

    J.G. Gibson
    Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment

    September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.

    A. Grey
    The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.


    Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.

    S. Glaister
    The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.


    The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.

    I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols
    Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.


    Railway Costs and Closures

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.

    J.S. Dodgson
    The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.


    Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.

    H. McGeehan
    The author's model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.


    The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.

    S.D. trotter
    This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.


    The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.

    A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips
    The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.


    Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.

    J.D. Rickard
    Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.


    Railway Costs and Planning

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.

    S. Joy
    Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.


    Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.

    J. Preston
    It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.


    Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries' Railways

    May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.

    T.H. Oum C. Yu
    The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.


    Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel

    September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.

    M. Wardman
    This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.


    1.6 Coach

    Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.

    J. Hibbs
    The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.


    Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty

    September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.

    R.E. Burns
    The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.


    1.7 General

    Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.

    R. Sherman
    A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.


    Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.

    D.A. Quarmby
    Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.


    transit Validation for City Centres

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.

    E.W. Segelhorst
    To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.


    Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.

    R Sherman
    Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.


    Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.

    D.G. Rhys
    Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.


    Free Public transport

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.

    H.J. Baum
    After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.

    E. Smith
    Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.


    Parking Bias in transit Choice

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.

    E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus
    The practice of subsidising the parking of employees' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.


    Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.

    M. Frankena
    Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.


    Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.

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    1.1 Car

    Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory
    September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.
    J.O. Jansson
    The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the \'production period\' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.


    Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives
    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.
    M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton
    Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.


    Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.
    E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer
    The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.


    The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.
    A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro
    The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.


    Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.
    P. Bonsall
    Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.


    Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.
    A.C. Goodman
    Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.


    Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.
    R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic
    US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.


    The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.
    P.D. Loeb
    traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.


    The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.
    D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith
    A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors\' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.


    The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers\' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach

    September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.
    F. Jorgensen J. Polak
    This paper develops simple models of drivers\' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers\' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.


    An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.
    J. Rouwendal
    The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.


    1.2 Metro Bus


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.
    N. Lee I. Steedman
    This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.
    R.K. Koshal
    In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.


    A Stagger Enquiry

    September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.
    G. Walshe
    Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers\' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.


    Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System

    May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.
    S. trench
    Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.
    W.J. Tyson
    A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.


    Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.
    R.K. Koshal
    The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.
    D.P.C. Fletcher
    A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.
    R.H. brown C.A. Nash
    An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.


    An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.
    W.J. Tyson
    Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators\' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.


    The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.
    M.H. Fairhurst
    This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.


    break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.
    D.S. Sawicki
    The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.


    The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas

    May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.
    S. Wabe O.B. Coles
    The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.


    Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.
    R. Turvey H. Mohring
    The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers\' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.
    R.W. Schmenner
    Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.


    The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities

    January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.
    H.G. Wilson
    The author\'s aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.


    Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport

    January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.
    C.A. Nash
    Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.
    M.W. Frankena
    Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.


    Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring\'s Theory of Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.
    J.O. Jansson
    The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.


    The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.
    A.A. Walters
    The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.


    A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.
    J.O. Jansson
    If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.


    The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service

    September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.
    P.A. Viton
    Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.
    C.W. Boyd
    In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.


    The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.
    C.W. Boyd
    One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.


    Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.
    P.A. Viton
    The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.


    Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.
    J. Berechman
    The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.


    Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.
    H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert
    The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.


    "Unnecessary and Wasteful" Competition in Bus transport

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.
    I.P. Savage
    In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.
    S. Glaister
    Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.


    Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.
    M. Kim
    Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.


    Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.
    K. Obeng
    In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.

    P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield
    Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.

    T.E. Galvez
    A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.


    Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.

    C. Foster J. Golay
    Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.


    Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.

    S. Glaister
    A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.


    A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.
    A. Evans
    The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.


    Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.
    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos
    The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers\' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.


    Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.

    A. Evans
    Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.


    Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.

    K.M. Gwilliam
    Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.


    Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.

    M.E. Beesley
    Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.


    The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.

    P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock
    This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.


    Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.

    A. Evans
    The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government\'s expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.


    Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.

    W.J. Tyson
    The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author\'s judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.


    Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.

    P.R. White
    A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.


    The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.

    K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde
    Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.


    A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.

    N.J. Ireland
    Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.


    Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation

    May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.

    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton
    An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional "rule-of-reason" approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.


    The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.

    F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll
    This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.


    Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.

    P. White S. Tough
    When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.


    1.3 Taxi


    Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.

    G.W. Douglas
    In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers\' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.

    C. Shreiber
    In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment

    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.

    R.B. Coffman
    A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author\'s rejoinder.


    Competition and Supply in London Taxis

    January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.

    M.E. Beesley
    The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.

    D.J. Williams
    A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.

    C. Shreiber
    Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.


    Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.

    D.J. Williams
    The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.


    Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.

    A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight
    There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.


    The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.

    R.F. Teal M. Berglund
    Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.


    Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution

    May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.

    J. Hackner S. Nyberg
    This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.


    Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.

    J. Mansson
    The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.


    1.4 Metro Rail


    The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population

    May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.

    G.W. Davies
    An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.


    A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.

    D.N. Dewees
    Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.


    Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.

    M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes
    The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.


    The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.

    D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward
    Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.


    Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis

    May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.
    P. Wunsch
    This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.


    1.5 Heavy Rail


    Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification

    January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.

    A.W. Evans
    Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.


    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services

    May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.

    P.K. Else M. Howe
    How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.


    The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968

    May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.

    C.D. Jones
    The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.


    Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.

    W.D. Shipman
    Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.


    The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.

    G. Richards
    A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.


    Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.

    R.D. Evans
    This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.


    The Demand for Commuter Rail transport

    May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.

    C.C. McDonough
    Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail\'s London and South-East Commuter Passengers

    September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.

    J.G. Gibson
    Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail\'s London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment

    September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.

    A. Grey
    The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.


    Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.

    S. Glaister
    The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.


    The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.

    I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols
    Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.


    Railway Costs and Closures

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.

    J.S. Dodgson
    The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.


    Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.

    H. McGeehan
    The author\'s model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.


    The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.

    S.D. trotter
    This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.


    The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.

    A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips
    The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.


    Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.

    J.D. Rickard
    Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.


    Railway Costs and Planning

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.

    S. Joy
    Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.


    Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.

    J. Preston
    It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.


    Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries\' Railways

    May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.

    T.H. Oum C. Yu
    The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.


    Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel

    September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.

    M. Wardman
    This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.


    1.6 Coach

    Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.

    J. Hibbs
    The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.


    Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty

    September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.

    R.E. Burns
    The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.


    1.7 General

    Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.

    R. Sherman
    A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.


    Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.

    D.A. Quarmby
    Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.


    transit Validation for City Centres

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.

    E.W. Segelhorst
    To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers\' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.


    Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.

    R Sherman
    Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.


    Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.

    D.G. Rhys
    Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.


    Free Public transport

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.

    H.J. Baum
    After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.

    E. Smith
    Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.


    Parking Bias in transit Choice

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.

    E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus
    The practice of subsidising the parking of employees\' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.


    Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.

    M. Frankena
    Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.


    Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 291.

    J.G. Ody
    A comment on a contribution to the September 1972 issue of the Journal by D.G. Rhys, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services.

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 294.

    P.R. White O.B. Coles
    A comment on an article in the Journal by Mr. E. Smith in January 1973, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    Use of Public transport in Towns and Cities of Great Britain and Ireland

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 26.

    P.R. White
    Mr White reviews the experience of municipal transport undertakings and is optimistic about their future. Public transport is still important for shopping trips, and small towns are doing as well as larger ones.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services. A Comment.

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 89, 92.

    J.G. Todd J.A. Baggs
    A Comment on the article by E. Smith in the January 1973 issue of the journal, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 237.

    M.S.P. Kerridge
    The British government grant scheme discriminates in favour of rear-engined rather than front-engined double-deck buses. This gives an artificial impetus to one-man operation, which has serious disadvantages in congested areas. The author suggests that other means should be used to help buses.


    Optimal Subsidies for Public transit

    January 1975, Vol. 9, No. 1, Page 3.

    R. Jackson
    Professor Jackson presents a model for determining (1) optimal fare subsidies and (2) optimal subsidies for increasing transit speed. He concludes that no significant improvement is apparent unless marginal social cost per car passenger mile is at least 80 per cent above private cost in the highway sector.


    The Influence of Public transport on Car Ownership in London

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 193.

    M.H. Fairhurst
    Variations in car ownership between districts are accounted for by household income, household size and access to public transport. transport planning can thus influence not only modal split in the short term but future decisions by households on whether to own a car.


    Urban Express Bus and Railroad Performance. Some Toronto Simulations

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 16.

    D.N. Dewees
    Simulation by a computer program showed that a proposed commuter railroad would be inferior in both time and money to express buses which could operate locally in the suburban area, travel along an expressway, and then make several stops in the central business district.


    Computing Passenger Miles in London transport

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 87.

    D.A. Baggaley
    The author describes methods used to compute passenger miles by London transport, which has various systems of graduated and flat fares, period tickets, and tickets for free travel.


    The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport. A Comment

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 90.

    J.B. Naylor
    A comment on the article by M.S.P. Kerridge published in this Journal in September 1974.


    Optimal transit Prices under Increasing Returns to Scale and a Loss Constraint

    May 1977, Vol. 11, No. 2, Page 185.

    K. train
    Welfare loss might be reduced by requiring total revenues from all units in an urban transport system to meet a proportion of total costs, instead of applying the constraint to each unit separately. This may need an agency to administer prices and cross-subsidisation. Prices are calculated for the East Bay Area of the San Francisco Bay Area.


    Maximisation of Passenger Miles in Theory and Practice

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 304.

    S. Glaister J.J. Collings
    Maximisation of passenger miles in public transport has the advantage of simplicity. The authors derive weights for passenger miles to reduce the disadvantages shown by a comparison with other objectives. There is a risk of loss of welfare.


    Distributional Effects of Maximisation of Passenger Miles

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 322.

    D. Bos
    Maximisation of passenger miles leads to loss of welfare. It is impossible to prove theoretically whether its distributional effects will be positive (that is, favourable to the lower income classes) or negative, but this can be determined in practice in each case. In London transport they are positive.


    "travelcard" Tickets in Urban Public transport

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 17.

    P.R. White
    travelcards (regional intermodal season tickets) have grown rapidly in importance, especially in Western Europe. After introduction at a low price, moderate increases in price have little effect on sales, and there are important benefits.


    A Methodological Note on Welfare Calculus

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 69.

    Y. Shilony
    A comment on the article on "Optimal Subsidies for Public transit" published in this Journal in January 1975, with a rejoinder by the author.


    transit Service Elasticities. Evidence from Demonstrations and Demand Models

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 99.

    A.M. Lago P. Mayworm J.M. McEnroe
    There is little elasticity of demand for improvements in transit service, especially where service is already good. Headways are more important than in-vehicle time. Information is lacking on reliability, availability of seats, and transfers.


    The Efficiency of Public transport Objectives and Subsidy Formulas

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 67.

    M.W. Frankena
    Maximisation of ridership appears to be inefficient, but this depends on the demand and cost functions. It is also necessary to know these to judge the efficiency of any subsidy formula.


    More Methodological Notes on Welfare Calculus

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 95.
    Y. Shilony
    A follow-up to the exchange between Yuval Shilony and Raymond Jackson in this Journal in January 1981.


    Impacts of Subsidies on the Costs of Urban Public transport

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 155.
    J. Pucher A. Markstedt I. Hirschman
    The authors find strong evidence that Federal and State subsidies have the effect of increasing costs. They suggest changes to improve the system.


    Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes

    January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 7.
    L.B. Doxsey
    A monthly transit pass is bought only by heavy users. They pay less than before, and light users do not pay more. The direct result is a loss of revenue to the operator.


    Part-Time Labour, Work Rules, and Urban transit Costs

    January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 63.
    K.M. Chomitz C.A. Lave
    Computer simulations are used in a study of the financial effects of possible changes in union work rules governing split shifts and the use of part-time drivers.


    Equalising Grants for the Public transport Subsidy

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 105.
    A. Evans
    If the principle of equalisation were applied to central government grants for public transport, almost all would go to rural counties. Subsidies for urban transport should be paid from local taxes.


    Optimal Pricing and Subsidies for Scheduled transport Services

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 263.
    P.K. Else
    Building on previous discussion in this Journal, the author suggests that optimum subsidies could possibly be as high as 60 per cent of an operator\'s costs. But fares and the level of service should also be controlled. travel cards may provide a form of two-part tariff for public transport.


    Rising Deficits and the Uses of transit Subsidies in the United States

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 281.
    D.H. Pickrell
    The author finds that most of the increase in subsidies to transit in recent years has been absorbed by increased costs, expanded services, and reduction in real fares, rather than compensating for decreased demand. It is suggested that the increased availability of subsidies may itself be a cause of increased costs and deficits.


    Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 305.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article under this title in the January 1984 issue of the Journal, with a rejoinder by the author.


    An Urban transit Firm Providing transit, Paratransit and Contracted-Out Services. A Cost Analysis

    September 1986, Vol. 20, No. 3, Page 353.
    W.K. Talley E.E. Anderson
    Public transit firms may be able to reduce operating deficits by providing paratransit and contracted-out services. Contracting out can induce employees and their unions, fearful of job losses, to accept changes in working agreements which reduce costs to the firm.
    Benefit-Cost Rules for Urban transit Subsidies. An Integration of Allocational,

    Distributional and Public Finance Issues
    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 57.
    J.S. Dodgson N. Topham
    In determining the level of subsidy, and its use in reducing fares or increasing frequencies, weight should be given to the comparative benefits accruing to different income groups. A local authority will be influenced in its decision by the proportion of the cost that is borne by central government.


    The Economics of travel Passes. Non-Uniform Pricing in transport

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 153.
    J.C. Carbajo
    Pricing rules are derived under different objectives for schemes including travelcards and ordinary tickets. To calculate the effects on revenue of different combinations of fares it is necessary to know the distribution of the population in terms of trip behaviour.


    Fare Evasion and Non-Compliance. A Simple Model

    May 1989, Vol. 23, No. 2, Page 189.
    C. Boyd C. Martini J. Rickard A. Russell
    The authors construct a model to find appropriate levels of random inspection of tickets under honour systems. They consider the implications for policy.


    Public transport Demand Elasticities in Spain

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 189.
    G. de Rus
    From his study of elasticities the author concludes that patronage of public transport in Spanish cities could be increased by adjustment of the proportionate charges for cash fares and multiple-ride tickets, and by increasing fares to provide higher frequencies.


    The Demand for travel and for travelcards on London Regional transport

    January 1991, Vol. 25, No. 1, Page 3.
    C.L. Gilbert H. Jalilian
    The authors develop a joint model for the demand for travel and the demand for travelcards. The estimates are that demand for underground travel is inelastic while the demand for bus travel is elastic. Simulation analysis attributes between one third and one half of the rise in demand for underground travel in the period 1982-87 to employment growth; and between one half and two thirds to the introduction of travelcards.


    Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency

    January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 33.
    K. Jansson
    Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.


    Fare Evasion as a Result of Expected Utility Maximisation. Some empirical Support

    January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 69.
    P. Kooreman
    In public transport systems with self-service fare collection passengers can decide whether to pay the fare or not. A passenger who does not pay is subject to a risk of being fined. The paper provides some empirical support for the hypothesis that passengers behave as expected utility maximisers.


    Road Casualties in London in Relation to Public transport Policy

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 61.
    R.E. Allsop S.A. Robertson
    Exceptional changes in bus and underground rail fares in London in the early 1980s prompted analyses of the effects of fare levels and petrol prices upon the numbers of road casualties in London. Earlier estimates of the number of extra casualties associated with a period of unusually high fares in the early 1980s are shown to have probably been too high.


    Optimal Pricing of Urban Passenger transport: A Simulation Exercise for Belgium

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 31.
    B. de Borger I. Mayeres S. Proost S. Wouters
    First, a simple theoretical model is developed that determines optimal prices for private and urban transport services in both the peak and off-peak periods of the day, taking into account all relevant private and external costs. Second, the model is implemented to study pricing policies in Belgium, using recent estimates of private and social marginal costs. Several applications are then considered.

     

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    1.1 Car

    Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory
    September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.
    J.O. Jansson
    The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the 'production period' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.


    Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives
    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.
    M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton
    Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.


    Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.
    E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer
    The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.


    The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.
    A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro
    The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.


    Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.
    P. Bonsall
    Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.


    Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.
    A.C. Goodman
    Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.


    Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.
    R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic
    US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.


    The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.
    P.D. Loeb
    traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.


    The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.
    D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith
    A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.


    The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach

    September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.
    F. Jorgensen J. Polak
    This paper develops simple models of drivers' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.


    An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.
    J. Rouwendal
    The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.


    1.2 Metro Bus


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.
    N. Lee I. Steedman
    This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.
    R.K. Koshal
    In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.


    A Stagger Enquiry

    September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.
    G. Walshe
    Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.


    Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System

    May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.
    S. trench
    Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.
    W.J. Tyson
    A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.


    Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.
    R.K. Koshal
    The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.
    D.P.C. Fletcher
    A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.
    R.H. brown C.A. Nash
    An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.


    An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.
    W.J. Tyson
    Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.


    The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.
    M.H. Fairhurst
    This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.


    break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.
    D.S. Sawicki
    The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.


    The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas

    May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.
    S. Wabe O.B. Coles
    The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.


    Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.
    R. Turvey H. Mohring
    The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.
    R.W. Schmenner
    Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.


    The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities

    January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.
    H.G. Wilson
    The author's aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.


    Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport

    January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.
    C.A. Nash
    Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.
    M.W. Frankena
    Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.


    Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring's Theory of Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.
    J.O. Jansson
    The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.


    The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.
    A.A. Walters
    The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.


    A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.
    J.O. Jansson
    If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.


    The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service

    September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.
    P.A. Viton
    Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.
    C.W. Boyd
    In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.


    The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


    The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.
    C.W. Boyd
    One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.


    Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.
    P.A. Viton
    The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.


    Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.
    J. Berechman
    The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.


    Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.
    H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert
    The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.


    "Unnecessary and Wasteful" Competition in Bus transport

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.
    I.P. Savage
    In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.
    S. Glaister
    Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.


    Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.
    M. Kim
    Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.


    Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.
    K. Obeng
    In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author's rejoinder.


    Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.

    P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield
    Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.

    T.E. Galvez
    A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.


    Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.

    C. Foster J. Golay
    Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.


    Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.

    S. Glaister
    A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.


    A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.
    A. Evans
    The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.


    Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.
    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos
    The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.


    Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.

    A. Evans
    Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.


    Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.

    K.M. Gwilliam
    Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.


    Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.

    M.E. Beesley
    Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.


    The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.

    P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock
    This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.


    Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.

    A. Evans
    The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government's expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.


    Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.

    W.J. Tyson
    The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author's judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.


    Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.

    P.R. White
    A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.


    The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.

    K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde
    Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.


    A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.

    N.J. Ireland
    Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.


    Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation

    May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.

    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton
    An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional "rule-of-reason" approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.


    The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.

    F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll
    This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.


    Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.

    P. White S. Tough
    When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.


    1.3 Taxi


    Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.

    G.W. Douglas
    In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.

    C. Shreiber
    In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment

    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.

    R.B. Coffman
    A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


    Competition and Supply in London Taxis

    January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.

    M.E. Beesley
    The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.

    D.J. Williams
    A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.

    C. Shreiber
    Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.


    Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.

    D.J. Williams
    The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.


    Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.

    A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight
    There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.


    The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.

    R.F. Teal M. Berglund
    Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.


    Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution

    May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.

    J. Hackner S. Nyberg
    This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.


    Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.

    J. Mansson
    The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.


    1.4 Metro Rail


    The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population

    May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.

    G.W. Davies
    An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.


    A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.

    D.N. Dewees
    Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.


    Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.

    M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes
    The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.


    The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.

    D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward
    Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.


    Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis

    May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.
    P. Wunsch
    This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.


    1.5 Heavy Rail


    Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification

    January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.

    A.W. Evans
    Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.


    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services

    May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.

    P.K. Else M. Howe
    How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.


    The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968

    May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.

    C.D. Jones
    The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.


    Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.

    W.D. Shipman
    Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.


    The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.

    G. Richards
    A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.


    Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.

    R.D. Evans
    This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.


    The Demand for Commuter Rail transport

    May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.

    C.C. McDonough
    Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers

    September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.

    J.G. Gibson
    Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment

    September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.

    A. Grey
    The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.


    Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.

    S. Glaister
    The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.


    The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.

    I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols
    Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.


    Railway Costs and Closures

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.

    J.S. Dodgson
    The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.


    Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.

    H. McGeehan
    The author's model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.


    The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.

    S.D. trotter
    This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.


    The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.

    A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips
    The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.


    Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.

    J.D. Rickard
    Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.


    Railway Costs and Planning

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.

    S. Joy
    Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.


    Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.

    J. Preston
    It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.


    Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries' Railways

    May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.

    T.H. Oum C. Yu
    The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.


    Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel

    September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.

    M. Wardman
    This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.


    1.6 Coach

    Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.

    J. Hibbs
    The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.


    Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty

    September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.

    R.E. Burns
    The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.


    1.7 General

    Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.

    R. Sherman
    A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.


    Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.

    D.A. Quarmby
    Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.


    transit Validation for City Centres

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.

    E.W. Segelhorst
    To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.


    Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.

    R Sherman
    Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.


    Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.

    D.G. Rhys
    Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.


    Free Public transport

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.

    H.J. Baum
    After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.

    E. Smith
    Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.


    Parking Bias in transit Choice

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.

    E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus
    The practice of subsidising the parking of employees' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.


    Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.

    M. Frankena
    Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.


    Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.

  • archive
  • ) [Row] => 1 [debug] => [querycount] => 1 [querycache] => Array ( ) [lastQuery] => [doQueries] => 1 [techemail] => ) [specials] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [start] => ./expertise/directory [class] => expertise_directory ) [1] => Array ( [start] => ./about/people [class] => people_directory ) ) [debug] => [templates] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [page] => ./index.html [template] => frontpage ) ) ) [type] => -> [args] => Array ( [0] => ./e-journals/jtep/archive/transport_themes_pt_1-1x.html ) ) ) Query was: REPLACE LOW_PRIORITY INTO pages ( path, filename, lastModified, areas, breadcrumbs, site ) VALUES ( './archive/', 'transport_themes_pt_1-1x.html', '1194887244', 'a:8:{s:8:\"doctitle\";s:8:\"Contents\";s:11:\"description\";s:38:\"<meta name=\"description\" content=\"\" />\";s:8:\"keywords\";s:35:\"<meta name=\"keywords\" content=\"\" />\";s:11:\"page header\";s:54:\"Part 1: transport Themes - Surface Passenger transport\";s:11:\"header menu\";s:334:\"<!-- #BeginLibraryItem \"/Library/Header Menu.lbi\" --> <ul class=\"menu\"><li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/_search/\">Search</a></li> <li class=\"last\"><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/contact.html\">Contact</a></li> <li><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/cgi-bin/parser.cgi\">Text Only</a></li> </ul> <!-- #EndLibraryItem -->\";s:8:\"top menu\";s:757:\"<!-- #BeginLibraryItem \"/Library/Top Menu.lbi\" --> <ul class=\"menu\"> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/index.html\" class=\"current\">Home</a></li> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/about-jtep.html\">About Us</a></li> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/contents.html\">Contents</a></li> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/editorial.html\">Editorial</a></li> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/ordering-jtep.html\">Ordering</a></li> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/online.html\">Online</a></li> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/contact.html\">Contact</a></li> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/submission-guidelines.html\">Submission Guidelines</a></li> <li><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/conferences-societies.html\">Conferences &amp; Societies</a></li> </ul> <!-- #EndLibraryItem -->\";s:9:\"main menu\";s:331:\"<!-- #BeginLibraryItem \"/jtep/Library/contents.lbi\" --> <ul class=\"menu\"> <li><a href=\"../contents-acknowledgement-1967-1996.html\">1967 - 1996</a></li> <li><a href=\"../contents-1997-2000.html\">1997 - 2000</a></li> <li><a href=\"../online.html\">2001 to date</a></li> </ul> <!-- #EndLibraryItem -->\";s:7:\"content\";s:83157:\"<p><strong></a></em>1.1 Car</strong><br /> <br /> <strong>Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_111_No_3_300-305.pdf\">September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.</a><br /> J.O. Jansson<br /> The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the \'production period\' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.</p> <p><br /> <strong>Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1_No_3_224-261.pdf\">September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.</a><br /> M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton<br /> Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.</p> <p><strong><br /> Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X11_No_3_231-243.pdf\">September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.</a><br /> E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer<br /> The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X111_No_3_304-319.pdf\">September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.</a><br /> A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro<br /> The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.</p> <p><strong><br /> Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_1_35-44.pdf\">January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.</a><br /> P. Bonsall<br /> Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.</p> <p><strong><br /> Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_3_247-266.pdf\">September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.</a><br /> A.C. Goodman<br /> Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.</p> <p><strong><br /> Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX_No_1_31-45.pdf\">January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.</a><br /> R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic<br /> US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1_No_3_279-287.pdf\">September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.</a><br /> P.D. Loeb<br /> traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1V_No_2_119-137.pdf\">May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.</a><br /> D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith<br /> A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors\' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers\' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV11_No_3_237-252.pdf\">September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.</a><br /> F. Jorgensen J. Polak<br /> This paper develops simple models of drivers\' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers\' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.</p> <p><strong><br /> An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXX_No_1_3-14\">January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.</a><br /> J. Rouwendal<br /> The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.</p> <p><br /> <em><strong><a name=\"t012\"></a></strong></em><strong>1.2 Metro Bus</strong></p> <p><strong><br /> Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1V_No_1_15-28.pdf\">January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.</a><br /> N. Lee I. Steedman<br /> This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.</p> <p><strong><br /> Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1V_No_1_29-36.pdf\">January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.</a><br /> R.K. Koshal <br /> In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Stagger Enquiry</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1V_No_3_284-308.pdf\">September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.</a><br /> G. Walshe<br /> Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers\' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.</p> <p><strong><br /> Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V_No_2_163-172.pdf\">May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.</a><br /> S. trench<br /> Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_1_77-84.pdf\">January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.</a><br /> W.J. Tyson<br /> A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.</p> <p><strong><br /> Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_2_147-153.pdf\">May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.</a><br /> R.K. Koshal <br /> The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_2_211-212.pdf\">May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.</a><br /> D.P.C. Fletcher <br /> A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.</p> <p><strong><br /> Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_3_281-284.pdf\">September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.</a><br /> R.H. brown C.A. Nash <br /> An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.</p> <p><strong><br /> An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V111_No_1_40-47.pdf\">January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.</a><br /> W.J. Tyson <br /> Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators\' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V111_No_3_223-236.pdf\">September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.</a><br /> M.H. Fairhurst <br /> This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.</p> <p><strong><br /> break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V111_No_3_274-293.pdf\">September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.</a><br /> D.S. Sawicki <br /> The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1X_No_2_127-140.pdf\">May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.</a><br /> S. Wabe O.B. Coles <br /> The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.</p> <p><strong><br /> Optimal Bus Fares</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1X_No_3_280-286.pdf\">September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.</a><br /> R. Turvey H. Mohring <br /> The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers\' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X_No_1_68-86.pdf\">January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.</a><br /> R.W. Schmenner <br /> Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1_No_1_68-91.pdf\">January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.</a><br /> H.G. Wilson <br /> The author\'s aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.</p> <p><strong><br /> Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X11_No_1_70-85.pdf\">January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.</a><br /> C.A. Nash <br /> Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X11_No_3_280-303.pdf\">September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.</a><br /> M.W. Frankena <br /> Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.</p> <p><strong><br /> Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring\'s Theory of Optimal Bus Fares</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X111_No_3_268-294.pdf\">September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.</a><br /> J.O. Jansson <br /> The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X111_No_3_320-334.pdf\">September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.</a><br /> A.A. Walters <br /> The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1V_No_1_53-80.pdf\">January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.</a><br /> J.O. Jansson <br /> If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1V_No_3_295-314.pdf\">September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.</a><br /> P.A. Viton <br /> Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.</p> <p><strong><br /> Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_1_59-67.pdf\">January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.</a><br /> C.W. Boyd <br /> In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_1_77-80.pdf\">January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.</a><br /> P.R. White <br /> A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author\'s rejoinder.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_2_167-177.pdf\">May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.</a><br /> C.W. Boyd <br /> One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.</p> <p><strong><br /> Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV1_No_1_85-94.pdf\">January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.</a><br /> P.A. Viton <br /> The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.</p> <p><strong><br /> Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_1_7-24.pdf\">January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.</a><br /> J. Berechman <br /> The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.</p> <p><strong><br /> Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_1_25-47.pdf\">January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.</a><br /> H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert <br /> The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.</p> <p><strong><br /> &quot;Unnecessary and Wasteful&quot; Competition in Bus transport</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV111_No_3_293-302.pdf\">September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.</a><br /> I.P. Savage <br /> In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.</p> <p><strong><br /> Competition on an Urban Bus Route</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_1_65-81.pdf\">January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.</a><br /> S. Glaister <br /> Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.</p> <p><strong><br /> Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_2_173-182.pdf\">May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.</a><br /> M. Kim <br /> Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.</p> <p><strong><br /> Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_2_183-203.pdf\">May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.</a><br /> K. Obeng <br /> In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.</p> <p><strong><br /> Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_3_313-319.pdf\"><br /> September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.</a><br /> C.A. Nash <br /> A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author\'s rejoinder.</p> <p><strong><br /> Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX_No_1_47-68.pdf\"><br /> January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.</a><br /> P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield <br /> Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.</p> <p><strong><br /> Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX_No_1_101-108.pdf\"><br /> January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.</a><br /> T.E. Galvez <br /> A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.</p> <p><strong><br /> Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX_No_2_191-216.pdf\"><br /> May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.</a><br /> C. Foster J. Golay <br /> Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.</p> <p><strong><br /> Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX_No_2_217-244.pdf\"><br /> May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.</a><br /> S. Glaister <br /> A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1_No_1_7-36.pdf\">January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.</a><br /> A. Evans <br /> The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.</p> <p><strong><br /> Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX11_No_3_263281.pdf\">September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.</a><br /> J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos <br /> The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers\' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.</p> <p><strong><br /> Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX11_No_3_283-306.pdf\"><br /> September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.</a><br /> A. Evans <br /> Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.</p> <p><strong><br /> Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX111_No_1_29-43.pdf\"><br /> January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.</a><br /> K.M. Gwilliam <br /> Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.</p> <p><strong><br /> Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1V_No_2_295-310.pdf\"><br /> May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.</a><br /> M.E. Beesley <br /> Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1V_No_3_239-254.pdf\"><br /> September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.</a><br /> P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock <br /> This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.</p> <p><strong><br /> Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1V_No_3_255-281.pdf\"><br /> September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.</a><br /> A. Evans <br /> The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government\'s expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.</p> <p><strong><br /> Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1V_No_3_283-293.pdf\"><br /> September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.</a><br /> W.J. Tyson <br /> The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author\'s judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.</p> <p><strong><br /> Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1V_No_3_311-332.pdf\"><br /> September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.</a><br /> P.R. White <br /> A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1V_No_3_333-350.pdf\"><br /> September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.</a><br /> K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde <br /> Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV_No_2_153-162.pdf\"><br /> May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.</a><br /> N.J. Ireland <br /> Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.</p> <p><strong><br /> Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV11_No_2_153-170.pdf\"><br /> May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.</a><br /> J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton <br /> An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional &quot;rule-of-reason&quot; approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1X_No_3_253-262.pdf\"><br /> September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.</a><br /> F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll <br /> This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.</p> <p><strong><br /> Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1X_No_3_275-289.pdf\"><br /> September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.</a><br /> P. White S. Tough <br /> When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.</p> <p><br /> <em><strong><a name=\"t013\"></a></strong></em><strong>1.3 Taxi</strong></p> <p><strong><br /> Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_2_116-127.pdf\"><br /> May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.</a><br /> G.W. Douglas <br /> In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers\' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1X_No_3_268-279.pdf\"><br /> September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.</a><br /> C. Shreiber <br /> In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1_No_3_288-304.pdf\"><br /> September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.</a><br /> R.B. Coffman <br /> A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author\'s rejoinder.</p> <p><strong><br /> Competition and Supply in London Taxis</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X111_No_1_102-131.pdf\"><br /> January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.</a><br /> M.E. Beesley <br /> The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1V_No_1_105-112.pdf\"><br /> January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.</a><br /> D.J. Williams <br /> A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_1_81-83.pdf\"><br /> January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.</a><br /> C. Shreiber <br /> Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.</p> <p><strong><br /> Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_2_179-184.pdf\"><br /> May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.</a><br /> D.J. Williams <br /> The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.</p> <p><strong><br /> Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_3_299-313.pdf\"><br /> September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.</a><br /> A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight <br /> There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1_No_1_37-56.pdf\"><br /> January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.</a><br /> R.F. Teal M. Berglund <br /> Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.</p> <p><strong><br /> Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1X_No_2_195-207.pdf\"><br /> May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.</a><br /> J. Hackner S. Nyberg <br /> This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.</p> <p><strong><br /> Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXX_No_1_83-93.pdf\"><br /> January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.</a><br /> J. Mansson <br /> The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.</p> <p><br /> <strong><em><a name=\"t014\"></a></em>1.4 Metro Rail</strong></p> <p><strong><br /> The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X_No_2_126-136.pdf\"><br /> May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.</a><br /> G.W. Davies <br /> An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X111_No_3_295-303.pdf\"><br /> September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.</a><br /> D.N. Dewees <br /> Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.</p> <p><strong><br /> Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV111_No_1_83-98.pdf\"><br /> January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.</a><br /> M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes <br /> The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXX_No_1_15-29.pdf\"><br /> January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.</a><br /> D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward <br /> Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.</p> <p><strong><br /> Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXX_No_2_171-186.pdf\">May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.</a><br /> P. Wunsch <br /> This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.</p> <p><br /> <strong><em><a name=\"t015\"></a></em>1.5 Heavy Rail</strong></p> <p><strong><br /> Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_111_No_1_69-95.pdf\"><br /> January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.</a><br /> A.W. Evans <br /> Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.</p> <p><strong><br /> Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_111_No_2_178-194.pdf\"><br /> May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.</a><br /> P.K. Else M. Howe <br /> How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1V_No_2_162-170.pdf\"><br /> May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.</a><br /> C.D. Jones <br /> The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.</p> <p><strong><br /> Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V_No_1_3-27.pdf\"><br /> January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.</a><br /> W.D. Shipman <br /> Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_3_308-320.pdf\"><br /> September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.</a><br /> G. Richards <br /> A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.</p> <p><strong><br /> Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_3_321-323.pdf\"><br /> September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.</a><br /> R.D. Evans <br /> This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Demand for Commuter Rail transport</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V11_No_2_134-143.pdf\"><br /> May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.</a><br /> C.C. McDonough <br /> Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail\'s London and South-East Commuter Passengers</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_3_269-275.pdf\"><br /> September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.</a><br /> J.G. Gibson <br /> Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail\'s London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV1_No_1_95-99.pdf\"><br /> January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.</a><br /> C.A. Nash <br /> A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV1_No_3_305-309.pdf\"><br /> September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.</a><br /> A. Grey <br /> The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.</p> <p><strong><br /> Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_2_115-132.pdf\"><br /> May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.</a><br /> S. Glaister <br /> The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_2_133-153.pdf\"><br /> May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.</a><br /> I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols <br /> Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.</p> <p><strong><br /> Railway Costs and Closures</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV111_No_3_219-235.pdf\"><br /> September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.</a><br /> J.S. Dodgson <br /> The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.</p> <p><strong><br /> Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV111_No_3_275-291.pdf\"><br /> September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.</a><br /> H. McGeehan <br /> The author\'s model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_1_41-64.pdf\"><br /> January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.</a><br /> S.D. trotter <br /> This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1_No_3_231-253.pdf\"><br /> September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.</a><br /> A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips <br /> The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.</p> <p><strong><br /> Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX11_No_2_209-233.pdf\"><br /> May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.</a><br /> J.D. Rickard <br /> Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.</p> <p><strong><br /> Railway Costs and Planning</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX111_No_1_45-54.pdf\"><br /> January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.</a><br /> S. Joy <br /> Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.</p> <p><strong><br /> Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV_No_2_183-202.pdf\"><br /> May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.</a><br /> J. Preston <br /> It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.</p> <p><strong><br /> Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries\' Railways</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV111_No_2_121-138.pdf\"><br /> May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.</a><br /> T.H. Oum C. Yu <br /> The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.</p> <p><strong><br /> Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV111_No_3_287-306.pdf\"><br /> September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.</a><br /> M. Wardman <br /> This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.</p> <p><br /> <em><strong><a name=\"t016\"></a></strong></em><strong>1.6 Coach</strong><br /> <strong><br /> Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V_No_1_91-95.pdf\"><br /> January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.</a><br /> J. Hibbs <br /> The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.</p> <p><strong><br /> Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V_No_3_314-343.pdf\"><br /> September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.</a><br /> R.E. Burns <br /> The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.</p> <p><br /> <em><strong><a name=\"t017\"></a></strong></em><strong>1.7 General</strong><br /> <strong><br /> Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1_No_3_237-242.pdf\"><br /> September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.</a><br /> R. Sherman <br /> A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.</p> <p><strong><br /> Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1_No_3_273-314.pdf\"><br /> September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.</a><br /> D.A. Quarmby <br /> Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.</p> <p><strong><br /> transit Validation for City Centres</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V_No_1_28-39.pdf\"><br /> January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.</a><br /> E.W. Segelhorst <br /> To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers\' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.</p> <p><strong><br /> Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_1_22-31.pdf\"><br /> January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.</a><br /> R Sherman<br /> Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.</p> <p><strong><br /> Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V1_No_3_240-253.pdf\"><br /> September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.</a><br /> D.G. Rhys <br /> Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.</p> <p><strong><br /> Free Public transport</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V11_No_1_3-19.pdf\"><br /> January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.</a><br /> H.J. Baum <br /> After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.</p> <p><strong><br /> An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V11_No_1_20-31.pdf\"><br /> January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.</a><br /> E. Smith <br /> Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.</p> <p><strong><br /> Parking Bias in transit Choice</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V11_No_1_58-70.pdf\"><br /> January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.</a><br /> E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus <br /> The practice of subsidising the parking of employees\' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.</p> <p><strong><br /> Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V11_No_3_215-230.pdf\"><br /> September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.</a><br /> M. Frankena <br /> Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.</p> <p><strong><br /> Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V11_No_3_291-293.pdf\"><br /> September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 291.</a><br /> J.G. Ody <br /> A comment on a contribution to the September 1972 issue of the Journal by D.G. Rhys, together with a rejoinder by the author.</p> <p><strong><br /> An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services.</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V11_No_3_294-299.pdf\"><br /> September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 294.</a><br /> P.R. White O.B. Coles <br /> A comment on an article in the Journal by Mr. E. Smith in January 1973, together with a rejoinder by the author.</p> <p><strong><br /> Use of Public transport in Towns and Cities of Great Britain and Ireland</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V111_No_1_26-39.pdf\"><br /> January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 26.</a><br /> P.R. White <br /> Mr White reviews the experience of municipal transport undertakings and is optimistic about their future. Public transport is still important for shopping trips, and small towns are doing as well as larger ones.</p> <p><strong><br /> An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services. A Comment.</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V111_No_1_89-94.pdf\"><br /> January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 89, 92.</a><br /> J.G. Todd J.A. Baggs <br /> A Comment on the article by E. Smith in the January 1973 issue of the journal, together with a rejoinder by the author.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_V111_No_3_237-243.pdf\"><br /> September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 237.</a><br /> M.S.P. Kerridge <br /> The British government grant scheme discriminates in favour of rear-engined rather than front-engined double-deck buses. This gives an artificial impetus to one-man operation, which has serious disadvantages in congested areas. The author suggests that other means should be used to help buses.</p> <p><strong><br /> Optimal Subsidies for Public transit</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1X_No_1_3-15.pdf\"><br /> January 1975, Vol. 9, No. 1, Page 3.</a><br /> R. Jackson <br /> Professor Jackson presents a model for determining (1) optimal fare subsidies and (2) optimal subsidies for increasing transit speed. He concludes that no significant improvement is apparent unless marginal social cost per car passenger mile is at least 80 per cent above private cost in the highway sector.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Influence of Public transport on Car Ownership in London</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_1X_No_3_193-208.pdf\"><br /> September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 193.</a><br /> M.H. Fairhurst <br /> Variations in car ownership between districts are accounted for by household income, household size and access to public transport. transport planning can thus influence not only modal split in the short term but future decisions by households on whether to own a car.</p> <p><strong><br /> Urban Express Bus and Railroad Performance. Some Toronto Simulations</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X_No_1_16-25.pdf\"><br /> January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 16.</a><br /> D.N. Dewees <br /> Simulation by a computer program showed that a proposed commuter railroad would be inferior in both time and money to express buses which could operate locally in the suburban area, travel along an expressway, and then make several stops in the central business district.</p> <p><strong><br /> Computing Passenger Miles in London transport</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X_No_1_87-89.pdf\"><br /> January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 87.</a><br /> D.A. Baggaley <br /> The author describes methods used to compute passenger miles by London transport, which has various systems of graduated and flat fares, period tickets, and tickets for free travel.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport. A Comment</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X_No_1_90-93.pdf\"><br /> January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 90.</a><br /> J.B. Naylor <br /> A comment on the article by M.S.P. Kerridge published in this Journal in September 1974.</p> <p><strong><br /> Optimal transit Prices under Increasing Returns to Scale and a Loss Constraint</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1_No_2_185-194.pdf\"><br /> May 1977, Vol. 11, No. 2, Page 185.</a><br /> K. train <br /> Welfare loss might be reduced by requiring total revenues from all units in an urban transport system to meet a proportion of total costs, instead of applying the constraint to each unit separately. This may need an agency to administer prices and cross-subsidisation. Prices are calculated for the East Bay Area of the San Francisco Bay Area.</p> <p><strong><br /> Maximisation of Passenger Miles in Theory and Practice</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X11_No_3_304-321.pdf\"><br /> September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 304.</a><br /> S. Glaister J.J. Collings <br /> Maximisation of passenger miles in public transport has the advantage of simplicity. The authors derive weights for passenger miles to reduce the disadvantages shown by a comparison with other objectives. There is a risk of loss of welfare.</p> <p><strong><br /> Distributional Effects of Maximisation of Passenger Miles</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X11_No_3_322-329.pdf\"><br /> September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 322.</a><br /> D. Bos <br /> Maximisation of passenger miles leads to loss of welfare. It is impossible to prove theoretically whether its distributional effects will be positive (that is, favourable to the lower income classes) or negative, but this can be determined in practice in each case. In London transport they are positive.</p> <p><strong><br /> &quot;travelcard&quot; Tickets in Urban Public transport</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_1_17-34.pdf\"><br /> January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 17.</a><br /> P.R. White <br /> travelcards (regional intermodal season tickets) have grown rapidly in importance, especially in Western Europe. After introduction at a low price, moderate increases in price have little effect on sales, and there are important benefits.</p> <p><strong><br /> A Methodological Note on Welfare Calculus</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_1_69-75.pdf\"><br /> January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 69.</a><br /> Y. Shilony <br /> A comment on the article on &quot;Optimal Subsidies for Public transit&quot; published in this Journal in January 1975, with a rejoinder by the author.</p> <p><strong><br /> transit Service Elasticities. Evidence from Demonstrations and Demand Models</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV_No_2_99-119.pdf\"><br /> May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 99.</a><br /> A.M. Lago P. Mayworm J.M. McEnroe <br /> There is little elasticity of demand for improvements in transit service, especially where service is already good. Headways are more important than in-vehicle time. Information is lacking on reliability, availability of seats, and transfers.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Efficiency of Public transport Objectives and Subsidy Formulas</strong><a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_1_67-76.pdf\"><br /> January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 67.</a><br /> M.W. Frankena <br /> Maximisation of ridership appears to be inefficient, but this depends on the demand and cost functions. It is also necessary to know these to judge the efficiency of any subsidy formula.</p> <p><strong><br /> More Methodological Notes on Welfare Calculus</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_1_95-98.pdf\">January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 95.</a><br /> Y. Shilony <br /> A follow-up to the exchange between Yuval Shilony and Raymond Jackson in this Journal in January 1981.</p> <p><strong><br /> Impacts of Subsidies on the Costs of Urban Public transport</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV11_No_2_155-176.pdf\">May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 155.</a><br /> J. Pucher A. Markstedt I. Hirschman <br /> The authors find strong evidence that Federal and State subsidies have the effect of increasing costs. They suggest changes to improve the system.</p> <p><strong><br /> Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV111_No_1_7-22.pdf\">January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 7.</a><br /> L.B. Doxsey <br /> A monthly transit pass is bought only by heavy users. They pay less than before, and light users do not pay more. The direct result is a loss of revenue to the operator.</p> <p><strong><br /> Part-Time Labour, Work Rules, and Urban transit Costs</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XV111_No_1_63-73.pdf\">January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 63.</a><br /> K.M. Chomitz C.A. Lave <br /> Computer simulations are used in a study of the financial effects of possible changes in union work rules governing split shifts and the use of part-time drivers.</p> <p><strong><br /> Equalising Grants for the Public transport Subsidy</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_2_105-138.pdf\">May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 105.</a><br /> A. Evans <br /> If the principle of equalisation were applied to central government grants for public transport, almost all would go to rural counties. Subsidies for urban transport should be paid from local taxes.</p> <p><strong><br /> Optimal Pricing and Subsidies for Scheduled transport Services</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_3_263-279.pdf\">September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 263.</a><br /> P.K. Else <br /> Building on previous discussion in this Journal, the author suggests that optimum subsidies could possibly be as high as 60 per cent of an operator\'s costs. But fares and the level of service should also be controlled. travel cards may provide a form of two-part tariff for public transport.</p> <p><strong><br /> Rising Deficits and the Uses of transit Subsidies in the United States</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_3_281-298.pdf\">September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 281.</a><br /> D.H. Pickrell <br /> The author finds that most of the increase in subsidies to transit in recent years has been absorbed by increased costs, expanded services, and reduction in real fares, rather than compensating for decreased demand. It is suggested that the increased availability of subsidies may itself be a cause of increased costs and deficits.</p> <p><strong><br /> Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes: A Comment</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_X1X_No_3_305-311.pdf\">September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 305.</a><br /> P.R. White<br /> A comment on the article under this title in the January 1984 issue of the Journal, with a rejoinder by the author.</p> <p><strong><br /> An Urban transit Firm Providing transit, Paratransit and Contracted-Out Services. A Cost Analysis</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX_No_3_353-368.pdf\">September 1986, Vol. 20, No. 3, Page 353.</a><br /> W.K. Talley E.E. Anderson <br /> Public transit firms may be able to reduce operating deficits by providing paratransit and contracted-out services. Contracting out can induce employees and their unions, fearful of job losses, to accept changes in working agreements which reduce costs to the firm.<br /> Benefit-Cost Rules for Urban transit Subsidies. An Integration of Allocational, </p> <p><strong>Distributional and Public Finance Issues</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1_No_1_57-71.pdf\">January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 57.</a><br /> J.S. Dodgson N. Topham <br /> In determining the level of subsidy, and its use in reducing fares or increasing frequencies, weight should be given to the comparative benefits accruing to different income groups. A local authority will be influenced in its decision by the proportion of the cost that is borne by central government.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Economics of travel Passes. Non-Uniform Pricing in transport</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX11_No_2_153-173.pdf\">May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 153.</a><br /> J.C. Carbajo <br /> Pricing rules are derived under different objectives for schemes including travelcards and ordinary tickets. To calculate the effects on revenue of different combinations of fares it is necessary to know the distribution of the population in terms of trip behaviour.</p> <p><strong><br /> Fare Evasion and Non-Compliance. A Simple Model</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX111_No_2_189-197.pdf\">May 1989, Vol. 23, No. 2, Page 189.</a><br /> C. Boyd C. Martini J. Rickard A. Russell<br /> The authors construct a model to find appropriate levels of random inspection of tickets under honour systems. They consider the implications for policy.</p> <p><strong><br /> Public transport Demand Elasticities in Spain</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XX1V_No_2_189-201.pdf\">May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 189.</a><br /> G. de Rus <br /> From his study of elasticities the author concludes that patronage of public transport in Spanish cities could be increased by adjustment of the proportionate charges for cash fares and multiple-ride tickets, and by increasing fares to provide higher frequencies.</p> <p><strong><br /> The Demand for travel and for travelcards on London Regional transport</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV_No_3_3-29.pdf\">January 1991, Vol. 25, No. 1, Page 3.</a><br /> C.L. Gilbert H. Jalilian <br /> The authors develop a joint model for the demand for travel and the demand for travelcards. The estimates are that demand for underground travel is inelastic while the demand for bus travel is elastic. Simulation analysis attributes between one third and one half of the rise in demand for underground travel in the period 1982-87 to employment growth; and between one half and two thirds to the introduction of travelcards.</p> <p><strong><br /> Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV11_No_1_33-50.pdf\">January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 33.</a><br /> K. Jansson <br /> Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.</p> <p><strong><br /> Fare Evasion as a Result of Expected Utility Maximisation. Some empirical Support</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV11_No_1_69-74.pdf\">January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 69.</a><br /> P. Kooreman <br /> In public transport systems with self-service fare collection passengers can decide whether to pay the fare or not. A passenger who does not pay is subject to a risk of being fined. The paper provides some empirical support for the hypothesis that passengers behave as expected utility maximisers.</p> <p><strong><br /> Road Casualties in London in Relation to Public transport Policy</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXV111_No_1_61-82.pdf\">January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 61.</a><br /> R.E. Allsop S.A. Robertson <br /> Exceptional changes in bus and underground rail fares in London in the early 1980s prompted analyses of the effects of fare levels and petrol prices upon the numbers of road casualties in London. Earlier estimates of the number of extra casualties associated with a period of unusually high fares in the early 1980s are shown to have probably been too high.</p> <p><strong><br /> Optimal Pricing of Urban Passenger transport: A Simulation Exercise for Belgium</strong><br /> <a href=\"http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-journals/jtep/pdf/Volume_XXX_No_1_31-54.pdf\">January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 31.</a><br /> B. de Borger I. Mayeres S. Proost S. Wouters<br /> First, a simple theoretical model is developed that determines optimal prices for private and urban transport services in both the peak and off-peak periods of the day, taking into account all relevant private and external costs. Second, the model is implemented to study pricing policies in Belgium, using recent estimates of private and social marginal costs. Several applications are then considered.<br /> </p> <p>&nbsp;</p>\";}', '<ul id=\"breadcrumbs\"> <li class=\"last\"><a href=\"/e-journals/jtep/archive/\">archive</a></li> </ul> ', 'jtep' ) Journal of transport Economics and Policy - Contents

    Part 1: transport Themes - Surface Passenger transport

    1.1 Car

    Optimal Congestion Tolls for Car Commuters. A Note on Current Theory
    September 1969, Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 300.
    J.O. Jansson
    The normal theory of congestion tolls follows the conventional lines of general cost theory, including the assumption that the production period is fixed. Mr Jansson shows that the 'production period' for travel to work can be extended if congestion causes commuters to leave home earlier.


    Methodology for Short-Range travel Demand Predictions. Analysis of Carpooling Incentives
    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 224.
    M. Ben-Akiva T.J. Atherton
    Carpooling can be encouraged by direct incentives and by disincentives to solo drivers. A combination of both can be effective in reducing congestion and fuel consumption. The authors suggest ways in which their methodology could be extended and improved.


    Passenger Car Comfort and travel Decisions. A Physiological Study

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 231.
    E.S. Neumann M.L. Romansky R.W. Plummer
    The American preference for large rather than small cars is related to the degree of comfort provided. An experiment shows that different degrees of heat and noise may affect the frequency and duration of trips.


    The Demand for Passenger Car transport Services and for Gasoline

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 304.
    A.M. Reza M.H. Spiro
    The authors study the effects of changes in the price of gasoline on the demand for gasoline, for new cars and for quality in cars.


    Car Sharing in the United Kingdom. A Policy Appraisal

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 35.
    P. Bonsall
    Car sharing schemes can be beneficial, but in Britain their main effect is normally to abstract patronage from public transport. The author gives guidance on the shaping and presentation of schemes.


    Willingness to Pay for Car Efficiency. A Hedonic Price Approach

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 247.
    A.C. Goodman
    Hedonic price analysis applied in the 1977 market for used cars shows elasticity in willingness to pay for increased miles per gallon. Data for 1979 are inconclusive.


    Fuel Economy Standards and Automobile Prices

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 31.
    R.E. Falvey J. Frank H.O. Fried M. Babunovic
    US law requires cars produced by each manufacturer to comply with average standards of fuel economy. The authors find that relative prices of large and small cars were adjusted during 1978 and 1979, but that in 1980 the standard was met through alterations in model characteristics and through changes in demand towards smaller cars.


    The Determinants of Automobile Fatalities, with Special Consideration to Policy Variables

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 279.
    P.D. Loeb
    traffic deaths are reduced by inspection of motor vehicles, lower consumption of beer, and lower average speed. Raising the legal minimum drinking age is found to have no effect.


    The Demand for Vehicle Use in the Urban Household Sector. Theory and empirical Evidence

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 119.
    D.A. Hensher F.W. Milthorpe N.C. Smith
    A household makes a joint choice of type of vehicle(s) and rate of use. The authors' model covers households with one, two, three, and four or more vehicles. It examines elasticities of fuel and other costs that vary with distance travelled, and the possibility of transfer to use of another vehicle within the household.


    The Effect of Personal Characteristics on Drivers' Speed Selection: An Economic Approach

    September 1993, Vol. 27, No. 3, Page 237.
    F. Jorgensen J. Polak
    This paper develops simple models of drivers' speed selection behaviour both with and without the influence of speed limits using data from a section of rural road in Norway. The results indicate the importance of a number of personal characteristics on drivers' speed selection behaviour, including age, driving experience, attitudes towards travel time savings, and perceptions of enforcement and penalties. Moral hazard effects may also be present.


    An Economic Analysis of Fuel Use per Kilometre by Private Cars

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 3.
    J. Rouwendal
    The author analyses the fuel efficiency of private cars in relation to both technical characteristics and the socio-economic characteristics of the drivers for a sample of Dutch drivers. The age and profession of the driver, and fuel prices, have more significant effects than the gender and income of the driver, or the annual or commuting mileage.


    1.2 Metro Bus


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: I. Some British Municipal Results

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 15.
    N. Lee I. Steedman
    This study was prompted by the proposal to merge a number of municipal transport undertakings into Passenger transport Authorities. The authors analyse figures showing various working expenses per bus-mile, and find no evidence of scale economies. They point out, however, that the P.T.A.s will be larger than any undertaking in their sample, and that a different conclusion might conceivably be reached if data were available on costs per passenger-mile. Extension of one-man operation appears to offer greater scope for economies than amalgamation.


    Economies of Scale in Bus transport: II. Some Indian Experience

    January 1970, Vol. 4, No. 1, Page 29.
    R.K. Koshal
    In India, as in Britain, there is no evidence of economies or diseconomies of scale in bus operation. As would be expected, costs are much higher on mountainous routes than for city or long-distance operation.


    A Stagger Enquiry

    September 1970, Vol. 4, No. 3, Page 284.
    G. Walshe
    Peak requirements of Southampton city buses are considered, and the author tries to estimate the possible effectiveness of staggered travel by schoolchildren and office workers. Answers to a questionnaire tend to show that employers' fears of loss of efficiency are exaggerated.


    Bus Services in the Nottingham Area. Some Effects of the Boundary System

    May 1971, Vol. 5, No. 2, Page 163.
    S. trench
    Two students carried out a project. The results suggest that substantial economies might be effected by route adjustments and by allowing city passengers to use long-distance buses.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. An empirical Study

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 77.
    W.J. Tyson
    A study of one road passenger transport undertaking shows that the long-run marginal cost of the daily peak is greater than its long-run marginal revenue. To raise fares at the peak and withdraw some services would involve social cost. The optimal policy might involve some form of subsidy.


    Economies of Scale. I. The Cost of trucking: Econometric Analysis. II. Bus transport: Some United States Experience

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 147.
    R.K. Koshal
    The author finds that the Indian trucking industry enjoys economies of scale for distances below 1,000 kilometres. In the United States, as in the UK and India, there is no evidence of economies of scales in the bus industry.


    The Peak in Road Passenger transport. A Comment

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 211.
    D.P.C. Fletcher
    A comment on the article by W J Tyson in the January 1972 issue of this Journal.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 281.
    R.H. brown C.A. Nash
    An investigation of the results of municipal bus undertakings from 1964 to 1969 shows an average saving of 13.7 per cent on buses converted to one-man operation.


    An Analysis of trends in Bus Passenger Miles

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 40.
    W.J. Tyson
    Statistics of passenger mileage are derived from operators' fare scales and revenue. An empirical study shows that, while the number of trips has declined, average trip length has increased. These results are contrasted with figures for London transport and for Great Britain as a whole.


    The Impact on Receipts of Conversion to One-Man Bus Operation: Some Explanations and Predictions

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 223.
    M.H. Fairhurst
    This article sets out the findings of an analysis by London transport of thirty services converted to one-man operation in 1970-71. An index was devised to show the influence of parallel services on the same routes; takings were affected also by changes in frequency and regularity and additional time spent at stops.


    break-even Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Express transit Systems

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 274.
    D.S. Sawicki
    The town of Milwaukee commissioned research into the comparative merits of its existing Freeway Flier express bus; a controlled access system giving the Flier right of way and restricting access of automobiles on congested roads; and a busway with its own right of way. The existing system is found best; the busway is a poor third. Suggestions are made for applying the method used to other areas.


    The Short and Long-Run Cost of Bus transport in Urban Areas

    May 1975, Vol. 9, No. 2, Page 127.
    S. Wabe O.B. Coles
    The authors find evidence of diseconomies of scale in municipal bus operation. They examine costs between 1961 and 1971, and find that the cost of a peak mile is increasing in proportion to total cost.


    Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 280.
    R. Turvey H. Mohring
    The authors consider how fares can be equated with marginal social costs, including the cost of passengers' time. Fares should be higher on crowded buses to allow for the extra waiting time of would-be passengers.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit. A Route-by-Route Analysis

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 68.
    R.W. Schmenner
    Satisfactory results are obtained from a bus demand model designed to test the profitability of individual bus routes in three medium-sized cities in Connecticut. Fare appears to be a stronger influence on demand than frequency.


    The Cost of Operating Buses in US Cities

    January 1977, Vol. 11, No. 1, Page 68.
    H.G. Wilson
    The author's aim is to present a useful forecasting tool for estimating the costs of proposed new or extended bus systems.


    Management Objectives, Fares and Service Levels in Bus transport

    January 1978, Vol. 12, No. 1, Page 70.
    C.A. Nash
    Commercial operation of a monopoly public transport service would lead to discrimination against some passengers. Pareto-type social welfare is a complex aim. London transport seeks to maximise passenger mileage subject to a budget constraint.


    The Demand for Urban Bus transit in Canada

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 280.
    M.W. Frankena
    Demand for bus services is found to depend on time and fare costs, income, and the nature of the urban area. Two-stage least squares are used. The study reveals no evidence that the costs of running a car affect demand for bus services.


    Marginal Cost Pricing of Scheduled transport Services. A Development and Generalisation of Turvey and Mohring's Theory of Optimal Bus Fares

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 268.
    J.O. Jansson
    The conclusion reached in this paper is that optimal pricing of scheduled transport services in any mode will result in a financial deficit, especially in passenger transport.


    The Benefits of Minibuses. The Case of Kuala Lumpur

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 320.
    A.A. Walters
    The introduction of minibuses to compete with buses and taxis brought a surprisingly large benefit to both operators and users.


    A Simple Bus Line Model for Optimisation of Service Frequency and Bus Size

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 53.
    J.O. Jansson
    If total social costs are to be minimised, bus frequencies should be higher than present, especially in off-peak, and buses should be smaller.


    The Possibility of Profitable Bus Service

    September 1980, Vol. 14, No. 3, Page 295.
    P.A. Viton
    Under what conditions can express buses for commuters be profitable? The author derives answers from a model showing the bus company in competition with the private car.


    Cost Savings from One-Man Operation of Buses: A Re-evaluation

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 59.
    C.W. Boyd
    In a replication of the study by brown and Nash published in this Journal in September 1972, Dr. Boyd finds that conversion of buses to one-man operation reduces costs by 15.6 per cent. He concludes that the unexpectedly large apparent saving (shown in both studies) from conversion to single-decker operation is due to multi-collinearity. The authors of the 1972 article disagree on this point.


    The Benefits of Minibuses: A Comment

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 77.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article in the September 1979 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


    The Impact of Reduced Service Quality on Demand for Bus travel. The Case of One-Man Operation

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 167.
    C.W. Boyd
    One-man operation of urban buses has reduced demand and resulted in a net loss in welfare.


    Privately-Provided Urban transport Services. Entry Deterrence and Welfare

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 85.
    P.A. Viton
    The existence of public utility bus services, often subsidised, is one reason why private carriers are seldom able to enter the market. But entry would usually produce a welfare gain.


    Costs, Economies of Scale and Factor Demand in Road transport

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 7.
    J. Berechman
    The author, using a general translog cost function, finds that there are economies of scale in bus transport in Israel. The industry is concentrated in private ownership and serves a densely populated area. Own-price elasticity is larger for capital than for labour.


    Cost Structure of the Intercity Bus Industry

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 25.
    H. Tauchen F.D. Fravel G. Gilbert
    The authors find economies of scale in intercity bus-miles only when the scale is very small. Marginal costs vary with type of service. Government intervention should aim at encouraging co-operation in services.


    "Unnecessary and Wasteful" Competition in Bus transport

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 293.
    I.P. Savage
    In the short run competition is likely to lead to a reduction in social welfare.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 65.
    S. Glaister
    Deregulation of the bus industry and reduction of costs and subsidy would probably lead to the introduction of smaller buses, giving faster and more frequent service but at higher fares. There would be fewer cheap big buses, so poorer people might be worse off.


    Total Factor Productivity in Bus transport

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 173.
    M. Kim
    Total factor productivity is measured by a new technique. It appears that in bus transport during the 1970s average cost has fallen and efficiency has risen; but the result may be biased by the use of revenue (possibly including subsidies) as a measure of output.


    Bus transit Cost, Productivity and Factor Substitution

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 183.
    K. Obeng
    In the long run all bus systems are found to have diseconomies of scale. Management should try to reduce costs, especially by improving the productivity of fuel.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 313.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on an article published in this Journal in January 1985, with the author's rejoinder.


    Competition Between Minibuses and Regular Bus Services

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 47.

    P.H. Bly R.H. Oldfield
    Results reached in this paper indicate that services run entirely by minibuses are unlikely to cover their costs. But minibuses running on the same routes as existing big bus services in London may do well, and may produce some net social benefit.


    Competition on an Urban Bus Route: A Comment

    January 1986, Vol. 20, No. 1, Page 101.

    T.E. Galvez
    A comment on the article by Stephen Glaister and earlier discussion, published in this Journal in January and September 1985, with a rejoinder by the author.


    Some Curious Old Practices and their Relevance to Equilibrium in Bus Competition

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 191.

    C. Foster J. Golay
    Many of the bad practices of bus drivers before 1933 will be prevented under the transport Act 1985, or will be unprofitable. Others which may be revived are not necessarily harmful and may conduce to competitive equilibrium. The authors make suggestions for policy.


    Bus Deregulation, Competition and Vehicle Size

    May 1986, Vol. 20, No. 2, Page 217.

    S. Glaister
    A study of five routes in Aberdeen shows that the 88-seater bus is too big. After deregulation minibuses are likely to compete with big buses. Minibuses might charge higher fares for a faster service, perhaps with limited stops.


    A Theoretical Comparison of Competition with other Economic Regimes for Bus Services

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 7.
    A. Evans
    The author finds that competition generally leads to higher fares and higher frequencies than a regime of maximum net economic benefit subject to a requirement to break even.


    Quality Competition in Bus Services. Some Welfare Implications of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 263.
    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos
    The authors find that a competitive equilibrium will have only two firms, providing that services of different quality are at different fares. They consider factors influencing consumers' welfare under competition and where there is a public monopolist. Where there is already competition between buses and taxis, there may be no scope for minibuses as a third competitor.


    Hereford: A Case Study of Bus Deregulation

    September 1988, Vol. 22, No. 3, Page 283.

    A. Evans
    Hereford was a trial area in which buses were deregulated before national deregulation. The author traces the effects of competition and draws some conclusions for deregulation generally. Competitive tendering, introduced by the county council, was a success and was adopted nationally in the transport Act 1985.


    Setting the Market Free. Deregulation of the Bus Industry

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 29.

    K.M. Gwilliam
    Bus deregulation has so far been neither as successful as its supporters hoped nor as damaging as its critics feared. The author outlines four measures which he considers necessary.


    Collusion, Predation and Merger in the UK Bus Industry

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 295.

    M.E. Beesley
    Analysis of predation and merger in buses performed by the Office of Fair trading and the Monopolies and Mergers Commission is assessed. Evidence linking the registration of agreements in restraint of trade with greater than average entry is presented.


    The Effects of Bus Deregulation on Costs

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 239.

    P.M. Heseltine D.T. Silcock
    This paper attempts to explain how published cost savings have been achieved and particularly the impact of changes in wages and working practices within the context of deregulation and privatisation. Amongst metropolitan PTCs almost 19 per cent of a total unit cost reduction of 31 per cent was achieved by productivity improvements. Reductions in wages can only account for 4-8 per cent of cost savings while non-labour costs account for less than 5 per cent. The process of privatisation may be the most influential factor in reducing costs.


    Competition and the Structure of Local Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 255.

    A. Evans
    The aim of entry is to capture monopoly profits by displacing the incumbent or colluding. However, entrants have generally failed to do this. Incumbents have better local knowledge, and are often financially stronger. Contrary to the Government's expectation on deregulation, the effect of potential entrants in controlling monopoly operators is weak.


    Effects of Deregulation on Service Co-ordination in the Metropolitan Areas

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 283.

    W.J. Tyson
    The paper examines the impact of deregulation on service co-ordination in the British conurbations outside London. Co-ordination decreased significantly in respect of timetables, fares and passenger information in particular in the period immediately following deregulation. Since then some aspects of co-ordination have improved. On balance, the author's judgement is that there has been a net decrease in consumer welfare.


    Bus Deregulation: A Welfare Balance Sheet

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 311.

    P.R. White
    A substantial reduction in operating cost per bus-kilometre through improved productivity is shown. However, substantial losses to users through higher fares and service instability emerge. Large increases in bus-kilometres operated did not produce any aggregate increase in ridership, but offset much of the reduction in unit cost. Overall, a small net benefit is shown in the metropolitan areas, but a net loss elsewhere. In contrast, London (subject to a competitive tendering system) shows no user or worker losses, and a substantial net benefit through higher productivity.


    The Potential for Regulatory Change in European Bus Markets

    September 1990, Vol. 24, No. 3, Page 333.

    K.M. Gwilliam D.M. van de Velde
    Regimes of regulation of the bus industries of ten Western European countries are reviewed. A reluctance to accept British style open entry is observed, explained mainly in terms of the greater emphasis placed on the use of local political control as an instrument of social and economic policy.


    A Product Differentiation Model of Bus Deregulation

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 153.

    N.J. Ireland
    Consumers, influenced by their incomes, are assumed to opt for private or public transport as a long-term decision. Those who have opted for public transport then choose particular services which are least costly in terms of both price and convenience. This two-stage framework involves both vertical and horizontal product differentiation, and yields a new perspective on bus deregulation. Allocative inefficiency from deregulation can be substantial, and can amount to a third of the costs of operating the bus system.


    Application of the Economic Modelling Approach to the Investigation of Predation

    May 1993, Vol. 27, No. 2, Page 153.

    J.S. Dodgson Y. Katsoulacos C.R. Newton
    An economic model of competition is used to show whether a competitive entry opportunity exists in a bus market where entry has occurred. This approach is compared with a more conventional "rule-of-reason" approach used by the competition authorities to investigate predation in the town of Inverness.


    The Cost of Bus Operations in Norway

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 253.

    F. Jorgensen P.A. Pedersen G. Solvoll
    This study investigates the efficiency of Norwegian bus companies. The developed model permits the consideration of the effects on costs for differences in scale, technological conditions, ownership structure and subsidy policy.


    Alternative Tendering Systems and Deregulation in Britain

    September 1995, Vol. 29, No. 3, Page 275.

    P. White S. Tough
    When UK bus services were deregulated in 1985 a system of competitive tendering was introduced for the provision of socially necessary services. Payment to the operator can be either the net difference between cost and revenue or the gross (total) cost of the service. While the former is attractive, a comparison of both methods indicates the overall cost to the contracting authority is generally lower under the gross cost method, due to the reduced risk perceived by the operator.


    1.3 Taxi


    Price Regulation and Optimal Service Standards: The Taxicab Industry

    May 1972, Vol. 6, No. 2, Page 116.

    G.W. Douglas
    In a market of cruising taxis price competition is impracticable, and service (measured by waiting time) cannot be differentiated by customers' willingness to pay. This article examines the principles governing the setting of efficient prices to attain the maximum use of the service.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 268.

    C. Shreiber
    In a free market the charges for taxicabs tend to be high. Regulation in New York City has not been properly designed to achieve economic efficiency; but abolition of the present restriction on entry will increase congestion and pollution and attract more passengers from public transport.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulations of Taxicabs. A Comment

    September 1977, Vol. 11, No. 3, Page 288.

    R.B. Coffman
    A comment on the article in the September 1975 issue of this Journal, with the author's rejoinder.


    Competition and Supply in London Taxis

    January 1979, Vol. 13, No. 1, Page 102.

    M.E. Beesley
    The numbers of London taxis and of licensed drivers have increased in recent years. Drivers are probably attracted by the variety of contracts available. But more information is needed on this and on the competitive hire car trade.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs. A Comment

    January 1980, Vol. 14, No. 1, Page 105.

    D.J. Williams
    A comment on the article and later rejoinder by Professor Shreiber, published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977.


    The Economic Reasons for Price and Entry Regulation of Taxicabs: A Rejoinder

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 81.

    C. Shreiber
    Professor Shreiber, author of the article and later rejoinder published in this Journal in September 1975 and September 1977, replies to the comment by David J. Williams which appeared in January 1980.


    Labour Costs and Taxi Supply in Melbourne

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 179.

    D.J. Williams
    The non-progressive taxicab industry survives and may be able to expand because there has been a relative decline in the quality and the real wages of drivers and in the prices of new motor vehicles. Further research is suggested.


    Economies of Scale in the Taxicab Industry. Some empirical Evidence from the United States

    September 1983, Vol. 17, No. 3, Page 299.

    A.M. Pagano C.E. McKnight
    There are economies of scale for very small taxicab firms, but over 75,000 trips per year average costs increase, so the curve is U-shaped.


    The Impact of Taxicab Deregulation in the USA

    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 37.

    R.F. Teal M. Berglund
    Deregulation of taxicabs in several US cities has not produced the expected benefits. The authors analyse the reasons for this failure, and make suggestions for future policy.


    Deregulating Taxi Services: A Word of Caution

    May 1995, Vol. 29, No. 2, Page 195.

    J. Hackner S. Nyberg
    This paper studies pricing and capacity decisions in markets for phone-ordered taxicabs. Firms first choose capacities and then compete in prices. As firm demand increases, so does waiting time. This dampens competition and makes prices too high from the social point of view. Efficiency improves if firms choose large capacities. In a two-firm setting, equilibrium capacities are shown to be larger if both firms maximise total profits than if they maximise profits per cab.


    Technical Efficiency and Ownership: The Case of Booking Centres in the Swedish Taxi Market

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 83.

    J. Mansson
    The study examines competition between privately and publicly owned booking centres in the Swedish taxi market by studying technical efficiency, and breaking down technical efficiency into managerial and organisational efficiency. The main results are that a large amount of technical efficiency exists and that no direct relationship between technical efficiency and type of ownership can be found.


    1.4 Metro Rail


    The Effect of a Subway on the Spatial Distribution of Population

    May 1976, Vol. 10, No. 2, Page 126.

    G.W. Davies
    An investigation based on experience in Toronto shows that the Yonge Street subway line led to a marked increase in density of population in bordering areas.


    A Comparison of Streetcar and Subway Service Quality

    September 1979, Vol. 13, No. 3, Page 295.

    D.N. Dewees
    Replacement of a streetcar service by a subway brings benefits for longer trips; but for travellers starting between stations, with waiting and walking time weighted more heavily than travel time, the streetcar may be better for trips of up to five miles or more.


    Towards a Willingness-To-Pay Based Value of Underground Safety

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 83.

    M. Jones-Lee G. Loomes
    The findings reported in this paper indicate a substantial premium for the willingness-to-pay based value of Underground safety relative to that of roads.


    The Impact of a Light Rail System on the Structure of House Prices

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 15.

    D. Forrest J. Glen R. Ward
    Two conventional railway lines in Greater Manchester were replaced by a new light rail system. This paper uses hedonic price methodology to examine whether any of the claimed benefits were capitalised in house prices. No discernible effect was found. This finding contrasts with claims made for the urban transit schemes in other countries. Reasons for the differences and methodological problems with the current literature are discussed.


    Cost and Productivity of Major Urban transit Systems in Europe: An Exploratory Analysis

    May 1996, Vol. 30, No. 2, Page 171.
    P. Wunsch
    This paper tries to evaluate the productive performance of transit systems in major European cities. It makes intermodal and intercity comparisons, and identifies economies of density, vehicle capacity and higher vehicle speed as essential factors in performance. The results suggest that streetcars do not fill a significant gap between buses and underground rail.


    1.5 Heavy Rail


    Intercity travel and the London Midland Electrification

    January 1969, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page 69.

    A.W. Evans
    Electrification of the rail services from Manchester and Liverpool to London (and later of those from Stoke and Birmingham) brought a sudden drastic improvement for long-distance passengers. This paper, based on surveys of traffic by road, rail and air before and after the change, shows how many additional passengers travelled to London by rail and what proportions were attracted from other modes of travel.


    Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Withdrawal of Railway Services

    May 1969, Vol. 3, No. 2, Page 178.

    P.K. Else M. Howe
    How should the social cost and benefits of a rail service be measured? The authors examine and compare the methods used for two passenger services: those between Sheffield and Barnsley and on the Central Wales line between Shrewsbury and Llanelli.


    The Performance of British Railways, 1962 to 1968

    May 1970, Vol. 4, No. 2, Page 162.

    C.D. Jones
    The performance of the railway sector of the British Railways Board is measured by a number of indicators. An improvement is shown in most respects, but there was very little improvement in the overall financial position. Mr Jones sets out some reasons for this.


    Rail Passenger Subsidies and Benefit-Cost Considerations

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 3.

    W.D. Shipman
    Professor Shipman argues that rail passenger subsidies are undesirable; people enjoy driving to work, and the true answer to congestion may be the break-up of cities by drastic decentralisation. Except for development purposes in corridor transport, rail subsidies may only delay desirable long-run solutions.


    The Economics of the Cambrian Coast Line

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 308.

    G. Richards
    A critical analysis of the official Cambrian Coast Line Study leads the author to the conclusion that retention of the line for ten years would result, not in a loss as shown, but in a large net benefit to the community.


    Fare Revenue and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 321.

    R.D. Evans
    This paper suggests that the Cambrian Coast Line Study ought to have included as a benefit of the line the saving of goods bought with their fare money by people who no longer travel.


    The Demand for Commuter Rail transport

    May 1973, Vol. 7, No. 2, Page 134.

    C.C. McDonough
    Demand for rail is found to be sensitive to time cost, especially at peak periods. The quickest and most expensive mode, preferred by those who can afford it, is rail with a car journey from home to station. Efficient public transport from and to suburban stations should increase rail demand.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers

    September 1981, Vol. 15, No. 3, Page 269.

    J.G. Gibson
    Rational and equitable commuter fares would be highest for the few passengers travelling long distances, and lowest for the short congested stages to the terminus.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail's London and South-East Commuter Passengers: A Comment

    January 1982, Vol. 16, No. 1, Page 95.

    C.A. Nash
    A comment on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal.


    A Rational Alternative Fare Structure for British Rail Commuters: A Comment

    September 1982, Vol. 16, No. 3, Page 305.

    A. Grey
    The comment is on the article by J.G. Gibson in the September 1981 issue of this Journal. The author of the article replies to this, and also to an earlier comment by C.A. Nash published in January 1982.


    Some Characteristics of Rail Commuter Demand

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 115.

    S. Glaister
    The results of this study suggest that annual season tickets are too cheap and that cheap day tickets are too dear. Small changes in service frequency had no noticeable effect.


    The Demand for Intercity Rail travel in the United Kingdom. Some Evidence

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 133.

    I.S. Jones A.J. Nichols
    Demand is found to be strongly influenced by rail fares and journey time, by the level of competition from coach and car, by cyclical activity, and by seasonal factors.


    Railway Costs and Closures

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 219.

    J.S. Dodgson
    The network studies in the recent Serpell Report provide conclusive evidence that substantial savings would result from closure of lightly used railway lines. Political opposition to closures has been helped by deficiencies in railway costing and by excessive importance attached to contributory revenue.


    Forecasting the Demand for Inter-Urban Railway travel in the Republic of Ireland

    September 1984, Vol. 18, No. 3, Page 275.

    H. McGeehan
    The author's model is successful in predicting short-term demand. Demand is inelastic, but is influenced by fares, consumer expenditure and seasonality.


    The Price-Discriminating Public Enterprise, with Special Reference to British Rail

    January 1985, Vol. 19, No. 1, Page 41.

    S.D. trotter
    This article combines consideration of the possible objectives of a public enterprise with a discussion on price discrimination. British Rail is well placed for discriminatory pricing, but there are limits to what is practicable and desirable.


    The Characteristics of Railway Passenger Demand: An Econometric Investigation

    September 1987, Vol. 21, No. 3, Page 231.

    A.D. Owen G.D.A. Phillips
    The authors examine twenty London-based rail flows over the period 1973 to 1984. On the whole, the influence of the external environment was neutral; fares, quality of service and competition were more important. The results show a remarkable degree of consistency and precision.


    Factors Influencing Long-Distance Rail Passenger trip Rates in Great Britain

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 209.

    J.D. Rickard
    Separate models for business and non-business rail trips of over 50 miles show wide variations between different groups of the population. The author examines the effects of such factors as socio-economic group, age, household type, car ownership and access to a main line station. Some results are unexpected.


    Railway Costs and Planning

    January 1989, Vol. 23, No. 1, Page 45.

    S. Joy
    Railway planners have chronically failed to recognise excess capacity. A longer view must be taken. The principles have long been understood; all that is needed is the will of governments and managers to apply them.


    Demand Forecasting for New Local Rail Stations and Services

    May 1991, Vol. 25, No. 2, Page 183.

    J. Preston
    It is concluded that aggregate approaches to forecasting demand may be appropriate for cheap investments, such as new stations, or an initial assessment of a wide range of options. For detailed consideration of expensive investments, such as new rail services, disaggregate methods based on RP and or SP data should be considered.


    Economic Efficiency of Railways and Implications for Public Policy: A Comparative Study of the OECD Countries' Railways

    May 1994, Vol. 28, No. 2, Page 121.

    T.H. Oum C. Yu
    The productive efficiency of the railway systems in 19 OECD countries is analysed. The empirical results show that: (i) railway systems with high dependence on public subsidies are significantly less efficient than similar railways with less dependence on subsidies; (ii) railways with a high degree of managerial autonomy from regulatory authorities tend to achieve higher efficiency.


    Forecasting the Impact of Service Quality Changes on the Demand for Inter-Urban Rail travel

    September 1994, Vol. 28, No. 3, Page 287.

    M. Wardman
    This paper tests the elasticities to time, frequency and interchange implied by an approach which combines these three variables into a single term and compares this approach with models which estimate separate elasticities. The forecasts obtained from different model forms can be appreciably different.


    1.6 Coach

    Sub-Contracting in Road transport. A Note on Some Seasonal Aspects of the Problem of the Peak.

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 91.

    J. Hibbs
    The peak of summer holiday traffic by long-distance coach is met by a process of hiring vehicles from small operators. Mr Hibbs explains why these small firms have lower costs.


    Intercity Bus transport in West Pakistan. Entrepreneurs in an Environment of Uncertainty

    September 1971, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 314.

    R.E. Burns
    The West Pakistan bus industry is found to be efficient, with low standards but low prices. Individual owners of single buses usually form part of a group. Changes in government policy are of crucial importance to operators.


    1.7 General

    Club Subscriptions for Public transport Passengers

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 237.

    R. Sherman
    A suggestion for a two-part tariff for public transport. Each person would choose whether to invest in a car or to pay a subscription representing his share of public transport investment for a fixed period. Actual journeys would then be paid for on a marginal cost basis, and the present bias in favour of the private car would be removed.


    Choice of travel Mode for the Journey to Work: Some Findings

    September 1967, Vol. 1, No. 3, Page 273.

    D.A. Quarmby
    Rush-hour congestion is partly caused by the growing proportion of commuters who travel by car rather than by public transport. This article, based on a study of modal choice in Leeds, presents comparative statistics of time and cost,, and attempts to suggest quantitatively how far it will be necessary to increase the attractiveness of public transport and/or to reduce that of travel by car to achieve the desired degree of transfer.


    transit Validation for City Centres

    January 1971, Vol. 5, No. 1, Page 28.

    E.W. Segelhorst
    To counteract the attractions of suburban shopping centres, retailers in central business districts often offer free parking to customers. This article proposes instead a scheme of transit validation to encourage the socially desirable use of public transport. Customers' fares could be refunded under a voluntary scheme, or it could be made compulsory for all businesses and governmental agencies in a district to participate.


    Subsidies to Relieve Urban traffic Congestion

    January 1972, Vol. 6, No. 1, Page 22.

    R Sherman
    Subsidies to public transport may to some extent offset the failure to levy congestion charges on cars. This paper sets out the relevant criteria and concludes that bus subsidies would be appropriate in London, and probably in large US cities. Fares should vary according to time of day.


    Economic Change in the Road Passenger transport Industry

    September 1972, Vol. 6, No. 3, Page 240.

    D.G. Rhys
    Government grants towards the cost of new buses have not so far had any serious effect on design. But there are deficiencies of design in the standard rear-engined vehicles, and there is danger of near-monopoly in production.


    Free Public transport

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 3.

    H.J. Baum
    After a survey of transport studies in Germany and elsewhere, Dr Baum concludes that advocates of free public transport have overestimated the possible diversion from private cars and underestimated the cost, and that the benefit would not go entirely to those in need.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 20.

    E. Smith
    Experience in several countries leads the author to conclude that the construction of a new urban railway is seldom likely to be economic in comparison with an express bus service, which, with absolute priority but allowing other traffic to use spare capacity on the road, is found to be cheaper and more efficient. Some existing railways might be converted to roads.


    Parking Bias in transit Choice

    January 1973, Vol. 7, No. 1, Page 58.

    E.W. Segalhorst L.D. Kirkus
    The practice of subsidising the parking of employees' cars produces an undesirable bias against public transport. The authors suggest that an equal subsidy should be given towards transit fares. To ensure full benefit from reduced congestion, this should be compulsory within a district.


    Income Distributional Effects of Urban transit Subsidies

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 215.

    M. Frankena
    Subsidies to urban public transport in Canada are financed from general municipal or general provincial revenues, or from profits on other routes or on public utilities. Professor Frankena concludes that the net effect is often regressive and that in general low-income groups do not benefit. He then makes suggestions for further research.


    Economics of Change in Road Passenger transport.

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 291.

    J.G. Ody
    A comment on a contribution to the September 1972 issue of the Journal by D.G. Rhys, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services.

    September 1973, Vol. 7, No. 3, Page 294.

    P.R. White O.B. Coles
    A comment on an article in the Journal by Mr. E. Smith in January 1973, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    Use of Public transport in Towns and Cities of Great Britain and Ireland

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 26.

    P.R. White
    Mr White reviews the experience of municipal transport undertakings and is optimistic about their future. Public transport is still important for shopping trips, and small towns are doing as well as larger ones.


    An Economic Comparison of Urban Railways and Express Bus Services. A Comment.

    January 1974, Vol. 8, No. 1, Page 89, 92.

    J.G. Todd J.A. Baggs
    A Comment on the article by E. Smith in the January 1973 issue of the journal, together with a rejoinder by the author.


    The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport

    September 1974, Vol. 8, No. 3, Page 237.

    M.S.P. Kerridge
    The British government grant scheme discriminates in favour of rear-engined rather than front-engined double-deck buses. This gives an artificial impetus to one-man operation, which has serious disadvantages in congested areas. The author suggests that other means should be used to help buses.


    Optimal Subsidies for Public transit

    January 1975, Vol. 9, No. 1, Page 3.

    R. Jackson
    Professor Jackson presents a model for determining (1) optimal fare subsidies and (2) optimal subsidies for increasing transit speed. He concludes that no significant improvement is apparent unless marginal social cost per car passenger mile is at least 80 per cent above private cost in the highway sector.


    The Influence of Public transport on Car Ownership in London

    September 1975, Vol. 9, No. 3, Page 193.

    M.H. Fairhurst
    Variations in car ownership between districts are accounted for by household income, household size and access to public transport. transport planning can thus influence not only modal split in the short term but future decisions by households on whether to own a car.


    Urban Express Bus and Railroad Performance. Some Toronto Simulations

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 16.

    D.N. Dewees
    Simulation by a computer program showed that a proposed commuter railroad would be inferior in both time and money to express buses which could operate locally in the suburban area, travel along an expressway, and then make several stops in the central business district.


    Computing Passenger Miles in London transport

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 87.

    D.A. Baggaley
    The author describes methods used to compute passenger miles by London transport, which has various systems of graduated and flat fares, period tickets, and tickets for free travel.


    The Effect of the Bus Grant on Urban transport. A Comment

    January 1976, Vol. 10, No. 1, Page 90.

    J.B. Naylor
    A comment on the article by M.S.P. Kerridge published in this Journal in September 1974.


    Optimal transit Prices under Increasing Returns to Scale and a Loss Constraint

    May 1977, Vol. 11, No. 2, Page 185.

    K. train
    Welfare loss might be reduced by requiring total revenues from all units in an urban transport system to meet a proportion of total costs, instead of applying the constraint to each unit separately. This may need an agency to administer prices and cross-subsidisation. Prices are calculated for the East Bay Area of the San Francisco Bay Area.


    Maximisation of Passenger Miles in Theory and Practice

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 304.

    S. Glaister J.J. Collings
    Maximisation of passenger miles in public transport has the advantage of simplicity. The authors derive weights for passenger miles to reduce the disadvantages shown by a comparison with other objectives. There is a risk of loss of welfare.


    Distributional Effects of Maximisation of Passenger Miles

    September 1978, Vol. 12, No. 3, Page 322.

    D. Bos
    Maximisation of passenger miles leads to loss of welfare. It is impossible to prove theoretically whether its distributional effects will be positive (that is, favourable to the lower income classes) or negative, but this can be determined in practice in each case. In London transport they are positive.


    "travelcard" Tickets in Urban Public transport

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 17.

    P.R. White
    travelcards (regional intermodal season tickets) have grown rapidly in importance, especially in Western Europe. After introduction at a low price, moderate increases in price have little effect on sales, and there are important benefits.


    A Methodological Note on Welfare Calculus

    January 1981, Vol. 15, No. 1, Page 69.

    Y. Shilony
    A comment on the article on "Optimal Subsidies for Public transit" published in this Journal in January 1975, with a rejoinder by the author.


    transit Service Elasticities. Evidence from Demonstrations and Demand Models

    May 1981, Vol. 15, No. 2, Page 99.

    A.M. Lago P. Mayworm J.M. McEnroe
    There is little elasticity of demand for improvements in transit service, especially where service is already good. Headways are more important than in-vehicle time. Information is lacking on reliability, availability of seats, and transfers.


    The Efficiency of Public transport Objectives and Subsidy Formulas

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 67.

    M.W. Frankena
    Maximisation of ridership appears to be inefficient, but this depends on the demand and cost functions. It is also necessary to know these to judge the efficiency of any subsidy formula.


    More Methodological Notes on Welfare Calculus

    January 1983, Vol. 17, No. 1, Page 95.
    Y. Shilony
    A follow-up to the exchange between Yuval Shilony and Raymond Jackson in this Journal in January 1981.


    Impacts of Subsidies on the Costs of Urban Public transport

    May 1983, Vol. 17, No. 2, Page 155.
    J. Pucher A. Markstedt I. Hirschman
    The authors find strong evidence that Federal and State subsidies have the effect of increasing costs. They suggest changes to improve the system.


    Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes

    January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 7.
    L.B. Doxsey
    A monthly transit pass is bought only by heavy users. They pay less than before, and light users do not pay more. The direct result is a loss of revenue to the operator.


    Part-Time Labour, Work Rules, and Urban transit Costs

    January 1984, Vol. 18, No. 1, Page 63.
    K.M. Chomitz C.A. Lave
    Computer simulations are used in a study of the financial effects of possible changes in union work rules governing split shifts and the use of part-time drivers.


    Equalising Grants for the Public transport Subsidy

    May 1985, Vol. 19, No. 2, Page 105.
    A. Evans
    If the principle of equalisation were applied to central government grants for public transport, almost all would go to rural counties. Subsidies for urban transport should be paid from local taxes.


    Optimal Pricing and Subsidies for Scheduled transport Services

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 263.
    P.K. Else
    Building on previous discussion in this Journal, the author suggests that optimum subsidies could possibly be as high as 60 per cent of an operator's costs. But fares and the level of service should also be controlled. travel cards may provide a form of two-part tariff for public transport.


    Rising Deficits and the Uses of transit Subsidies in the United States

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 281.
    D.H. Pickrell
    The author finds that most of the increase in subsidies to transit in recent years has been absorbed by increased costs, expanded services, and reduction in real fares, rather than compensating for decreased demand. It is suggested that the increased availability of subsidies may itself be a cause of increased costs and deficits.


    Demand for Unlimited Use transit Passes: A Comment

    September 1985, Vol. 19, No. 3, Page 305.
    P.R. White
    A comment on the article under this title in the January 1984 issue of the Journal, with a rejoinder by the author.


    An Urban transit Firm Providing transit, Paratransit and Contracted-Out Services. A Cost Analysis

    September 1986, Vol. 20, No. 3, Page 353.
    W.K. Talley E.E. Anderson
    Public transit firms may be able to reduce operating deficits by providing paratransit and contracted-out services. Contracting out can induce employees and their unions, fearful of job losses, to accept changes in working agreements which reduce costs to the firm.
    Benefit-Cost Rules for Urban transit Subsidies. An Integration of Allocational,

    Distributional and Public Finance Issues
    January 1987, Vol. 21, No. 1, Page 57.
    J.S. Dodgson N. Topham
    In determining the level of subsidy, and its use in reducing fares or increasing frequencies, weight should be given to the comparative benefits accruing to different income groups. A local authority will be influenced in its decision by the proportion of the cost that is borne by central government.


    The Economics of travel Passes. Non-Uniform Pricing in transport

    May 1988, Vol. 22, No. 2, Page 153.
    J.C. Carbajo
    Pricing rules are derived under different objectives for schemes including travelcards and ordinary tickets. To calculate the effects on revenue of different combinations of fares it is necessary to know the distribution of the population in terms of trip behaviour.


    Fare Evasion and Non-Compliance. A Simple Model

    May 1989, Vol. 23, No. 2, Page 189.
    C. Boyd C. Martini J. Rickard A. Russell
    The authors construct a model to find appropriate levels of random inspection of tickets under honour systems. They consider the implications for policy.


    Public transport Demand Elasticities in Spain

    May 1990, Vol. 24, No. 2, Page 189.
    G. de Rus
    From his study of elasticities the author concludes that patronage of public transport in Spanish cities could be increased by adjustment of the proportionate charges for cash fares and multiple-ride tickets, and by increasing fares to provide higher frequencies.


    The Demand for travel and for travelcards on London Regional transport

    January 1991, Vol. 25, No. 1, Page 3.
    C.L. Gilbert H. Jalilian
    The authors develop a joint model for the demand for travel and the demand for travelcards. The estimates are that demand for underground travel is inelastic while the demand for bus travel is elastic. Simulation analysis attributes between one third and one half of the rise in demand for underground travel in the period 1982-87 to employment growth; and between one half and two thirds to the introduction of travelcards.


    Optimal Public transport Price and Service Frequency

    January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 33.
    K. Jansson
    Because values of time and passenger behaviour depend on the level of frequency it is found that: (1) in urban public transport there may be one low-deficit local optimum and one high-deficit local optimum, one of which is global; (2) contrary to what might be expected, optimal financial deficit per passenger is typically larger for high frequency services than for low-frequency services; (3) the optimal off-peak may exceed the optimal peak price.


    Fare Evasion as a Result of Expected Utility Maximisation. Some empirical Support

    January 1993, Vol. 27, No. 1, Page 69.
    P. Kooreman
    In public transport systems with self-service fare collection passengers can decide whether to pay the fare or not. A passenger who does not pay is subject to a risk of being fined. The paper provides some empirical support for the hypothesis that passengers behave as expected utility maximisers.


    Road Casualties in London in Relation to Public transport Policy

    January 1994, Vol. 28, No. 1, Page 61.
    R.E. Allsop S.A. Robertson
    Exceptional changes in bus and underground rail fares in London in the early 1980s prompted analyses of the effects of fare levels and petrol prices upon the numbers of road casualties in London. Earlier estimates of the number of extra casualties associated with a period of unusually high fares in the early 1980s are shown to have probably been too high.


    Optimal Pricing of Urban Passenger transport: A Simulation Exercise for Belgium

    January 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1, Page 31.
    B. de Borger I. Mayeres S. Proost S. Wouters
    First, a simple theoretical model is developed that determines optimal prices for private and urban transport services in both the peak and off-peak periods of the day, taking into account all relevant private and external costs. Second, the model is implemented to study pricing policies in Belgium, using recent estimates of private and social marginal costs. Several applications are then considered.

     

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