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Harvard (Bath) guide to citing & referencing

There are many different versions of "Harvard" style citing and referencing. This guide is the University of Bath Library’s interpretation which is based on BS (1989) and ISO (1990) standards, and adapted in line with local preferences.  If you are uncertain whether or not you should be using Harvard (Bath), please check with your department.  We also provide a short PDF version of the Harvard (Bath) guide PDF


Introduction to citing & referencing

How to write a citation

You need to be thorough and consistent when citing sources (for example, in the use of commas and italics); otherwise, you may lose marks.  

1. If the author’s name occurs naturally within your writing: enter the surname and then enter the year in parentheses. 

     Although first prepared by Benedikt (1879), it was not until much later that Osborn and Jay (1975) confirmed its structure. 


2. If the author’s name does NOT occur naturally within your writing: enter both the surname and year in parentheses.  Note the use of the comma.  

     Although it was first prepared in the later nineteenth century (Benedikt, 1879), its structure was not confirmed until much later (Osborn and Jay, 1975). 
 

3. Year of publication: this needs to be entered, where possible, when referencing any type of source (e.g. printed, online or software).  With books, enter the date relevant to the edition of the book that you have used (do not confuse the date of a reprint with the date of a publication).  If no date is provided by the source, enter n.d.
 

4. Page information/location: if you are quoting an author or citing an image/figure, always enter the relevant page number(s).  It is also good practice to enter page numbers if you are citing a very specific piece of information that appears within a long document (e.g. a book).  If you are entering a range of page numbers, enter pp. rather than p..

     James and Williams (2003, p.75) have argued that...

5. Two or three authors: cite both/all surnames in your text. 

     Smith and Jamal (2010) have argued that…


6. Four or more authors: cite the first author’s/editor’s name, followed by et al.,  - you will need to list all the authors in your reference list.

     Case studies have been developed to support these claims (Andersen et al., 2004).


7. Citing multiple sources in a single citation (i.e. where they are making the same point): enter these in chronological order, starting with the earliest; for example: (Adams, 2005; Dass, 2012; Carter, 2015).  

     If the multiple sources in a single citation are written by the same author, they would appear in the chronological order as follows: (Adams, 2009; 2014; 2017).
 

8. No individual person(s) as author: if the document is produced by an organisation, you can enter the organisation’s name as the author.  If neither an person or organisation can be identified, enter the title of the work where you would normally enter the author.  If none of these alternative options are viable, enter Anon.  

     Statistics from a recent report (World water resources, 2011) indicated… 

9. Multiple documents by one author published in the same year: differentiate between them by adding lower case letters (a, b, c) after the year. 

     Tavernor’s initial review of Palladio’s work (2001a) is extended and examined in much more detail in his later work (2001b). 


10. Citing a document that has been cited in another document: where it has not been possible for you to read the original, then cite both in the text.  However, in your list of references at the end of your work, you would only list only the work by Jones (i.e. the work that you have actually read!) - also note the use of the commas and the semi-colon.

     An early interpretation (Walters, 1883; cited by Jones, 1987, p.73) suggested...  
 

11. Images (graphs, diagrams, designs, illustrations, photographs): refer to the Referencing Images guide. 


12. Unpublished sources: emails, letters, conversations, interviews and lecturer's presentations are examples of sources that are often unpublished.  Interviews can include interviews that you conducted yourself.    

You must cite all unpublished sources by entering the presenter/informant's name (if they are willing to give it), (pers.comm.) and the date of the communication.

     The Vice-Chancellor of one HE institution asserted that the recent rise in student numbers is having a detrimental effect on many aspects of university life, in particular forcing staff and student to attend teaching sessions after 6pm (Anon. (pers.comm.) 30 August 2006).

Note: if you make use of a presentation, email, letter, interview or conversation that has been published (e.g. on a public website or in a book/article), you should cite it as you would cite any published source of information. However, if you cite a presentation that you accessed via Moodle, you should cite it as an unpublished source because Moodle is not a public website.  Also note: advice on referencing unpublished sources.     

 

How to write a reference 


General guidelines   

You need to be thorough and consistent when referencing sources (for example, in the use of commas and itallics).  Otherwise, you may lose marks. 

Specific examples

Please ensure that you have read the general guidelines before referring to the following:  

1. Book with author(s)  

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher. 

     Rang, H.P., Dale, M.M., Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J. and Henderson, G., 2012. Rang and Dale’s pharmacology. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. 

     Open University, 1972. Electricity and magnetism. Bletchley: Open University Press. 
 

2. One chapter/paper from a collection (by different authors) in an edited book 

Author of chapter/paper’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. In: INITIALS. Surname of author/editor of book, followed by ed. or eds. Title of book. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper or chapter. 

        Reid, D.R., 1967. Physical testing of polymer films. In: S.H. Pinner, ed. Modern packaging films. London:  Butterworths, pp.143-183. 

 

3. Electronic book

If an ebook is a PDF copy of the equivalent print book, you can use the standard book format instead of the following:


Online ebook

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title [Online]. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

     Haynes, W.M., ed., 2014. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics [Online]. 94th ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis. Available from: http://www.hbcpnetbase.com [Accessed 16 June 2016].

Kindle ebook

   Hodds, J., 2016. Referencing ebooks [Kindle version 4.18]. Bath: University of Bath. 
 

4. Book with editor(s) instead of author(s)

Editor’s surname(s), INITIALS., ed. or eds. (as appropriate), Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

     Rothman, K.J., Greenland, S. and Lash, T.L., eds., 2008. Modern epidemiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 

5. Book usually known by title rather than author

Title, Year. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher. 

     Oxford English dictionary, 1989. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

     The Merck index online, n.d. [Online]. London: RSC Publishing. Available from: http://www.rsc.org/Merck-Index [Accessed 16 June 2016].
 

6. Journal article

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(issue), page numbers.

     Newman, R., 2010. Malaria control beyond 2010. Brit. Med. J., 341(7765), pp.157-208.

Note: you can give journal titles in either full or abbreviated formats, depending on the preference of your Department/tutor. Also note: find the full title of a journal when you only know the abbreviated form. 
 

7. Electronic journal article

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Journal title [Online], volume(issue). Available from: URL [Accessed date].

     Williams, F., 1997. Electronic document delivery: a trial in an academic library. Ariadne [Online], 10. Available from: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue10/edd/ [Accessed 5 December 1997].

Note: if the article is a PDF copy from the equivalent print journal: instead you can use the standard format for referencing a journal article: example no. 6. 
 

8. Preprint in a digital repository

Preprints are electronic articles that are yet to be formally published (e.g. not yet allocated a volume/issue number in a journal).  The University of Bath's Opus is an example of a digital repository.

      Author's Surname(s), INITIALS., year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of digital repository [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

      Shah, I. and Corrick, I., 2016. How should central banks respond to non-neutral inflation expectations? Bath: University of Bath. OPUS [Online]. Available from: http://opus.bath.ac.uk [Accessed 4 May 2016]. 

9. Website/webpage 

Author’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title [Online]. (Edition if known). Place of publication: Publisher (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed date].

     Holland, M., 2002. Guide to citing internet sources [Online]. Poole: Bournemouth University. Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/using/guide_to_citing_internet_source.html [Accessed 4 November 2002].


If a website/webpage has no personal author: use the organisation publishing the website as author.

     Wiltshire Council, 2015. Get Wiltshire walking [Online]. Trowbridge: Wiltshire Council. Available from: http://www.wiltshire.gov.uk/leisureandrecreation/sportphysicalactivity/getwiltshirewalking.html [Accessed 19 August 2015].
 

10. Conference paper (when proceedings have a named editor)

Author of paper’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. In: INITIALS. surname of editor, ed. Title of conference proceedings, full date, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper.

     Crawford, G.I., 1965. Oxygen in metals. In: J.M.A. Lenihan and S.J. Thompson, eds. Activation analysis: proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute, 2-4 August 1964, Glasgow. London: Academic Press, pp.113-118.
 

11. Conference paper (when proceedings have no named editor or are part of a major series)

Author of paper’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. Title of conference proceedings, full date, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper.

     Soper, D., 1972. Review of bracken control experiments with asulam. Proceedings of the 11th British Weed Control Conference, 15-17 November 1972, Brighton. Brighton: University of Sussex, pp.24-31.
 

12. Newspaper article

Author’s surname, INITIALS. (or newspaper title if author unknown), Year. Title of article. Title of newspaper, day and month, page number/s and column letter.

     Haurant, S., 2004. Britain’s borrowing hits £1 trillion. The Guardian, 29 July, p.16c.

     The Independent, 1992. Picking up the bills. The Independent, 4 June, p.28a.

Page numbers and column letters can only be included if you are referencing a printed newspaper article (or PDF equivalent).  With online-only newspaper articles, please adapt by using the general advice on referencing online documents.

13. Thesis/dissertation

Author’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title. Designation (type). Name of institution.

     Burrell, J.G., 1973. The importance of school tours in education. Thesis (M.A.). Queen’s University, Belfast.
 

14. Report

Author, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, (Report number, if given).

     UNESCO, 1993. General information programme and UNISIST. Paris: UNESCO, (PGI-93/WS/22).
 

15. Standard

Standard number: Year. Title. Standards Issuing Body.

     BS 5605:1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. BSI.

16. Patent

Originator [i.e. name of applicant], Year. Title of patent. Series designation which may include full date.

     Phillipp Morris Inc., 1981. Optical perforating apparatus and system. European patent application 0021165A1. 1981-01-07.
 

17. Image (graph, diagram, design, illustration, photograph etc) 

How you reference an image depends on where it comes from: an image in a book will be referenced using the book format, adding the page number to the citation.  An image from the Web will be referenced using the webpage format. For more information, refer to how to reference images. 
 

18. Map

Originator’s surname, first name or INITIALS., Year. Title, Scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

     Andrews, J. and Dury, A., 1773. Map of Wiltshire, 1 inch to 2 miles. Devizes: Wiltshire Record Society.
 

19. Film, video or DVD

Title, Year of release. Material designation. Subsidiary originator (this is usually the director): directed by (followed by director’s name in full). Production details i.e. Place: Organisation.

     Macbeth, 1948. Film. Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures.
 

20. Streamed video (YouTube, TED Talks etc)

Creator’s surname, INITIALS., Year video posted. Title of film or programme [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

     Moran, C., 2016. Save Our Libraries [Online]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKTfCz4JtVE&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 29 April 2016].
 

21. Television or radio broadcast

Series title: Episode number, Title of episode, Year. Medium. Transmitting organisation and channel, full date. Time of transmission.

     Rick Stein’s French Odyssey: Episode 5, 2006. TV. BBC2, 23 August. 20.30 hrs.

     The Archers, 2006. Radio. BBC Radio 4, 23 August. 19.02 hrs.
 

22. Music score

Composer, Year. Title of work. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

     Beethoven, L. van, 1950. Symphony no.1 in C, Op.21. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
 

23. Email discussion list (jiscmail/listserv etc)

Author’s surname, INITIALS., Day Month Year. Subject of message. Discussion List [Online]. Available from: list email address [Accessed date].

     Clark, T., 5 July 2004. A European UK Libraries Plus? Lis-link [Online]. Available from: lis-link@jiscmail.ac.uk [Accessed 30 July 2004].
 

24. Unpublished material

Emails, letters, conversations, interviews and lecturer's presentations are examples of sources that are often unpublished.  Interviews can include interviews that you have conducted yourself.  If you make use of unpublished materials, you do not include a reference to them as there is effectively nothing to reference.  All you can do is to cite them in your text: how to cite unpublished materials.  

Note: If you make use of a presentation, email, letter, interview or conversation that has been published (for example, on a public website or in a book/article), you should reference it as you would cite any published source of information.  If you cite a presentation that you accessed via Moodle, you should cite it in your text but not provide a reference as Moodle is not a public website. 

 

Work in language other than English and translated work
 
25. Work in translation

When referencing a work that you have read in translation, cite the original author and acknowledge the version you have read in your reference e.g.

Author(s) Surname, INITIALS, Date. Title. (Name of translator, Trans.). Place of publication. Publisher.

     Aristotle, 2007. Nicomachean ethics (W.D. Ross, Trans.). South Dakota: NuVisions.
 

26. Work in the Roman alphabet

Use the standard format for the type of literature (e.g. books, journal articles).  Give the title of the work in the original language, and add the translated title in square brackets after it.  Giving the translation simply helps the reader understand what the work is about.   For a journal article, give a translation of the article title, but there’s no need to translate the journal title. 

e.g.  for a book:-

     Esquivel, L., 2003. Como agua para chocolate [Like water for chocolate]. Barcelona: Debolsillo.

e.g. for a journal article:-

     Thurfjell, W., 1975. Vart har våran doktor tagit vägen? [Where has our doctor gone?]  Läkartidningen 72, p.789.


27. Work in a non-Roman alphabet

Here we really need to think about things like enabling filing order in the manuscript and what would be helpful to the English-speaking reader.

For non-Roman-alphabet languages you may need to include both a translation and a transliteration.  Chinese or Japanese characters, immediately following the romanised version of the item they represent, help readers identify references cited or terms used. 

For the author (or organisation), you definitely need to use a transliteration of the name into the Roman alphabet.  This will allow you to have one single list of references/bibliography in alphabetical order.  Use a consistent transliteration system (e.g. pinyin for Chinese names or romaji for Japanese names).

For journal articles and other sources, you have a choice of two options (bullet points below).  Whichever you choose, be consistent and use it throughout your bibliography.   

Examples:

     Hua, L.華林甫, 1999.  Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu清代以來三峽地區水旱災害的初步硏
     [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty], Zhongguo
     shehui kexue中國社會科學, 1, pp.168–79.

OR

     Hua, L., 1999.  Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu [A preliminary study of floods
     and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty], Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1, pp.168–79.

 
Legal or goverment document 
 

28. House of Commons paper

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (HC session dates, paper number).

     Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 2004. National Savings investment deposits: account 2002-2003.
     London: National Audit Office (HC 2003/04, 30).
 

29. House of Lords paper

Note: These are treated exactly the same as House of Commons papers except that the paper number is enclosed in round brackets, to further distinguish them from identical HC paper numbers.

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (HL session dates, (paper number)).

     Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, 1987. Social fund (Maternity and Funeral Expenses) Bill. London: HMSO (HL 1986/87, (66)).
 

30. House of Commons/House of Lords bill

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons or Lords, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (Bills | session dates, bill number).

     Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1988. Local government finance bill. London: HMSO (Bills | 1987/88, 66).
 

31. Act of Parliament (UK Statutes) before 1963

Note: before 1963, Acts were cited according to the regnal year (the number of years since the monarch’s accession to the throne).

Short title of Act and year (regnal year and abbreviated name of monarch, chapter number).

     Witchcraft Act 1735 (9 Geo.2, c.5).
 

32. Act of Parliament (UK Statutes) 1963 onwards

Short title of Act and year, chapter number. Place of publication: Publisher.

     Pensions Act 2014, c.19. London: TSO.
 

33. Command paper (green paper, white paper, treaty, international agreement, Government response to a select committee report, Royal Commission report etc)

Great Britain. Name of Department, Committee or Royal Commission, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (Cm. number).

     Great Britain. Ministry of Defence, 2004. Delivering security in a changing world: defence white paper. London: TSO (Cm. 6041).
 

34. Statutory instrument

Name of statutory instrument date [Online], number, place of publication: publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

     The Human Medicines Regulations 2012 [Online], No.1916, United Kingdom: TSO. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/1916/pdfs/uksi 20121916 en.pdf [Accessed 17 April 2016].
 

35. Legal case study

Party names. [Year of publication]. Volume number (if available). Law report abbreviation start page.

     Seldon v Clarkson Wright & Jakes. [2012]. UKSC 16.
 

36. EU publication

Name of EU institution, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

     European Commission, 2015. General report on the activities of the European Union 2014. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.


37. EU regulation or directive, decision, recommendation or opinion

Legislation type and number and title [year] OJ series issue/first page.

     Directive (EU) 2015/413 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11th March 2015 facilitating cross-border exchange of information on road-safety-related traffic offences [2015] OJ L68/9.

Note: further advice on citing and referencing this type of document 


38. Judgment of the European Court of Justice

Note: The European Court of Justice is made up of three courts: Court of Justice; General Court (Court of First Instance until 2009) and Civil Service Tribunal. ECR in the reference below stands for European Court Report.

Case name (case number) [year] ECR citation.

     Alessandrini Srl and others v. Commission (C-295/03 P) [2005] ECR I-5700.

Note: further advice on citing and referencing this type of document 
 

Database or dataset

39. Database

This format is not used to reference material from literature databases, such as ProQuest or EBSCO, but rather commercial databases used in industry (to which the Library subscribes), such as Compendex, BSOL or Mintel.

Database provider, Year. Title of report as appropriate. Name of database [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher [if known]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

     Bureau van Dijk, 2008. BT Group plc company report. FAME [Online]. London: Bureau van Dijk. Available from: http://www.portal.euromonitor.com [Accessed 6 November 2014].


40. Dataset

Creator’s Surname, INITIALS., Year. Name of dataset [Online]. Publisher. Available from: DOI [Accessed date].

     Wilson, D., 2013. Real geometry and connectedness via triangular description: CAD example bank [Online]. Bath: University of Bath. Available from: https://doi.org/10.15125/BATH-00069 [Accessed 20 April 2016]. 
 

41. Computer program

Author or company, Year. Title of program (version) [computer program]. Available from: distributor address or URL if downloaded [Accessed date].

     @screencasto, n.d. Screencast-O-Matic (v.2) [computer program]. Available from: https://screencast-o-matic.com/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].


How to organise a reference list



More help and information

KMJ May 2016 - adapted by PGB Jan 2018.