Department for Health

Dr Aki Salo

Reader in Sport Biomechanics with special interest in athletes’ technique and efficiency of performance

Aki Salo

Reader M.Sc., Ph.D., CSci, FBASES, FISBS

Applied Biomechanics Suite 1.309
Email: a.salo@bath.ac.uk
Tel: +44 (0) 1225 38 3569

Highlighted article

Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

Skeleton sled velocity profiles: a novel approach to understand critical aspects of the elite athletes' start phases
Steffi L. Colyer, Keith A. Stokes, James L. J. Bilzon & Aki I. T. Salo 2017

PhD/Post-doctoral opportunities

  • I consider any self-funded PhD students in the wide area of sport biomechanics.
  • I am also seeking potential PhD candidates for the University's regular call for excellent UK or overseas funded studentships

Profile

I joined the University of Bath in March 1998 and I am currently Reader in Sport Biomechanics. I am also the Chair of Academic Assembly for 2015-2018. 

I obtained my MSc from the University of Jyväskylä, Finland in 1991 and PhD from the University of Exeter in 1999. I was awarded the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences Fellowship in 2012 and International Society of Biomechanics in Sport Fellowship in 2014.

My main research theme is to characterise athletes' technique. The purpose is to understand the fundamental principles underlying performance in order to improve individual technique and efficiency.

I carry out most of my research in sprint and hurdle events in Athletics, although the same principles can be adapted to other sports as well. For example, a recent project was to enhance start performance in ice-track sports.

I am also a co-investigator in our multi-million pound Centre for the Analysis of Motion, Entertainment Research and Applications (CAMERA) project.

I have had a close working relationship with UK Athletics studying and providing support to their sprint, hurdles and relay squads. This involved being a member of the support staff in major championships including the Beijing Olympics 2008 and London Olympics 2012. My relay work has been featured internationally including the Washington Post and the New York Times.

I have also collaborated with British Skeleton Ltd and I am a member of the Technical Advisory Group for English Institute of Sport.

I have supervised six PhD students to successful completion, and the impact of my research was featured in one of the University’s Impact Case Study submissions for the recent REF2014.

I also collaborate with colleagues in engineering using motion analysis systems innovatively, for example, in modelling projects of bi-stable or unsymmetrical composites.

Research interests

  • Sport Biomechanics (especially athletes technique and efficiency of performance)

Current research projects

  • Modelling the sprint start in Athletics
  • The biomechanics of bend running in Athletic sprint events
  • Inverse dynamics analysis of sprinting
  • Enhancing start performance in ice-track sports

Publications

Book/s

Salo, A., McGuigan, M., Trewartha, G. and Wilson, C., eds., 2010. BASES Biomechanics Easter meeting, no. 25. University of Bath.

Koskinen, R. and Salo, A., 1992. Fyysisen harjoittelun menetelmät: Nopeus- ja Nopeuskestävyys. Nuori Suomi ry.

Book Sections

Salo, A. I.T., Colyer, S. L., Chen, P., Davies, A. M., Morgan, M. F. and Page, S., 2017. Kinetic determinants of athletics sprint start performance. In: Potthast, W., Niehoff, A. and David, S., eds. Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports.Vol. 1. Cologne, Germany: German Sport University, pp. 895-898.

Colyer, S. L. and Salo, A. I.T., 2017. Use of Statistical Parametric Mapping to Reveal Novel Athlete-Specific Kinetic Determinants of Sprint Start Performance. In: Potthast, W., Niehoff, A. and David, S., eds. Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports.Vol. 1. Cologne, Germany: German Sport University, pp. 436-439.

Salo, A., Gayen, M., Patterson, J. and Wilson, C., 2016. Should athletes use their stronger leg on the front block during the sprint start. In: Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan: .

Colyer, S., Stokes, K., Bilzon, J. and Salo, A., 2016. The influence of changes in sprint ability on the sled velocity profile during the skeleton start. In: Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. University of Tsukuba, Tskuba, Japan: .

Churchill, S., Trewartha, G. and Salo, A., 2015. Bend sprinting at different radii of an outdoor athletics track. In: Colloud, F., Domalain, M. and Monnet, T., eds. Proceedings of the XXXIIIrd International Conference of Biomechanics in Sports. Poitiers, France: , pp. 840-843.

Churchill, S., Salo, A., Trewartha, G. and Bezodis, I. N., 2012. Force production during maximal effort sprinting on the bend. In: Bradshaw, E.J., Burnett, A. and Hume, P.A., eds. Proceedings of the XXXth International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. University of Melbourne, Melbourne: , pp. 119-122.

Bezodis, I. N., Salo, A., Kerwin, D. G., Churchill, S. and Trewartha, G., 2010. A case study of stride frequency and swing time in elite able-bodied sprint running: implications for amputee debate. In: Jensen, R., Ebben, W., Petushek, E., Richter, C. and Roemer, K., eds. Proceedings of the XXVIII International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports (2010). Marquette, U. S. A.: Northern Michigan University, pp. 131-133.

Bezodis, N. E., Salo, A. and Trewartha, G., 2010. Kinematic aspects of block phase technique in sprinting. In: Jensen, R., Ebben, W., Petushek, E., Richter, C. and Roemer, K., eds. Proceedings of the XXVIII International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports (2010). Marquette, MI.: Northern Michigan University, pp. 249-252.

Bezodis, I. N., Salo, A. I. T. and Kerwin, D. G., 2009. Athlete-specific analyses of leg joint kinetics during maximum velocity sprint running. In: Harrison, D., Anderson, R. and Kenny, I., eds. Proceedings of the XXVII International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, pp. 378-381.

Bezodis, N. E., Trewartha, G. and Salo, A. I. T., 2009. Development, evaluation and application of a simulation model of a sprinter during the first stance phase. In: Harrison, D., Anderson, R. and Kenny, I., eds. Proceedings of the XXVII International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, pp. 108-111.

Bezodis, I. N., Salo, A. I. T. and Kerwin, D. G., 2008. A longitudinal case study of step characteristics in a world class sprint athlete. In: Kwon, Y. -H., Shim, J., Shim, J. K. and Shin, I. S., eds. Proceedings of the XXVI International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. Korea: Rainbow Books, pp. 537-540.

Bezodis, N. E., Trewartha, G. and Salo, A. I. T., 2008. Understanding elite sprint start performance through an analysis of joint kinematics. In: Kwon, Y. -H., Shim, J., Shim, J. K. and Shin, I. S., eds. Proceedings of the XXVI International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. Korea: Rainbow Books, pp. 498-501.

Charles, B., Almond, D. P., Salo, A. I. T. and Bramley, A. N., 2008. A quantitative analysis of beach casting. In: Estivalet, M. and Brisson, P., eds. The Engineering of Sport 7, Volume 1.Vol. 1. Paris: Springer, pp. 183-189.

Bezodis, I. N., Salo, A. I. T. and Kerwin, D. G., 2007. Joint kinetics in maximum velocity sprint running. In: Menzel, H.-J. and Chagas, M. H., eds. Proceedings of the XXV International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. Brazil: Department of Sports, Federal University of Minas Gerais, pp. 59-62.

Salo, A. I. T., Keränen, T. and Viitasalo, J. T., 2005. Force production in the first four steps of sprint running. In: Wang, Q., ed. Proceedings of XXIII International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports - Vol. 1.Vol. 1. Beijing: The China Institute of Sport Science, pp. 313-317.

Mitchell, R. H., Salo, A. I. T. and Medland, A., 2003. Determining mass centre trajectory variations for application to human modelling. In: Hamza, M. H., ed. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Biomechanics (BioMECH 2003). Anaheim, U. S. A.: ACTA Press, pp. 147-152.

Salo, A. I. T., 2002. Technical changes in hurdle clearances at the beginning of 110m hurdle event – a pilot study. In: Gianikellis, K. E., ed. Proceedings of the XX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. Spain: Universidad de Extremadura, pp. 84-87.

Salo, A. I. T., 2001. Running velocities and baton change-overs in 4 x 100m relay exchanges. In: Blackwell, J. R. and Sanders, R. H., eds. Proceedings of Oral Sessions XIX International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, pp. 87-90.

Keränen, T., Jouste, P. and Salo, A. I. T., 2000. A new method for evaluating the balance between the different phases in 100m sprinting. In: Hong, Y., Johns, D. P. and Sanders, R., eds. Proceedings of XVIII International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, pp. 658-661.

Salo, A., Grimshaw, P. N. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1999. The use of motion analysis as a coaching aid to improve the individual technique in sprint hurdles. In: Proceedings of the XVII ISBS Symposium. School of Biomedical and Sports Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia: , pp. 57-60.

Salo, A., Grimshaw, P. N. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1998. Reliability assessment of kinematic variables in the motion analysis of female sprint hurdles. In: Riehle, H.J. and Vieten, M.M., eds. Proceedings I of the XVI ISBS Symposium. UVK – Universitätsverlag Konstanz, Radolfzell, Germany: , pp. 229-232.

Viitasalo, J. T., Norvapalo, K., Laakso, J., Leppävuori, A.P. and Salo, A., 1997. Effects of 50 km racing on ski skating kinematics in the Falun World Championships in 1993. In: Science and Skiing. Cambridge, Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, pp. 88-96.

Salo, A., Grimshaw, P. N., Mononen, H.V. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1996. Variation in motion analysis of sprint hurdles: Part I - Co-ordinate deviation in 3-dimensional reconstruction. In: Abrantes, J.M.C.S., ed. Proceedings of the XIV ISBS Symposium. Lisboa, Portugal: Gráfica 2000, pp. 262-265.

Salo, A., Grimshaw, P. N. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1996. The repeatability of motion analysis and the reproducibility of athletes in sprint hurdles. In: Bauer, T., ed. Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium for Biomechanics in Sports. Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada: , pp. 380-383.

Salo, A., Grimshaw, P. N., Mononen, H.V. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1996. Variation in motion analysis of sprint hurdles: Part II - The influence of co-ordinate variation on performance variables. In: Abrantes, J.M.C.S., ed. Proceedings of the XIV ISBS Symposium. Lisboa, Portugal: Gráfica 2000, pp. 266-269.

Grimshaw, P. N., Marar, L., Salo, A., Longden, B. and Vernon, J., 1994. Biomechanical analysis of sprint hurdles. In: Biomechanical analysis of the 1994 AAA/WAAA Chmpionships.Vol. 9. UK: .

Luhtanen, P., Mononen, H.V., Salo, A., Salonen, M. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1993. Evaluation of the gravitational constant using conventional instrumentation. In: Hamill, J., Derrick, T.R. and Elliot, E.H., eds. Biomechanics in Sports XI. University Campus Center Printing, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA: , pp. 278-281.

Articles

Colyer, S. L., Stokes, K. A., Bilzon, J. L.J., Holdcroft, D. and Salo, A. I.T., 2017. Forthcoming. Training-related changes in force-power profiles: implications for skeleton start performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

Colyer, S. L., Stokes, K. A., Bilzon, J. L. J. and Salo, A. I. T., 2017. Skeleton sled velocity profiles:a novel approach to understand critical aspects of the elite athletes’ start phases. Sports Biomechanics

Colyer, S., Stokes, K., Bilzon, J., Cardinale, M. and Salo, A., 2017. Physical predictors of elite skeleton start performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12 (1), pp. 81-89.

Churchill, S. M., Trewartha, G., Bezodis, I. N. and Salo, A. I. T., 2016. Force production during maximal effort bend sprinting:theory vs reality. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26, pp. 1171-1179.

Colyer, S., Roberts, S., Thompson, D., Stokes, K., Bilzon, J., Salo, A. and Robinson, J., 2016. Detecting meaningful body composition changes in athletes using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physiological Measurement, 37 (4), pp. 596-609.

Churchill, S. M., Salo, A. I. T. and Trewartha, G., 2015. The effect of the bend on technique and performance during maximal effort sprinting. Sports Biomechanics, 14 (1), pp. 106-121.

Bezodis, N. E., Salo, A. I. T. and Trewartha, G., 2015. Relationships between lower-limb kinematics and block phase performance in a cross section of sprinters. European Journal of Sport Science, 15 (2), pp. 118-124.

Bezodis, N. E., Trewartha, G. and Salo, A. I., 2015. Understanding the effect of touchdown distance and ankle joint kinematics on sprint acceleration performance through computer simulation. Sports Biomechanics, 14 (2), pp. 232-245.

Bezodis, N. E., Salo, A. I. T. and Trewartha, G., 2014. Lower limb joint kinetics during the first stance phase in athletics sprinting:Three elite athlete case studies. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32 (8), pp. 738-746.

Bowen, C. R., Kim, H. A. and Salo, A. I. T., 2014. Active composites based on bistable laminates. Procedia Engineering, 75, pp. 140-144.

Bezodis, N.E., Salo, A.I.T. and Trewartha, G., 2013. Excessive fluctuations in knee joint moments during early stance in sprinting are caused by digital filtering procedures. Gait & Posture, 38 (4), pp. 653-657.

Bezodis, N. E., Salo, A. I. T. and Trewartha, G., 2012. Measurement error in estimates of sprint velocity from a laser displacement measurement device. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33 (6), pp. 439-444.

Bezodis, N. E., Salo, A. I. T. and Trewartha, G., 2012. Modeling the stance leg in two-dimensional analyses of sprinting:Inclusion of the MTP joint affects joint kinetics. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 28 (2), pp. 222-227.

Bowen, C. R., Giddings, P., Salo, A. and Kim, H. A., 2011. Modeling and characterization of piezoelectrically actuated bistable composites. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 58 (9), pp. 1737-1750.

Salo, A. I. T., Bezodis, I. N., Batterham, A. M. and Kerwin, D. G., 2011. Elite sprinting: are athletes individually step-frequency or step-length reliant? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43 (6), pp. 1055-1062.

Giddings, P. F., Kim, H. A., Salo, A. I. T. and Bowen, C. R., 2011. Modelling of piezoelectrically actuated bistable composites. Materials Letters, 65 (9), pp. 1261-1263.

Bezodis, N. E., Salo, A. I. T. and Trewartha, G., 2011. The effect of digital filtering procedures on knee joint moments in sprinting. Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences, 11 (2), pp. 837-840.

Churchill, S. M., Salo, A. I. T. and Trewartha, G., 2011. The effect of the bend on technique and performance during maximal speed sprinting. Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences, 11 (2), pp. 471-474.

Bezodis, N. E., Salo, A. I. T. and Trewartha, G., 2010. Choice of sprint start performance measure affects the performance-based ranking within a group of sprinters: which is the most appropriate measure? Sports Biomechanics, 9 (4), pp. 258-269.

Giddings, P., Bowen, C., Salo, A., Kim, H. A. and Ive, A., 2010. Bistable composite laminates: effects of laminate composition on cured-shape and response to thermal load. Composite Structures, 92 (9), pp. 2220-2225.

Kim, H. A., Betts, D., Salo, A. I. T. and Bowen, C., 2010. Shape memory alloy-piezoelectric active structures for reversible actuation of bistable composites. AIAA Journal, 48 (6), pp. 1265-1268.

Betts, D., Salo, A. I. T., Bowen, C. and Kim, H. A., 2010. Characterisation and modelling of the cured shapes of arbitrary layup bistable composite laminates. Composite Structures, 92 (7), pp. 1694-1700.

Bezodis, I. N., Kerwin, D. G. and Salo, A. I. T., 2008. Lower-limb mechanics during the support phase of maximum-velocity sprint running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40 (4), pp. 707-715.

Mitchell, R. H., Medland, A. J. and Salo, A. I. T., 2007. A design methodology to create constraint-based human movement patterns for ergonomic analysis. Journal of Engineering Design, 18 (4), pp. 293-310.

Bowen, C. R., Salo, A. I. T., Butler, R., Chang, E. and Kim, H. A., 2007. Bi-stable composites with piezoelectric actuators for shape change. Key Engineering Materials, 334-335, pp. 1109-1112.

Bowen, C. R., Butler, R., Jervis, R., Kim, H. A. and Salo, A. I. T., 2007. Morphing and shape control using unsymmetrical composites. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 18 (1), pp. 89-98.

Salo, A. I. T. and Scarborough, S., 2006. Changes in technique within a sprint hurdle run. Sports Biomechanics, 5 (2), pp. 155-166.

Salo, A. I. T., Twigg, D., Grimshaw, P. N. and Viitasalo, J. T., 2006. Extrapolation errors in controlled three-dimensional video camera set-ups. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 50 (1), pp. 1-18.

Salo, A. I. T., Grimshaw, P. N. and Viitasalo, J. T., 2004. Influence of camera orientations on three-dimensional motion analysis. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 47, pp. 253-267.

Salo, A. I. T. and Bezodis, I. N., 2004. Which starting style is faster in sprint running – standing or crouch start. Sports Biomechanics, 3 (1), pp. 43-54.

Viitasalo, J. T., Salo, A. and Lahtinen, J., 1998. Neuromuscular functioning of athletes and non-athletes in the drop jump. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 78 (5), pp. 432-440.

Salo, A. and Grimshaw, P. N., 1998. An examination of kinematic variability of motion analysis in sprint hurdles. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 14 (2), pp. 211-222.

Grimshaw, P. N., Marques-Bruna, P., Salo, A. and Messenger, N., 1998. The 3-dimensional kinematics of the walking gait cycle of children aged between 10 and 24 months:Cross sectional and repeated measures. Gait & Posture, 7 (1), pp. 7-15.

Salo, A., Grimshaw, P. N. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1997. Reliability of variables in the kinematic analysis of sprint hurdles. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29 (3), pp. 383-389.

Salo, A., Grimshaw, P. N. and Marar, L., 1997. 3-D biomechanical analysis of sprint hurdles at different competitive levels. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29 (2), pp. 231-237.

Salo, A. and Grimshaw, P. N., 1996. Kinematische Veränderungen der Hürdenüberquerung im 100-m Hürdenlauf bei unterschiedlichen Hürdenabständen in einer Trainingssituation. Leistungsport, 26 (2), pp. 24-27.

Salo, A. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1995. Vergleich kinematischer Merkmale des Speerwurfs bei Werfern internationalen und nationalen Niveaus und bei Zehnkämpfern. Leistungsport, 25 (5), pp. 40-44.

Viitasalo, J. T., Hämäläinen, K., Mononen, H. V., Salo, A. and Lahtinen, J., 1993. Biomechanical effects of fatigue during continuous hurdle jumping. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11 (6), pp. 503-9.

Salo, A., Peltola, E. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1993. Einige biomechanische Merkmale des Zwischenhürdenlaufs im 110 m-Hürdenlauf. Leistungsport, 23 (2), pp. 59-62.

Reports/Papers

Norvapalo, K., Ihalainen, K., Salo, A., Korjus, T. and Viitasalo, J. T., 2000. Keihäänheiton biomekaniikka – heittosuoritusten liikeanalyysi v. 1991-1999. Kilpa- ja huippu-urheilun tutkimuskeskus.

Viitasalo, J. T., Laakso, J., Leppävuori, A.P., Norvapalo, K. and Salo, A., 1995. Ylämäen luisteluhiihtotekniikan analysointi ja tekniikkaan liittyviä tekijöitä - hiihtovauhdin, ylämäen jyrkkyyden, suksien ja mittausajankohdan vaikutus. Luisteluhiihdon liikeanalyysiprojekti, Raportti 1. Kilpa- ja huippu-urheilun tutkimuskeskus.

Laakso, J., Leppävuori, A.P., Norvapalo, K., Salo, A. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1995. Ylämäen luisteluhiihtotekniikan muuttujien keskinäiset yhteydet - naisten 30 km:n kilpailu Falunin MM-kisoissa -93. Luisteluhiihdon liikeanalyysiprojekti, Raportti 3. Kilpa- ja huippu-urheilun tutkimuskeskus.

Laakso, J., Leppävuori, A.P., Norvapalo, K., Salo, A. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1995. Ylämäen luisteluhiihtotekniikan muuttuminen 50 km:n aikana Falunin MM-kisoissa 1993. Luisteluhiihdon liikeanalyysiprojekti, Raportti 2. Kilpa- ja huippu-urheilun tutkimuskeskus.

Leppävuori, A.P., Laakso, J., Norvapalo, K., Salo, A. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1995. Ylämäen luisteluhiihtotekniikka naisten 10 km:n ja miesten 15 km:n takaa-ajossa Falunin MM-kisoissa 1993. Luisteluhiihdon liikeanalyysiprojekti, Raportti 4. Kilpa- ja huippu-urheilun tutkimuskeskus.

Norvapalo, K., Laakso, J., Mononen, H.V., Salo, A., Salonen, M. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1993. Jääkiekon harjoiteanalyysi. Kilpa- ja huippu-urheilun tutkimuskeskus.

Rusko, H., Viitasalo, J. T., Salo, A. and Mononen, H.V., 1992. Physiological and biomechanical analysis of the PRO SKIFIT S 830 fitness device. Kilpa- ja huippu-urheilun tutkimuskeskus.

Conference or Workshop Items

Colyer, S., Stokes, K., Bilzon, J. and Salo, A., 2015. Influence of serum testosterone on start performance and lean mass accrual in male skeleton athletes. Taylor & Francis, s109-s110.

Colyer, S., Stokes, K., Bilzon, J. and Salo, A., 2015. Improving skeleton athlete monitoring and talent identification processes using a series of multivariate analyses. In: BASES Student Conference, 2015-03-31 - 2015-04-01, John Moores University.

Colyer, S., Roberts, S., Robinson, J., Thompson, D., Stokes, K., Bilzon, J. and Salo, A., 2014. Use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate changes in body composition and the association with performance changes in skeleton athletes. In: 19th European College of Sport Science Congress, 2014-07-02 - 2016-02-05, Netherlands.

Churchill, S., Salo, A., Trewartha, G. and Bezodis, I. N., 2012. Comparison of force production in maximal sprinting between the bend and straight. In: BASES Biomechanics Interest Group, Easter Meeting no 27, 2012-04-04 - 2012-04-04.

Colyer, S., Salo, A., Bilzon, J. and Stokes, K., 2012. Consecutive days of push start testing may mask the effect of starting style in skeleton – A pilot study. In: BASES Biomechanics Interest Group, Easter Meeting no 27, 2012-04-04 - 2012-04-04.

Churchill, S., Salo, A. and Trewartha, G., 2011. The effect of running lane on performance and step characteristics during maximal effort sprinting. In: BASES Biomechanics Easter meeting, no. 26, 2011-04-20, University of Chichester.

Churchill, S., Salo, A. and Trewartha, G., 2010. Performance and step characteristics during bend sprinting. In: BASES Biomechanics Interest Group, Easter meeting no 25, 2010-04-21 - 2010-04-21.

Kim, H. A., Betts, D. N., Salo, A. I. T. and Bowen, C. R., 2009. Shape memory alloy actuation for asymmetric bistable composites. In: 17th Annual International Conference on Composites/Nano Engineering, 2009-07-26 - 2009-08-01.

Giddings, P. F., Bowen, C. R., Salo, A. and Kim, H. A., 2009. Bistable composite laminates - effects of laminate composition on cured-shape and response to thermal load. In: 15th International Conference on Composite Structures, 2009-06-01 - 2009-06-05.

Betts, D. N., Fong, Y. T. T., Salo, A., Bowen, C. R. and Kim, H. A., 2009. Characterization of the cured shapes of arbitrary layup composite laminates. In: 15th International Conference on Composite Structures, 2009-06-01 - 2009-06-05.

Bezodis, I. N., Salo, A. I. T. and Kerwin, D., 2008. A longitudinal case study of step characteristics in elite sprinting. In: BASES Biomechanics Interest Group, Easter Meeting no 24, 2008-01-01.

Bezodis, N. E., Trewartha, G. and Salo, A. I. T., 2008. Technique and performance during the elite sprint start. In: BASES Biomechanics Interest Group, Easter Meeting no 24, 2008-01-01.

Bezodis, N., Trewartha, G. and Salo, A. I. T., 2007. Choice of performance measure affects the evaluation of print start performance. In: Annual Conference of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences 2007, 2007-09-11 - 2007-09-13.

Bezodis, I. N., Salo, A. I. T. and Kerwin, G., 2007. Joint power and work in an elite sprinter at maximum velocity. In: Annual Conference of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences 2007, 2007-09-11 - 2007-09-13.

Bezodis, N., Trewartha, G. and Salo, A., 2007. Choice of performance measure affects the evaluation of sprint start performance.

Bezodis, N. E., Trewartha, G. and Salo, A. I. T., 2007. A comparison of initial step characteristics in elite sprinters. In: BASES Biomechanics Interest Group, Easter Meeting no 23, 2007-01-01.

Coker, J. and Salo, A. I. T., 2007. Determining the optimal trunk extension timing for rowing performance in a single subject. In: New Zealand Sports Medicine + Science conference, 2007-01-01.

Bezodis, I. N., Salo, A. I. T. and Kerwin, D. G., 2007. Step characteristics variation in maximum velocity sprint running. In: BASES Biomechanics Interest Group, Easter Meeting no 23, 2007-01-01.

Bowen, C. R., Salo, A. I. T., Butler, R., Chang, E. and Kim, H. A., 2006. Bi-stable composites with piezoelectric actuators for shape change. In: 5th Asian-Australian Conference on Composite Materials, 2006-11-01.

Salo, A. and Viitasalo, J. T., 1995. Influence of javelin release parameters on range of throw. Helsinki, Finland: Hakapaino OY, pp. 137-140.

Thesis

Salo, A., 1999. Assessment of motion analysis - variability, reliability, camera orientation and extrapolation. Thesis (Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)). University of Exeter.

Salo, A., 1991. 110 metrin aitajuoksun väliaskelten kinematiikka. Thesis (Masters). University of Jyvaskyla.

Non-academic press

McGuigan, P. and Salo, A., 2014. Can a human ever run 100m under nine seconds? The Conversation

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