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Press Release - 20 September 2005

Needle-free injections trigger a positive response amongst diabetes researchers

New devices that can deliver drugs into the body without using a needle could help improve the success of treatments for type 1 diabetes, according to researchers involved in clinical trials of a new vaccine for the disease.

The vaccine, being developed by researchers at the University of Bristol and King’s College, London, works by stimulating the production of protective immune cells that help restore the body’s insulin-producing system.

However, the needle used to get the vaccine into the body causes damage to the skin and can trigger an aggressive immune response that undoes some of the positive effects of the vaccination.

New technologies being developed at the University of Bath could one day allow doctors to deliver vaccines and other treatments into the body without having to use a needle. This would avoid triggering an aggressive immune response by the body during vaccine treatments.

Devices being looked into by the University of Bath researchers include special patches which use a small electric current to ‘pump’ medication across the skin, and other systems which use a series of micro needles to deliver drugs through the upper-most layer of the skin.

“There’s a lot of work going on to develop minimally invasive technologies that make very small holes or perforations in the skin through which you can deliver not only the small molecules like the ones that are contained in patch treatments today, but also big molecules, like proteins, bits of gene, DNA, or vaccines,” said Professor Richard Guy, Head of Pharmaceutics at the University of Bath.

“The technology provokes small imperfections in the skin through which a drug can be delivered transiently, and then the skin will effectively re-seal itself and heal itself”

Professor Colin Dayan, Head of clinical research for neurosciences and endocrinology at the University of Bristol, said: “There are a lot of cells just under the skin which are part of the immune system and if we can deliver something to those cells in a way that is not irritant it is likely that we will get protective immune responses rather than aggressive immune responses.

“This is very important because we don’t want to turn on the immune system, and in recent years it has become clear that one of the things that aggravates the immune system is damage. So damage to the skin and the presence of bacteria, certainly aggravate the immune system and make it respond in a way that is destructive”.

Details of both areas of research are given on the website of Research-TV through an initiative supported by the South West Regional Development Agency which promotes the region’s science abroad.

Notes

The Research-TV film is one of a series aimed at highlighting groundbreaking research or new discoveries. The project is part of Video-SW, an initiative funded by the European Commission via the South West Regional Development Agency's Inspire Fund. The project involves all 14 higher education institutions in the SW and is co-ordinated by HERDA-SW.


The University of Bath is one of the UK's leading universities, with an international reputation for quality research and teaching. View a full list of the University's press releases: http://www.bath.ac.uk/news/