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APA (6th edition) referencing style sheet
 

This referencing style sheet is to be used in conjunction with the Library’s General guide to citing & referencing.

PDF version of the following guide PDF 

The information in this guide is based on the following manual from the American Psychological Association (APA):



Referencing an item not covered in this guide?



CITATIONS

The American Psychological Association uses an author-date style of referencing with details entered in round brackets, for example:

          The traditional approach to human cognition is over-simplified in assuming that processing is typically serial (Eysenck & Keane, 2010).

Treatment of multiple authors:

When a work has two authors, cite both authors every time.

When a work has three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time a reference occurs. In subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. See:

          Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found that … [first time cited]

          Kisangua et al. (2007) found that … [subsequent citations]

When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication for the first and subsequent citations.


REFERENCE LIST

The reference list should contain full details of all the sources mentioned in the text, arranged alphabetically by surname of first author.


REFERENCE EXAMPLES

Below are some examples of the more common types of document you might want to reference. Each gives the APA 6th ed. format for the reference, followed by an example.

Treatment of multiple authors within reference list:

When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors’ names then insert three ellipses and add the last author’s name. See:


Book

Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication). Title (xx ed. if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Book with two authors / editors

Authors’ names. (Year of publication). Title (xx ed. if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Book with editor(s) instead of author(s)

Editor’s surname, Initials. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title (xx ed. if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

Book with corporate author

Corporate author. (Year of publication). Title (xx ed. if not the first). Place of publication: Author.

NB When the author and publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

Book usually known by its title

Title. (Year of publication). (xx ed. if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

One chapter / paper from a collection in a book

Author of chapter’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In: Initials of first editor, Surname of first editor & Initials of second editor, Surname of second editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Place of publication: Publisher.

Newspaper article

Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication, Month of publication Day of publication). Title of article. Title of newspaper, pp. xx-xx.

Thesis / dissertation – from a university outside the US

APA uses American terminology so please refer to Publication Manual for detailed guidance. The example below is for a doctoral thesis found on a Swedish institutional repository:

Author surname, Initials. (Year of award). Title of thesis (Level of award, Awarding institution). Retrieved from URL

Government publication

Corporate author. (Date of publication). Title of report. Place of publication: Author.

Television broadcast

Writer’s surname, Initials. (Writer), & Director’s surname, Initials. (Director). (Year of broadcast). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Executive Producer’s Initial. Executive Producer’s surname (Executive producer), Title of TV series. Country of origin (or US State): Broadcasting company.

Electronic version of a print book

Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication). Title. Retrieved from URL.

Electronic version of a republished book

Author surname, Initials. (Year of release in electronic format). Title. Retrieved from URL (Original year work was published)

Journal article

Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume number(part), page numbers.

Electronic journal article without DOI

Author surname, Initials. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume number(part), page numbers. Retrieved from URL

Electronic journal article with DOI

Author’s surname, Initials. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume number(part), page numbers xx-xx. doi:

Web pages

Author's surname, Initials. (Year site/document was published online). Title. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from web address.

Note: if there is no individual author you can use an organisation or corporate body name. If neither is available, use the title for author. If there is no publication date available, use no date instead i.e. (n.d.).

This is the basic template. See examples for specific online documents above and in the APA's official manual and website.


CT/TR/PGB/JH Dec 2015