Department of Mechanical Engineering
 
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Contact details

Room: 4E 2.18

Tel: +44 (0) 1225 386168

Email: g.p.hammond@bath.ac.uk

 

Towards a low carbon future

Geoff Hammond and Áine O'Grady discuss research into energy production and a low carbon future.

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Professor G.P. Hammond

Profile

Geoffrey Hammond is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Bath, and was founder Director of its Institute for Sustainable Energy & the Environment (I•SEE). He is a mechanical engineer with a multidisciplinary background, including environmental engineering and management.

During the 1960s and early 1970s he worked as a design and development engineer in the UK refrigeration industry, before commencing an academic career at Uganda Technical College (under the auspices of Voluntary Services Overseas) teaching mainly in the field of applied thermodynamics.

He held various academic appointments within the Applied Energy Group at Cranfield University (1976-1989) before moving to the University of Bath, where he took up a new Professorship partially supported by British Gas plc. In 2010, Geoffrey Hammond was also appointed as an Honorary Professor in Sustainable Bioenergy at the University of Nottingham.

Professor Hammond’s research interests are mainly concerned with the technology assessment of energy (including bioenergy and biofuel) systems and transition pathways to a low carbon future, using a toolkit of methods derived from the engineering and environmental sciences (such as carbon and environmental footprinting, environmental life-cycle assessment, risk assessment, and thermodynamic analysis). This research has recently been funded in the UK by the Carbon Trust, EdF Energy and EdF R&D, the Environment Agency, the Great Western Research (GWR) Alliance, the UK Energy Research Centre, and various Research Councils (the BBSRC, EPSRC, ESRC and NERC).

Currently the Principal Investigator (PI) and Co-Leader of the EPSRC ‘Realising Transition Pathways’ Consortium and PI of the UKERC Consortium studying ‘Industrial Energy Use from a Bottom-up Perspective’. He was co-originator of the ‘Inventory of Carbon and Energy’ (ICE), funded jointly by the Carbon Trust and the EPSRC, now widely used by practitioners for the calculation of ‘carbon footprints’ for products and in construction. In 2013 he became a Co-Director and Co-Investigator of the EPSRC UK INDEMAND Centre, which seeks to deliver significant reductions in the use of energy, materials and carbon emissions from UK industry.

Geoffrey Hammond is the author or co-author of many research papers, and is the joint recipient of the Dufton Silver Medal and the George Stephenson Prize for two of these publications. He has given keynote and invited lectures on both sides of the Atlantic, including the Willem van Gool Memorial Lecture at the 3rd European Congress on Economics and Management of Energy in Industry (ECEMEI) in Estoril/Lisbon, Portugal in April 2004.

Professor Hammond sits on the editorial boards of several archival journals that publish material in the area of energy and the environment, and was appointed as an Output Assessor on ‘Energy and Sustainability’ for the UK Research Excellence Framework (REF 2014). In recent years he has also advised the UK Government’s the Department of Energy and Climate Change, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Government Office of Science, and their independent Committee on Climate Change on issues concerned with energy and the environment – environmental footprinting, life-cycle emissions from key low carbon technologies, renewable energy systems, sustainable production, and industrial energy demand reduction. In addition, he has undertaken international consultancy assignments for Government Ministries and Industrial R&D Organisations in Sri Lanka and Taiwan.

Outside the University, Professor Hammond was a member of the Environment Agency's North Wessex Area Environment Group in 1998, which advises the Agency on the range of its regulatory activities. Subsequently he became Vice Chairman (2000) and Chairman (2004) until such groups were disbanded by the Agency in 2006. He was also the independent Chairman (2000-2002) of the Combe Down Stone Mines Community Association [a company limited by guarantee], which has the task of building a partnership with the Bath & North East Somerset Council aimed at stabilising hazardous 18th and 19th Century mine workings on the outskirts of UNESCO World Heritage City of Bath.

In late 2004 he was co-opted as a Trustee and Council member of the Wiltshire Wildlife Trust (2004-2011), with a remit particularly to support their activities in the areas of climate change and sustainable energy. Geoffrey Hammond was appointed to Chair the Steering Group developing the Swindon Climate Change Action Plan in 2005, and is also a member of the Swindon Strategic Partnership’s Environmental Sustainability Block as part of their Local Area Agreement. He was appointed Chair of the new British Standards Institution (BSi) Climate Change Strategy Committee in 2014.

Research

Energy and Sustainability: Technology assessment of energy (including bioenergy and biofuel) systems and transition pathways to a low carbon future. A toolkit of methods are used derived from the engineering and environmental sciences (such as carbon and environmental footprinting, environmental life-cycle assessment, risk assessment, and thermodynamic analysis).

Co-originator of the 'Inventory of Carbon and Energy' (ICE), funded jointly by the Carbon Trust and the EPSRC, now widely used by practitioners for the calculation of 'carbon footprints' for products and in construction.

Publications

Book Sections

Hammond, G. and Jones, C. I., 2010. Embodied carbon: the concealed impact of residential construction. In: Global Warming: Engineering Solutions. New York: Springer, pp. 367-384. (Green Energy and Technology)

Hammond, G., Harajli, H., Jones, C. I. and Winnett, A., 2009. Integrated appraisal of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) System. In: 2009 International Conference on Sustainable Power Generation and Supply. New York: IEEE, pp. 1166-1174.

Foxon, T. J., Hammond, G. and Pearson, P. J., 2008. Developing transition pathways for a low carbon electricity system in the UK. In: 2008 First International Conference on Infrastructure Systems and Services. IEEE.

Ijomah, W. L., Hammond, G. P., Childe, S. J. and McMahon, C. A., 2005. A robust description and tool for remanufacturing: A resource and energy recovery strategy. In: Yamamoto, R., Furukawa, Y., Koshibu, H., Eagan, P., Griese, H., Umeda, Y. and Aoyama, K., eds. Eco Design 2005. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing. IEEE, pp. 472-479. (Fourth International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Proceedings)

Doughty, M. R. C. and Hammond, G. P., 2002. Cities and Sustainability. In: Winnett, A. and Warhurst, A., eds. Towards an Environment Research Agenda: A Second Selection of Papers. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 81-105.

Articles

Hammond, G. and Pearson, P. J. G., 2017. Realising transition pathways to a low-carbon future (Editorial). Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 231 (6), pp. 435-439.

Allen, S. R., Hammond, G. P. and McKenna, R. C., 2017. The thermodynamic implications of electricity end-use for heat and power. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 231 (6), pp. 508-525.

Griffin, P., Hammond, G. and Norman, J., 2017. Industrial energy use and carbon emissions reduction in the chemicals sector:A UK perspective. Applied Energy

Cooper, S. J.G., Giesekam, J., Hammond, G. P., Norman, J. B., Owen, A., Rogers, J. G. and Scott, K., 2017. Thermodynamic insights and assessment of the 'circular economy'. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, pp. 1356-1367.

Robertson, E., O'Grady, Á., Barton, J., Galloway, S., Emmanuel-Yusuf, D., Leach, M., Hammond, G., Thomson, M. and Foxon, T., 2017. Reconciling qualitative storylines and quantitative descriptions:An iterative approach. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 118, pp. 293-306.

Griffin, P. W., Hammond, G. P. and Norman, J. B., 2017. Opportunities for Energy Demand and Carbon Emissions Reduction in the Chemicals Sector. Energy Procedia, 105, pp. 4347-4356.

Cheng, V. K. M. and Hammond, G. P., 2017. Life-cycle energy densities and land-take requirements of various power generators:a UK perspective. Journal of the Energy Institute, 90 (2), pp. 201-213.

Chilvers, J., Foxon, T. J., Galloway, S., Hammond, G. P., Infield, D., Leach, M., Pearson, P. J.G., Strachan, N., Strbac, G. and Thomson, M., 2017. Realising transition pathways for a more electric, low carbon energy system in the United Kingdom:Challenges, insights and opportunities. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 231 (6), pp. 440-477.

Hammond, G. P., Jones, C. I. and Spevack, R., 2017. A technology assessment of the proposed Cardiff-Weston tidal barrage, UK. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability

Hammond, G. P. and O'Grady, A., 2017. Indicative energy technology assessment of UK shale gas extraction. Applied Energy, 185 (Part 2), pp. 1907-1918.

Hammond, G. and O'Grady, A., 2017. The life cycle greenhouse gas implications of a UK gas supply transformation on a future low carbon electricity sector. Energy, 118, pp. 937-949.

Cooper, S., Hammond, G. and Norman, J., 2017. An empirical assessment of sector level exergy analysis. Energy Procedia

Hammond, G. P. and O'Grady, A., 2016. The potential environmental consequences of shifts in UK energy policy that impact on electricity generation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 231 (6), pp. 535-550.

Hammond, G. P. and Li, B., 2016. Environmental and resource burdens associated with world biofuel production out to 2050:footprint components from carbon emissions and land use to waste arisings and water consumption. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 8 (5), pp. 894-908.

Griffin, P. W., Hammond, G. P. and Norman, J. B., 2016. Industrial energy use and carbon emissions reduction:a UK perspective. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment

Cooper, S. J. G., Hammond, G. P., McManus, M. C. and Pudjianto, D., 2016. Detailed simulation of electrical demands due to nationwide adoption of heat pumps, taking account of renewable generation and mitigation. IET Renewable Power Generation, 10 (3), pp. 380-387.

Chen, Q., Hammond, G. P. and Norman, J. B., 2016. Energy efficiency potentials:contrasting thermodynamic, technical and economic limits for organic Rankine cycles within UK industry. Applied Energy, 164, pp. 984-990.

Hammond, G. P., 2016. Editorial. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 169, pp. 1-2.

Cooper, S. J. G., Hammond, G. P. and Norman, J. B., 2016. Potential for use of heat rejected from industry in district heating networks, GB perspective. Journal of the Energy Institute, 89 (1), pp. 57-69.

Hammond, G., 2015. Briefing: Progress in energy demand reduction – from here to 2050. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering, 168 (3), 100 - 100.

Hammond, G. P., O'Grady, Á. and Packham, D. E., 2015. Energy technology assessment of shale gas 'fracking'-a UK perspective. Energy Procedia, 75, pp. 2764-2771.

Hammond, G. P. and Hazeldine, T., 2015. Indicative energy technology assessment of advanced rechargeable batteries. Applied Energy, 138, pp. 559-571.

Rogers, J. G., Cooper, S. J. G., O'Grady, A., McManus, M. C., Howard, H. R. and Hammond, G. P., 2015. The 20% house – An integrated assessment of options for reducing net carbon emissions from existing UK houses. Applied Energy, 138, pp. 108-120.

Chen, Q., Hammond, G. and Norman, J., 2015. Contrasting Thermodynamic, Technical and Economic Potentials:The Example of Organic Rankine Cycle Use within UK Industry. Energy Procedia, 61, pp. 225-229.

Kelly, K. A., McManus, M. C. and Hammond, G. P., 2014. An energy and carbon life cycle assessment of industrial CHP (combined heat and power) in the context of a low carbon UK. Energy, 77, pp. 812-821.

Cooper, S. J. G., Hammond, G. P., McManus, M. C. and Rogers, J. G., 2014. Impact on energy requirements and emissions of heat pumps and micro-cogenerators participating in demand side management. Applied Thermal Engineering, 71 (2), pp. 872-881.

Hammond, G. P. and Spargo, J., 2014. The prospects for coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and storage:a UK perspective. Energy Conversion and Management, 86, pp. 476-489.

Hammond, G. and Mitchell, G., 2014. Rare earth elements – a constraint on clean energy technologies? Energy World

Hammond, G., 2014. Progress in Energy Demand Reduction - From Here to 2050 (Editorial). Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 167 (3), pp. 89-102.

Griffin, P., Hammond, G. and Norman, J., 2014. Prospects for emissions reduction in the UK cement sector. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 167 (3), pp. 152-161.

Hammond, G. P., 2014. Book Review: Markusson, N., Shackley, S. and Evar, B. (eds)., The Social Dynamics of Carbon Capture and Storage: Understanding CCS Representations, Governance and Innovation. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 167 (2), pp. 86-88.

Hammond, G. P. and Norman, J. B., 2014. Heat recovery opportunities in UK industry. Applied Energy, 116, pp. 387-397.

Cooper, S. J. G., Hammond, G. P., McManus, M. C., Ramallo Gonzalez, A. and Rogers, J. G., 2014. Effect of operating conditions on performance of domestic heating systems with heat pumps and fuel cell micro-cogeneration. Energy and Buildings, 70, pp. 52-60.

Hammond, G. P. and O'Grady, A., 2014. The implications of upstream emissions from the power sector. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 167 (1), pp. 9-19.

Cheng, V. K. M. and Hammond, G. P., 2014. Energy density and spatial footprints of various electrical power systems. Energy Procedia, 61, pp. 578-581.

Hammond, G., Jones, C. and Spevack, R., 2014. The ‘Shoots Barrage’:An Indicative Energy Technology Assessment of a Tidal Power Scheme. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environmental Systems, 2 (4), pp. 388-407.

Hammond, G. P. and Seth, S.M., 2013. Carbon and environmental footprinting of global biofuel production. Applied Energy, 112, pp. 547-559.

Hammond, G., 2013. Carbon dioxide capture and storage faces a challenging future. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Civil Engineering, 166 (4), p. 147.

Burt, G. M., Entchev, E., Hammond, G.P. and Kelly, N.J., 2013. Special issue on micro-generation and related energy technologies and practices for low carbon buildings. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 227 (1), pp. 3-7.

Cooper, S. J. G., Hammond, G. P. and Mcmanus, M. C., 2013. Thermodynamic efficiency of low-carbon domestic heating systems:Heat pumps and micro-cogeneration. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 227 (1), pp. 18-29.

Mezzullo, W. G., Mcmanus, M. C. and Hammond, G. P., 2013. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste. Applied Energy, 102, pp. 657-664.

Hammond, G.P. and Pearson, P.J.G., 2013. Challenges of the transition to a low carbon, more electric future:From here to 2050. Energy Policy, 52, pp. 1-9.

Hammond, G.P., Howard, H.R. and Jones, C.I., 2013. The energy and environmental implications of UK more electric transition pathways:A whole systems perspective. Energy Policy, 52, pp. 103-116.

Cooper, S. J. G., Dowsett, J., Hammond, G. P., McManus, M. C. and Rogers, J. G., 2013. Potential of demand side management to reduce carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of heat pumps. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environmental Systems, 1 (1), pp. 94-108.

Alderson, H., Cranston, G. R. and Hammond, G. P., 2012. Carbon and environmental footprinting of low carbon UK electricity futures to 2050. Energy, 48 (1), pp. 96-107.

Borrion, A.L., McManus, M.C. and Hammond, G.P., 2012. Environmental life cycle assessment of bioethanol production from wheat straw. Biomass and Bioenergy, 47, pp. 9-19.

Hammond, G. P., Howard, H. R. and Tuck, A., 2012. Risk assessment of UK biofuel developments within the rapidly evolving energy and transport sectors. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability, 226 (5), pp. 526-548.

Borrion, A. L., Mcmanus, M. C. and Hammond, G. P., 2012. Environmental life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol:A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16 (7), pp. 4638-4650.

Bagdanavicius, A., Jenkins, N. and Hammond, G. P., 2012. Assessment of community energy supply systems using energy, exergy and exergoeconomic analysis. Energy, 45 (1), pp. 247-255.

Kelly, K. A., McManus, M. C. and Hammond, G. P., 2012. An energy and carbon life cycle assessment of tidal power case study:the proposed Cardiff–Weston Severn barrage scheme. Energy, 44 (1), pp. 692-701.

Hammond, G.P., 2012. Editorial. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 165 (2), pp. 47-50.

Cranston, G. R. and Hammond, G. P., 2012. Carbon footprints in a bipolar, climate-constrained world. Ecological Indicators, 16, pp. 91-99.

Hammond, G. P. and Norman, J. B., 2012. Decomposition analysis of energy-related carbon emissions from UK manufacturing. Energy, 41 (1), pp. 220-227.

Hammond, G. P., Harajli, H. A., Jones, C. I. and Winnett, A. B., 2012. Whole systems appraisal of a UK Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system: Energy, environmental, and economic evaluations. Energy Policy, 40, pp. 219-230.

Griffin, P. W., Hammond, G. P., Ng, K. R. and Norman, J. B., 2012. Impact review of past UK public industrial energy efficiency RD&D programmes. Energy Conversion and Management, 60, pp. 243-250.

Adams, P. W., Hammond, G. P., McManus, M. C. and Mezzullo, W. G., 2011. Barriers to and drivers for UK bioenergy development. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (2), pp. 1217-1227.

Hammond, G. P., Akwe, O. and Williams, S., 2011. Techno-economic appraisal of fossil-fuelled power generation systems with carbon dioxide capture and storage. Energy, 36 (2), pp. 975-984.

Foxon, T. J., Hammond, G. P. and Pearson, P. J. G., 2010. Developing transition pathways for a low carbon electricity system in the UK. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77 (8), pp. 1203-1213.

Cranston, G. and Hammond, G., 2010. North and South: Regional footprints on the transition pathway to a low carbon, global economy. Applied Energy, 87 (9), pp. 2945-2951.

Cranston, G. R., Hammond, G. P. and Johnson, R. C., 2010. Ecological debt: exploring the factors that affect national footprints. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 12 (2), pp. 121-140.

Allen, S. R. and Hammond, G. P., 2010. Thermodynamic and carbon analyses of micro-generators for UK households. Energy, 35 (5), pp. 2223-2234.

Allen, S. R., Hammond, G. P., Harajli, H. A., McManus, M. C. and Winnett, A. B., 2010. Integrated appraisal of a solar hot water system. Energy, 35 (3), pp. 1351-1362.

El-Fadel, R. H., Hammond, G. P., Harajli, H. A., Jones, C. I., Kabakian, V. K. and Winnett, A. B., 2010. The Lebanese electricity system in the context of sustainable development. Energy Policy, 38 (2), pp. 751-761.

Cranston, G. R. and Hammond, G. P., 2010. Egalite, fraternite, sustainabilite:Evaluating the significance of regional affluence and population growth on carbon emissions. International Journal of Global Warming, 2 (3), pp. 189-210.

Brown, A. I., Hammond, G. P., Jones, C. I. and Rogers, F. J., 2009. Greening the UK building stock:Historic trends and low carbon futures 1970-2050. Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, 33 (1), pp. 89-104.

Dyer, C. H., Hammond, G. P., Jones, C. and Mckenna, R. C., 2008. Enabling technologies for industrial energy demand management. Energy Policy, 36 (12), pp. 4434-4443.

Allen, S. R., Hammond, G. P. and McManus, M. C., 2008. Energy analysis and environmental life cycle assessment of a micro-wind turbine. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 222 (7), pp. 669-684.

Hammond, G., McManus, M. and Mezzullo, W., 2008. A bioenergy resource assessment for the south west of England. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 161 (4), pp. 159-173.

Allen, S. R., Hammond, G. P. and McManus, M. C., 2008. Prospects for and barriers to domestic micro-generation:a United Kingdom perspective. Applied Energy, 85 (6), pp. 528-544.

Hammond, G. P. and Jones, C. I., 2008. Embodied energy and carbon in construction materials. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 161 (2), pp. 87-98.

Allen, S. R., Hammond, G. P., Harajli, H. A., Jones, C. I., McManus, M. C. and Winnett, A. B., 2008. Integrated appraisal of micro-generators:methods and applications. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Energy, 161 (2), pp. 73-86.

Hammond, G. P., Kallu, S. and McManus, M. C., 2008. Development of biofuels for the UK automotive market. Applied Energy, 85 (6), pp. 506-515.

Hammond, G. P. and Waldron, R., 2008. Risk assessment of UK electricity supply in a rapidly evolving energy sector. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 222 (7), pp. 623-642.

Burt, G. M., Hammond, G. P. and Infield, D., 2008. Special Issue on Highly Distributed Power Systems. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 222 (A7), I-III.

Ijomah, W. L., McMahon, C. A., Hammond, G. P. and Newman, S. T., 2007. Development of design for remanufacturing guidelines to support sustainable manufacturing. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 23 (6), pp. 712-719.

Eaton, R. L., Hammond, G. P. and Laurie, J., 2007. Footprints on the landscape: an environmental appraisal of urban and rural living in the developed world. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83 (1), pp. 13-28.

Hammond, G. P., 2007. Industrial energy analysis, thermodynamics and sustainability. Applied Energy, 84 (7-8), pp. 675-700.

Ijomah, W. L., McMahon, C. A., Hammond, G. P. and Newman, S. T., 2007. Development of robust design-for-remanufacturing guidelines to further the aims of sustainable development. International Journal of Production Research, 45 (18-19), pp. 4513-4536.

Hammond, G. P., 2007. Energy and sustainability in a complex world: Reflections on the ideas of Howard T. Odum. International Journal of Energy Research, 31 (12), pp. 1105-1130.

Grubbstrom, R. W., Hammond, G. P., Probert, S. D. and Reis, A., 2007. Industrial energy-analysis and management: A European perspective. Applied Energy, 84 Jul-Aug (7-8), pp. 671-673.

Hammond, G. P. and Akwe, S. S. O., 2007. Thermodynamic and related analysis of natural gas combined cycle power plants with and without carbon sequestration. International Journal of Energy Research, 31 (12), pp. 1180-1201.

Hammond, G., 2007. Time to give due weight to the 'carbon footprint' issue. Nature, 445 (7125), p. 256.

Hammond, G. P., 2006. 'People, planet and prosperity': The determinants of humanity's environmental footprint. Natural Resources Forum, 30 (1), pp. 27-36.

Hammond, G. and Winnett, A., 2006. Interdisciplinary perspectives on environmental appraisal and valuation techniques. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management, 159 (3), pp. 117-130.

Hammond, G. P., 2004. Engineering sustainability: Thermodynamics, energy systems, and the environment. International Journal of Energy Research, 28 (7), pp. 613-639.

Hawley, J. G., Wilson, M., Campbell, N. A. F., Hammond, G. P. and Leathard, M. J., 2004. Predicting boiling heat transfer using computational fluid dynamics. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 218 (5), pp. 509-520.

Hammond, G. P., 2004. Science, sustainability and the establishment in a technological age. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 29 (2), pp. 193-208.

Doughty, M. R. C. and Hammond, G. P., 2004. Sustainability and the built environment at and beyond the city scale. Building and Environment, 39 (10), pp. 1223-1233.

Hammond, G. P., 2004. Towards sustainability: Energy efficiency, thermodynamic analysis, and the 'two cultures'. Energy Policy, 32 (16), pp. 1789-1798.

McManus, M. C., Hammond, G. P. and Burrows, C. R., 2003. Life-cycle assessment of mineral and rapeseed oil in mobile hydraulic systems. The Journal of Industrial Ecology, 7 (3-4), pp. 163-177.

Robinson, K., Hawley, J. G., Hammond, G. P. and Owen, N. J., 2003. Convective coolant heat transfer in internal combustion engines. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 217 (2), pp. 133-146.

Hammond, G. P., 2002. Towards sustainability: Putting science and technology in their place. 'Save British Science' Newsletter

Hammond, G. P., 2002. Open up about scientific bias. The Times Higher Education Supplement

Hammond, G. P. and Stapleton, A. J., 2002. Energy analysis of the United Kingdom energy system. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 216 (A2), pp. 215-217.

Cruz, J. M. S., Hammond, G. P. and Reis, A., 2002. Thermal performance of a trapezoidal-shaped solar collector/energy store. Applied Energy, 73 (2), pp. 195-212.

Hammond, G. P. and Stapleton, A. J., 2001. Exergy analysis of the United Kingdom energy system. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 215 (2), pp. 141-162.

Hammond, G. P., 2001. Thermal performance of advanced glazing systems. Journal of the Institute of Energy, 74 (498), pp. 2-10.

Hammond, G. P., 2000. Energy, environment and sustainable development: a UK perspective. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 78 (4), pp. 304-323.

Reports/Papers

Barton, J., Davies, L., Foxon, T.J., Galloway, S., Hammond, G., O'Grady, Á., Robertson, E. and Thomson, M., 2013. Transition pathways for a UK low carbon electricity system:Comparing scenarios and technology implications. Working Paper. (Realising Transition Pathways)

Hammond, G. and O'Grady, Á., 2013. The Implications of Upstream Emissions from the Power Sector. Working Paper. (Realising Transition Pathways)

Burrows, C. R., Hammond, G. P. and McManus, M. C., 1999. Non-Food Crops; Call for Evidence; Submission to the Select Committee on Science and Technology Sub-Committee. Unkown Publisher.

Conference or Workshop Items

Cooper, S., Hammond, G. and Norman, J., 2017. An empirical assessment of sector level exergy analysis. In: 9th International Conference on Applied Energy, 2017-08-21 - 2017-08-24.

Cooper, S., Norman, J. and Hammond, G., 2017. Energy versus exergy: An empirical analysis of thermodynamic metrics at the macro scale. In: ISIE-ISSST 2017: Science in Support of Sustainable and Resilient Communities, 2017-06-25 - 2017-06-29.

Cooper, S., Hammond, G., Norman, J. and Kamruzzaman, M., 2017. Scope for the circular economy to affect GHG and employment embodied in trade. In: Sustainable lifestyles, livelihoods and the circular economy, 2017-06-27 - 2017-06-29, University of Sussex.

Norman, J., Cabrera Serrenho, A., Allwood, J. and Hammond, G., 2015. Connecting material stocks to services: The example of steel use in UK vehicles. In: ISIE Conference 2015 - Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, 2015-07-07 - 2015-07-10, UK.

Baruah, P., Eyre, N., Norman, J., Griffin, P. and Hammond, G., 2014. Firm-level Perspective of Energy Efficiency Barriers and Drivers in UK Industry – Indications from an Online Survey. In: Behave Energy Conference, 2014-09-03 - 2014-09-04, Said Business School, University of Oxford.

Cooper, S., Hammond, G., McManus, M. and Pudjianto, D., 2014. Impact of widespread adoption of heat pumps on peak demand for electricity, net of wind generation. In: Energy Systems Conference, 2014-06-24 - 2014-06-25, QEII Conference Centre.

Cooper, S., Evangelou, A. and Hammond, G., 2014. Indicative Energy Technology Assessment of NGCC Power Plants with CCS UK Perspective. In: 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICETET'2014), 2014-05-30 - 2014-05-31, London.

Cooper, S., Hammond, G. and Norman, J., 2014. Potential for use of heat rejected from industry in district heating networks, UK perspective. In: Energy Systems Conference, 2014-06-24 - 2014-06-25, QEII Conference Centre.

Cooper, S. J. G., Hammond, G. and McManus, M., 2013. Performance implications of heat pumps and micro-cogenerators participating in demand side management. In: 3rd International Conference in Microgeneration and Related Technologies in Buildings: Microgen 3, 2013-04-15 - 2013-04-17.

Rogers, J., Cooper, S., Hammond, G. and McManus, M., 2013. Use of micro CHP plants to support the local operation of electric heat pumps. In: 3rd International Conference in Microgeneration and Related Technologies in Buildings: Microgen 3, 2013-04-15 - 2013-04-17.

Hammond, G. and Norman, J., 2012. Heat recovery opportunities in UK manufacturing. In: International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2012), 2012-07-05 - 2012-07-08.

Norman, J. and Hammond, G., 2011. Industrial Energy Use from a Bottom-Up Perspective. In: Sustainable Thermal Energy Management in the Process Industries International Conference (SusTEM2011), 2011-10-25 - 2011-10-26, UK.

Hammond, G.P. and Titley, A., 2011. Micro-generators:The prospects for combined heat and power systems on a domestic scale. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2011, 2011-07-04 - 2011-07-07.

Griffin, P., Hammond, G.P., Ng, K.R. and Norman, J., 2011. The Impact of UK government industrial energy efficiency research, development and demonstration programmes. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, ECOS 2011, 2011-07-04 - 2011-07-07.

Cooper, S., Hammond, G. and McManus, M., 2011. Thermodynamic analysis of efficient domestic heating systems. In: 2nd International Conference on Microgeneration and Related Technologies, 2011-04-04 - 2011-04-06.

Hammond, G. and Norman, J., 2010. Decomposing Changes in the Energy Demand of UK Manufacturing. In: Favrat, D. and Marechal, F., eds. 23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy (ECOS2010), 2010-06-14 - 2010-06-17, EPFL.

Hammond, G., McKenna, R. and Norman, J., 2009. Thermodynamic analysis of the UK industrial sector. In: 5th European Conference on Economics and Management of Energy in Industry (ECEMEI-5), 2009-04-14 - 2009-04-17.

Adams, P. W., Hammond, G., McManus, M. and Mezzullo, W., 2008. Barriers to UK bioenergy development: experiences from the South West of England. In: Biomass and Energy Crops III (Association of Applied Biologists), 2008-12-10 - 2008-12-12.

Foxton, T. J., Hammond, G. and Pearson, P. J., 2008. Transition pathways for a low carbon energy system in the UK: assessing the compatibility of large-scale and small-scale options. In: 7th BIEE Academic Conference, 2008-09-24 - 2008-09-25.

Liang, H., Mullineux, G. and Hammond, G., 2008. A Constraint-based Approach to Sustainable Design and Development. In: Roosimolder, L., ed. 7th NordDesign Conference 2008, 2008-08-21 - 2008-08-23.

Dyer, C. H., Hammond, G. and McKenna, R. C., 2008. Engineering sustainability: energy efficiency, thermodynamic analysis and the industrial sector. In: International Conference on Engineering Sustainability, 2008-10-31 - 2008-11-02.

Allen, S., Hammond, G., Harajli, H., Jones, C., McManus, M. and Winnett, A., 2008. Integrated appraisal of micro-generators: methods and applications. In: First International Conference and Workshop on Micro-Cogeneration Technologies and Applications, 2008-04-29 - 2008-05-01.

Ijomah, W., McMahon, C. A., Hammond, G. P. and Newman, S. T., 2007. Development of a robust Remanufacturing definition. In: 17th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, 2007-06-18 - 2007-06-20.

Allen, S. R., Hammond, G. P. and McManus, M. C., 2007. Prospects and barriers to micro-generation: a United Kingdom perspective. In: 3rd International Green Energy Conference' (IGEC-III), 2007-06-18 - 2007-06-20.

Hammond, G. P., Kallu, S. and McManus, M. C., 2007. The Development of Biofuels for the UK Automotive Market. In: Proc. '3rd International Green Energy Conference' (IGEC-III), 2007-06-18 - 2007-06-20.

Hammond, G. P., 2002. Sustainable energy technologies for the 21st century: Engineering challenges and market opportunities.

Hammond, G. P., 2001. Engeneering sustainability: energy systems, heat transfer processes and thermodynamic analysis. In: 7th UK National Heat Transfer Conference, 2001-09-01.

McManus, M. C., Hammond, G. P. and Burrows, C. R., 2000. Life Cycle Assessment of Alternative Hydraulic Fluids for Municipal Cleaning Equipment. In: Proceedings of the National Fluid Power Association International Exposition for Power Transmission, 2000-01-01.

McManus, M. C., Hammond, G. P. and Burrows, C. R., 2000. Life Cycle Assessment, Data Quality and Sensitivity Analysis: The case of Mobile Fluid Power Systems. In: International Conference of Life Cycle Assessment, 2000-01-01.

Burrows, C. R., Hammond, G. P. and McManus, M. C., 1999. Life Cycle Assessment of Mobile Hydraulic Systems. In: IMechE Seminar, 1999-11-04.

Burrows, C. R., Hammond, G. P. and McManus, M. C., 1999. Life Cycle Assessment of Some Mobile Hydraulic Systems. In: The Sixth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP '99, 1999-05-26 - 1999-05-28.

Burrows, C. R., Hammond, G. P. and McManus, M. C., 1998. Life-Cycle Assessment of Oil Hydraulic Systems for Environmentally Sensitive Applications. In: ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 1998-11-15 - 1998-11-20.

This list was generated on Fri Oct 20 19:20:10 2017 IST.