University of Bath School of Management University of Bath School of Management

Professor Ammon Salter

Ammon Salter

telephone +44 (0) 1225 384960
email Professor Ammon Salter


Leading Refereed Journal Papers
Other Outputs


Job Title:

Professor in Innovation


Strategy & Organisation

Key Research Interests:

Technology and Innovation Management, Open Innovation, University-Industry Interactions, Social Networks and Innovation

Research Interests

My research focuses on the management of technological innovation. I am currently exploring open and distributed models of innovation, social networks and innovation, and university-industry collaboration. My research typically involves engagement with policy and practice through collaborative projects with industrial and governmental partners. I have published over 50 peer reviewed articles in academic journals, such as Strategic Management JournalOrganization ScienceAcademy of Management ReviewAcademy of Management JournalResearch Policy, Industrial and Corporate Change and in practice-oriented journals, such as Harvard Business Review, MIT Sloan Management Review and California Management Review. You can find this work at Google ScholarScopus Author Preview and ResearcherID. I am also an Associate Editor of Industrial and Corporate Change and the co-organiser of the DRUID Plenary Debates. 

I have acted as an advisor to a range of businesses, scientific societies and governments on innovation issues, including IBM, Arup, WS Atkins, HM Treasury, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, European Commission, The Royal Society, and InnovateUK. I am currently a member of Innovation Caucus, an initiative of the ESRC and InnovateUK further connections between social scientists and policy-makers. 

I received my doctorate from SPRU at the University of Sussex in 1999, where he also worked as a researcher from 1998-2002. From 2003-2013, I was a faculty member at Imperial College London, acting as the co-Director of the Innovation Studies Centre. From 2009-2013, I was the Research Director of the UK Innovation Research Centre, which was collaboration between Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge. From 2014-2015, I was the Head of the Strategy and International Management Group within the School of Management. Since 2015, I have been the REF Director for the School of Management. I am also a Research Associate at the Centre for Business Research at the University of Cambridge and a Visiting Professor at Imperial College London.

PhD Supervision

I am interested in supervising new doctoral students. My expectation would be that they have a passion for research, aspire to an academic career, and have a strong interest in innovation. I would welcome an opportunity to talk to any prospective candidates about this opportunity.


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Leading Refereed Journals Papers | Books | Other Outputs

Leading Refereed Journal Papers

Criscuolo, P., Dahlander, L., Grohsjean, T. & Salter, A. 2017. Evaluating novelty: the role of panels in the selection of R&D projects. Academy of Management Journal, 60, 2, p. 1-28.

Ter Wal, A. L. J., Criscuolo, P. & Salter, A. 2017. Making a marriage of materials: The role of gatekeepers and shepherds in the absorption of external knowledge and innovation performance. Research Policy, 46(5): 1039-1054.

Bruneel, J., D'Este, P. & Salter, A. 2016. The Impactof Financial Slack on Explorative and Exploitative Knowledge Sourcing From Universities. Industrial and Corporate Change, 25, 4, p. 689-706.

Oliver, A., Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. & Salter, A. 2016. Toward an Aspirational-Level Theory of Open Innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change.

Salter, A., Criscuolo, P., ter Wal, A. & Alexy, O. 2015. Open for ideation: individual-level openness and idea generation in R&D contexts. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(4): 488-504, DOI: 10.1111/jpim.12214.

Tartari, V. and Salter, A. 2015. The engagement gap: exploring gender differences in University-Industry collaboration activities. Research Policy, 44(6): 1176-1191.

Ballot, G., Galia, F. Fahti, F, and Salter, A. 2015. The fateful trinagle: complementarities between product, process and organizational innovation inFrance and the UK. Research Policy, 44(1): 217-232.

Tartari, V., Perkmann, M. & Salter, A. 2014. In good company: The influence of peers on industry engagement by academic scientists. Research Policy, 43(7): 1189-1203.

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A., & ter Wal, A. 2014.Going underground: bootlegging and individual innovative performance. Organization Science, 25(5): 1287-1305.

West, J., Salter, A. Chesbrough, H., & Vanhaverbeke, W. 2014. Open Innovation: The next decade. Research Policy, 43(5): 805-811.

Laursen, K. & Salter, A. 2014. The paradox of openness: appropriability, external search and collaboration. Research Policy 43(5): 867–878

Salter, A., Criscuolo, P. & ter Wal, A. 2014. Coping with open innovation: responding to the challenges of external engagement in R&D. California Management Review, 56(2): 77-94.

Alexy, O., George, G. & Salter A. 2013. Cui bono? The selective revealing of knowledge and its implications for innovative activity. Academy of Management Review, 38(2): 270-291. DOI: 10.5465/amr.2011.0193.

Perkmann, M., Tartari V., McKelvey, M., Autio, E., Broström, A., D'Este, P., Fini, R., Geuna, A., Grimaldi, R., Hughes, A., Krabel, S., Kitson, M., Llerena, P., Lissoni, F., Salter, A., & Sobrero, M. 2013. Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university–industry relations. Research Policy, 42(2): 423-442.

Perkmann, M. & Salter A. 2012. How to create productive partnerships with universities. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(4): 79-88.

Tartari, V. Salter A. & D’Este, P. 2012. Crossing the Rubicon: Exploring the factors that shape academic perceptions of the barriers to industry collaboration. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 36(2): 655-677, DOI: 10.1093/cje/bes007.

Alexy, O., Criscuolo, P. & Salter A. 2012. Managing unsolicited ideas for R&D. California Management Review, 54(3): 116-139, DOI: 10.1525/cmr.2012.54.3.116.

Gann, D., Salter, A., Dodgson, M. & Phillips, N. 2012. Inside the world of the project baron. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(2): 63-71.

Criscuolo, P., Nicoloau, N. & Salter A. 2012. The elixir or burden of youth? Exploring differences among start-ups and established firms in innovation behaviour. Research Policy, 41(2): 319-333, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2011.12.001.

Clarysse, B., Tartari, V., & Salter A. 2011. The impact of entrepreneurial capacity, experience and organizational support on academic entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 40(8): 1084-1093, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2011.05.010.

Laursen, K., Reichstein, T. & Salter A. 2011. Exploring the effect of geographical proximity and university quality on university-industry collaboration in the UK. Regional Studies, 45(4): 507-523, DOI: 10.1080/00343400903401618.

Bruneel, J., D’Este, P. & Salter A. 2010. Investigating the factors that diminish the barriers to university-industry collaboration. Research Policy, 39(3): 858-868, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2010.03.006.

Alexy, O., Criscuolo, P. & Salter, A. 2009. Does IP strategy have to cripple open innovation? MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(1): 71-77.

► older publications

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. & Sheehan, T. 2007. Making knowledge visible: Using expert Yellow Pages to map capabilities in professional service organizations. Research Policy, 36(10): 1603-1619. DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2007.08.005.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2007. In case of fire, please take the elevator: Simulation technology and engineering practice. Organization Science, 18: 849-864, DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1070.0287.

Reichstein, T. & Salter, A. 2006. Investigating the sources of process innovation among UK manufacturing firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 15(4): 653-683, DOI: 10.1093/icc/dtl014.

Dodgson, M. Gann, D. & Salter A. 2006. The role of technology in the shift towards open innovation: The case of Procter & Gamble. R&D Management, 36(2): 333-346, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9310.2006.00429.x.

Laursen, K. & Salter, A. 2006. Open for innovation: The role of openness in explaining innovation performance among UK manufacturing firms. Strategic Management Journal, 27(2): 131-150, DOI: 10.1002/smj.507.

Laursen, K., & Salter, A. 2005. The fruits of intellectual production: economic and scientific specialisation among OECD countries. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 29(2): 289-308, DOI: 10.1093/cje/bei032.

Reichstein T., Salter, A. & Gann, D. 2005. Last among equals: comparing innovation in construction with manufacturing and services. Construction Management and Economics, 23: 631-644.

Sapsed, J., Gann, D., Marshall N. & Salter, A. 2005. From here to eternity: challenges of transferring situated knowledge in dispersed organisations. European Planning Studies, 13(6): 831-851.

Laursen, K and Salter, A. 2005. Episodic innovation: R&D strategies for project-based environments. Industry and Innovation, 12(2): 255-281.

Laursen, K., & Salter, A. 2004. Searching high and low: What types of firms use universities as a source of innovation. Research Policy, 33(8): 1201-1215, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2004.07.004.

Sasped, J., & Salter, A. 2004. Postcards from the edge: local communities, global programs and boundary objects. Organisation Studies, 25(9): 1515-1534, DOI: 10.1177/0170840604047998.

Acha, V., Hobday, M., Davies, A. & Salter, A. 2004. Exploring the capital goods economy: Complex product systems in the UK economy. Industrial and Corporate Change, 13(3): 505-529, DOI: 10.1093/icc/dth020.

Salter, A., & Gann, D. 2003. Sources of ideas for innovation in engineering design. Research Policy, 32(2): 1307-1324, DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00119-1.

Salter, A., & Martin, B. 2001. The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: A critical review. Research Policy, 30(1): 509-532, DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(00)00091-3.

Gann, D., & Salter, A. 2000. Innovation in project-based, service-enhanced firms: The construction of complex products and systems. Research Policy, 29(2): 955-972, DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(00)00114-1.

Books and book chapters

Alexy, O., Criscuolo, P and Salter, A. 2016. GSK: Planting a CEEDD for the future’, in Managing Inter-Organizational Relations: Debates and Cases, Sydow, J., Schubler, E, and Muller-Seitz, G., Palgrade, London, pp. 273-286.

Vernet, A, Kilduff, M. and Salter A. 2014. ‘The two-pipe problem: analyzing and theorizing about 2-mode networks’, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, ed. D. Brass.

Salter, A. and Alexy, O. 2013. ‘The nature of innovation&rsquo', Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management, Dodgson, M. Phillips, N. and Gann, D. editors. Oxford University Press.

Salter, A. and Tether, B. 2013. ‘Innovation in services: an overview’, Managing Services: Challenges and Innovations, eds K. Haynes and I. Grugulis, Oxford University Press.


► older publications

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. (Eds.) 2008. The management of technological innovation: Strategy and practice. London: Oxford University Press.

Bishop, K. Reichstein, T. and Salter A. 2008. ‘Exploring the role of geographical proximity in shaping university-industry interaction’ Wealth From Knowledge, J. Bessant and T. Venables, editors, Edward Elgar.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. and Salter A., 2006.‘The new craft skills of engineering: the impact of innovation technology on engineering practices’, Flexibility and Stability in the Innovating Economy, M. McKelvey and M. Holmen, editors, Oxford University Press.

Davies, A. and Salter A. 2006. ‘The great experiment: the impact of PPP on innovation in the procurement and production of capital goods’ in Flexibility and Stability in the Innovating Economy, M. McKelvey and M. Holmen, editors, Oxford University Press.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. (Eds.) 2005. Think, play, do: Technology, innovation, and organization. London: Oxford University Press

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. and Salter A., 2004. ‘Craft and code: intensification of innovation and the management of knowledge’ in Understanding the Technology, Knowledge and the Firm: Implications for Strategy and Industrial Change, K. Green, M. Miozzo and P. Dewick, editors, Edward Elgar, London.

Gann, D. and Salter, A. 2003. ‘Service innovation in construction’ in Service innovation: organizational responses to technological opportunities and market imperatives, J. Tidd editor, Imperial College Press, London.

Gann, D., Salter, A. and Whyte, J. 2003. ‘Design quality indicator: a new tool for thinking about buildings’, in Managing Better Buildings, S. McMillian, editor, Spon, London.

Geuna, A., Salter, A. & Steinmueller, W. (Eds.) 2003. Science and innovation: Rethinking the rationales for funding and governance. London: Edward Elgar.

Gann, D. and Salter, A. “Interdisciplinary skills for built environment professionals” in Design Education and Interdisciplinary Skills, R. Spence, S. McMilllian and P. Kirby, editors, Thomas Telford, London, 2001, pp.95-112.

Other Outputs.

Criscuolo, P., Dahlander, L., Grohsjean, T & Salter, A. 2017. The Biases That Keep Good R&D Projects from Getting Funded. Harvard Business Review.

Salter, A. & McKelvey, M. 2016. Evolutionary Analysis of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Sidney G Winter, receipient of the 2015 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research. Small Business Economics, 46, 3, p. 1-4.

Salter, A. & Tether, B. 2014. Innovation in services: An overview. In K. Haynes and I. Grugulis (Eds.), Managing services: Challenges and innovations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ebersberger, B., Marsili, O., Reichstein, T. & Salter, A.  2010. Into the thin air: using a quantile regression approach to explore the relationship between R&D and innovation.  International Review of Applied Economics, 24(1): 95-102.

► older publications

Ebersberger, B., Marsili, O., Reichstein, T. & Salter A. 2008. Fortune favours the brave: the distribution of innovative returns in UK, Finland and the Netherlands. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 19(4): 357-362.

Reichstein, T., Salter, A. & Gann, D. 2008. Break on through: the sources and determinants of product and process innovation among UK construction firms. Industry and Innovation, 15(6): 601-625.

Sapsed, J. & Salter A. 2008. ‘The extraction of manufacturing capability: the case of sophisticated transferee’. International Journal of Technology Management, 44(3/4): 391-405.

Bishop, K., Reichstein, T., & Salter A. 2008. Exploring the role of geographical proximity in shaping university-industry interaction. In J. Bessant and T. Venables (Eds.), Creating wealth from knowledge: Meeting the innovation challenge: 320-334. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2007. ‘The impact of the use of innovation technology on engineering problem solving: lessons from high profile public projects’, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 19(3): 471-489.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D., & Salter A. 2006. The new craft skills of engineering: The impact of innovation technology on engineering practices. In M. McKelvey and M. Holmen (Eds.), Flexibility and stability in the innovating economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Davies, A. & Salter A. 2006. The great experiment: Public-private partnerships and innovation in design, production, and operation of capital goods in the UK. M. McKelvey and M. Holmen (Eds.), Flexibility and stability in the innovating economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marsili, O. & Salter, A.  2006. ‘The dark matter of innovation: design and innovative performance’. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 18(5): 515-534.

Acha, V., Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2005. ‘Episodic innovation: R&D strategies for project-based environments’. Industry and Innovation, 12(2): 255-281.

Brusoni, S., Marsili, O. & Salter, A. 2005. ‘The role of codified sources of knowledge in innovation: empirical evidence from Dutch manufacturing’. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 15(2): 211-231.

Marsili, O. & Salter, A. 2005. ‘Inequality of innovation: skewed distributions and the returns to innovation in Dutch Manufacturing’. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 14(1-2): 83-102.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D., & Salter A. 2004. Craft and code: Intensification of innovation and the management of knowledge.  In K. Green, M. Miozzo, & P. Dewick (Eds.), Technology, knowledge and the firm: Implications for strategy and industrial change. London: Edward Elgar.

Gann, D., Salter, A. & Whyte, J. 2003. ‘The design quality indicator as a new tool for thinking’. Building Research and Information, 31(5): 318-333.

Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2003. Service innovation in construction. In J. Tidd & F.M. Hull (Eds.), Service innovation: Organizational responses to technological opportunities and market imperatives. London: Imperial College Press.

Gann, D., Salter, A. & Whyte, J. 2003. Design quality indicator: A new tool for thinking about buildings. In S. McMillian (Eds.), Managing better buildings. London: Spon.

Salter, A. & Torbett, R. 2003. ‘Innovation and design: performance measurement in design engineering organisations’. Construction Management and Economics, 21, September: 573-580.

Whyte J., Salter, A., Gann, D. & Davies, A. 2003. ‘Using design to compete in international markets’. Design Studies, 43: 395-409.

Molas-Gallart, J. & Salter, A. 2002. ‘Diversity and excellence: considerations on research policy’. IPTS Report, 66(5): 5-13.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2002. ‘The intensification of innovation’. International Journal of Innovation Management, 6(1): 53-83.

Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2001. Interdisciplinary skills for built environment professionals. In R. Spence, S. McMilllian & P. Kirby (Eds.), Interdisciplinary design in practice: 95-112. London: Thomas Telford Ltd.

Gann, D. & Salter, A. 1998. ‘Learning and innovation management in project-based firms, service-enhanced firms’. International Journal of Innovation Management, 2(5): 431-454.