University of Bath School of Management University of Bath School of Management

Professor Ammon Salter

Ammon Salter

telephone +44 (0) 1225 384960
email Professor Ammon Salter


Leading Refereed Journal Papers
Other Outputs


Job Title:

Professor in Innovation


Strategy & Organisation

Key Research Interests:

Technology and Innovation Management, Open Innovation, University-Industry Interactions, Social Networks and Innovation

Research Interests

My research focuses on the sources and determinants of innovation. In particular, I am interested in open and distributed models of innovation, social networks and university-industry collaboration. I am Research Director of the UK Innovation Research Centre (funded by ESRC, BIS, NESTA and TSB). I have taught, advised and collaborated with a range of companies, such as Arup, IBM, Total, and Laing O'Rourke, and governments, including the European Commission and the UK Department of Business, Innovation and Skills, on issues relating to innovation.

PhD Supervision

I am very interested in supervising new doctoral students. My expectation would be that they have a passion for research, aspire to an academic career, and have a strong interest in innovation. I have access to a fully-funded studentship for a talented candidate and this position is open to applications without restrictions on nationality. I would welcome an opportunity to talk to any prospective candidates about this opportunity.


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Leading Refereed Journals Papers | Books | Other Outputs

Leading Refereed Journal Papers

Bruneel, J., D'Este, P. & Salter, A. The Impactof Financial Slack on Explorative and Exploitative Knowledge Sourcing From Universities. Industrial and Corporate Change.

Oliver, A., Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. & Salter, A. Forthcoming. Toward an Aspirational-Level Theory of Open Innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change.

Salter, A. & McKelvey, M. Forthcoming. Evolutionary Analysis of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Sidney G Winter, Receipient of the 2015 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research. Small Business Economics.

Tartari, V., Perkmann, M. & Salter, A. Forthcoming. In good company: The influence of peers on industry engagement by academic scientists. Research Policy

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A., & ter Wal, A. Forthcoming.Going underground: bootlegging and individual innovative performance. Organization Science, DOI: 10.1287/orsc.2013.0856.

Salter, A., Criscuolo, P., ter Wal, A. & Alexy, O. 2014. Open for ideation: individual-level openness and idea generation in R&D contexts. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(4): 488-504, DOI: 10.1111/jpim.12214.

West, J., Salter, A. Chesbrough, H., & Vanhaverbeke, W. 2014. Open Innovation: The next decade. Research Policy, 43(5): 805-811.

Laursen, K. & Salter, A. 2014. The paradox of openness: appropriability, external search and collaboration. Research Policy 43(5): 867–878

Salter, A., Criscuolo, P. & ter Wal, A. 2014. Coping with open innovation: responding to the challenges of external engagement in R&D. California Management Review, 56(2): 77-94.

Alexy, O., George, G. & Salter A. 2013. Cui bono? The selective revealing of knowledge and its implications for innovative activity. Academy of Management Review, 38(2): 270-291. DOI: 10.5465/amr.2011.0193.

Perkmann, M., Tartari, V., McKelvey, M., Autio, E., Broström, A., D'Este, P., Fini, R., Geuna, A., Grimaldi, R., Hughes, A., Krabel, S., Kitson, M., Llerena, P., Lissoni, F., Salter, A. & Sobrero, M., 2013. ‘Universities and the third mission: a systematic review of research on external engagement by academic researchers’. Research Policy, 42: 423-442.

Perkmann, M., Tartari V., McKelvey, M., Autio, E., Broström, A., D'Este, P., Fini, R., Geuna, A., Grimaldi, R., Hughes, A., Krabel, S., Kitson, M., Llerena, P., Lissoni, F., Salter, A., & Sobrero, M. 2013. Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university–industry relations. Research Policy, 42(2): 423-442, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2012.09.007.

Perkmann, M. & Salter A. 2012. How to create productive partnerships with universities. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(4): 79-88.

Tartari, V. Salter A. & D’Este, P. 2012. Crossing the Rubicon: Exploring the factors that shape academic perceptions of the barriers to industry collaboration. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 36(2): 655-677, DOI: 10.1093/cje/bes007.

Alexy, O., Criscuolo, P. & Salter A. 2012. Managing unsolicited ideas for R&D. California Management Review, 54(3): 116-139, DOI: 10.1525/cmr.2012.54.3.116.

Gann, D., Salter, A., Dodgson, M. & Phillips, N. 2012. Inside the world of the project baron. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(2): 63-71.

Criscuolo, P., Nicoloau, N. & Salter A. 2012. The elixir or burden of youth? Exploring differences among start-ups and established firms in innovation behaviour. Research Policy, 41(2): 319-333, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2011.12.001.

Clarysse, B., Tartari, V., & Salter A. 2011. The impact of entrepreneurial capacity, experience and organizational support on academic entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 40(8): 1084-1093, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2011.05.010.

Laursen, K., Reichstein, T. & Salter A. 2011. Exploring the effect of geographical proximity and university quality on university-industry collaboration in the UK. Regional Studies, 45(4): 507-523, DOI: 10.1080/00343400903401618.

Bruneel, J., D’Este, P. & Salter A. 2010. Investigating the factors that diminish the barriers to university-industry collaboration. Research Policy, 39(3): 858-868, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2010.03.006.

Alexy, O., Criscuolo, P. & Salter, A. 2009. Does IP strategy have to cripple open innovation? MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(1): 71-77.

► older publications

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. & Sheehan, T. 2007. Making knowledge visible: Using expert Yellow Pages to map capabilities in professional service organizations. Research Policy, 36(10): 1603-1619. DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2007.08.005.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2007. In case of fire, please take the elevator: Simulation technology and engineering practice. Organization Science, 18: 849-864, DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1070.0287.

Reichstein, T. & Salter, A. 2006. Investigating the sources of process innovation among UK manufacturing firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 15(4): 653-683, DOI: 10.1093/icc/dtl014.

Dodgson, M. Gann, D. & Salter A. 2006. The role of technology in the shift towards open innovation: The case of Procter & Gamble. R&D Management, 36(2): 333-346, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9310.2006.00429.x.

Laursen, K. & Salter, A. 2006. Open for innovation: The role of openness in explaining innovation performance among UK manufacturing firms. Strategic Management Journal, 27(2): 131-150, DOI: 10.1002/smj.507.

Laursen, K., & Salter, A. 2005. The fruits of intellectual production: economic and scientific specialisation among OECD countries. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 29(2): 289-308, DOI: 10.1093/cje/bei032.

Reichstein T., Salter, A. & Gann, D. 2005. ‘Last among equals: comparing innovation in construction with manufacturing and services’. Construction Management and Economics, 23: 631-644.

Sapsed, J., Gann, D., Marshall N. & Salter, A. 2005. ‘From here to eternity: challenges of transferring situated knowledge in dispersed organisations‘. European Planning Studies, 13(6): 831-851.

Laursen, K., & Salter, A. 2004. Searching high and low: What types of firms use universities as a source of innovation. Research Policy, 33(8): 1201-1215, DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2004.07.004.

Sasped, J., & Salter, A. 2004. Postcards from the edge: local communities, global programs and boundary objects. Organisation Studies, 25(9): 1515-1534, DOI: 10.1177/0170840604047998.

Acha, V., Hobday, M., Davies, A. & Salter, A. 2004. Exploring the capital goods economy: Complex product systems in the UK economy. Industrial and Corporate Change, 13(3): 505-529, DOI: 10.1093/icc/dth020.

Salter, A., & Gann, D. 2003. Sources of ideas for innovation in engineering design. Research Policy, 32(2): 1307-1324, DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00119-1.

Salter, A., & Martin, B. 2001. The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: A critical review. Research Policy, 30(1): 509-532, DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(00)00091-3.

Gann, D., & Salter, A. 2000. Innovation in project-based, service-enhanced firms: The construction of complex products and systems. Research Policy, 29(2): 955-972, DOI: 10.1016/S0048-7333(00)00114-1.


Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. (Eds.) 2008. The management of technological innovation: Strategy and practice. London: Oxford University Press.

► older publications

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. (Eds.) 2005. Think, play, do: Technology, innovation, and organization. London: Oxford University Press

Geuna, A., Salter, A. & Steinmueller, W. (Eds.) 2003. Science and innovation: Rethinking the rationales for funding and governance. London: Edward Elgar.

Other Outputs.

Vernet, A., Kilduff, M., & Salter, A. Forthcoming. The two-pipe problem: Analyzing and theorizing about 2-mode networks. In D. Brass (Eds.), Research in the sociology of organizations.

Salter, A. & Tether, B. 2014. Innovation in services: An overview. In K. Haynes and I. Grugulis (Eds.), Managing services: Challenges and innovations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Salter, A. & Alexy, O. 2014. The nature of innovation. In M. Dodgson, N. Phillips, N., & D. Gann (Eds.), Oxford handbook of innovation management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ebersberger, B., Marsili, O., Reichstein, T. & Salter, A.  2010. Into the thin air: using a quantile regression approach to explore the relationship between R&D and innovation.  International Review of Applied Economics, 24(1): 95-102.

► older publications

Ebersberger, B., Marsili, O., Reichstein, T. & Salter A. 2008. Fortune favours the brave: the distribution of innovative returns in UK, Finland and the Netherlands. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 19(4): 357-362.

Reichstein, T., Salter, A. & Gann, D. 2008. Break on through: the sources and determinants of product and process innovation among UK construction firms. Industry and Innovation, 15(6): 601-625.

Sapsed, J. & Salter A. 2008. ‘The extraction of manufacturing capability: the case of sophisticated transferee’. International Journal of Technology Management, 44(3/4): 391-405.

Bishop, K., Reichstein, T., & Salter A. 2008. Exploring the role of geographical proximity in shaping university-industry interaction. In J. Bessant and T. Venables (Eds.), Creating wealth from knowledge: Meeting the innovation challenge: 320-334. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2007. ‘The impact of the use of innovation technology on engineering problem solving: lessons from high profile public projects’, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 19(3): 471-489.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D., & Salter A. 2006. The new craft skills of engineering: The impact of innovation technology on engineering practices. In M. McKelvey and M. Holmen (Eds.), Flexibility and stability in the innovating economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Davies, A. & Salter A. 2006. The great experiment: Public-private partnerships and innovation in design, production, and operation of capital goods in the UK. M. McKelvey and M. Holmen (Eds.), Flexibility and stability in the innovating economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marsili, O. & Salter, A.  2006. ‘The dark matter of innovation: design and innovative performance’. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 18(5): 515-534.

Acha, V., Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2005. ‘Episodic innovation: R&D strategies for project-based environments’. Industry and Innovation, 12(2): 255-281.

Brusoni, S., Marsili, O. & Salter, A. 2005. ‘The role of codified sources of knowledge in innovation: empirical evidence from Dutch manufacturing’. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 15(2): 211-231.

Marsili, O. & Salter, A. 2005. ‘Inequality of innovation: skewed distributions and the returns to innovation in Dutch Manufacturing’. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 14(1-2): 83-102.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D., & Salter A. 2004. Craft and code: Intensification of innovation and the management of knowledge.  In K. Green, M. Miozzo, & P. Dewick (Eds.), Technology, knowledge and the firm: Implications for strategy and industrial change. London: Edward Elgar.

Gann, D., Salter, A. & Whyte, J. 2003. ‘The design quality indicator as a new tool for thinking’. Building Research and Information, 31(5): 318-333.

Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2003. Service innovation in construction. In J. Tidd & F.M. Hull (Eds.), Service innovation: Organizational responses to technological opportunities and market imperatives. London: Imperial College Press.

Gann, D., Salter, A. & Whyte, J. 2003. Design quality indicator: A new tool for thinking about buildings. In S. McMillian (Eds.), Managing better buildings. London: Spon.

Salter, A. & Torbett, R. 2003. ‘Innovation and design: performance measurement in design engineering organisations’. Construction Management and Economics, 21, September: 573-580.

Whyte J., Salter, A., Gann, D. & Davies, A. 2003. ‘Using design to compete in international markets’. Design Studies, 43: 395-409.

Molas-Gallart, J. & Salter, A. 2002. ‘Diversity and excellence: considerations on research policy’. IPTS Report, 66(5): 5-13.

Dodgson, M., Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2002. ‘The intensification of innovation’. International Journal of Innovation Management, 6(1): 53-83.

Gann, D. & Salter, A. 2001. Interdisciplinary skills for built environment professionals. In R. Spence, S. McMilllian & P. Kirby (Eds.), Interdisciplinary design in practice: 95-112. London: Thomas Telford Ltd.

Gann, D. & Salter, A. 1998. ‘Learning and innovation management in project-based firms, service-enhanced firms’. International Journal of Innovation Management, 2(5): 431-454.