Department of Psychology

Dr Michael Proulx

An experimental psychologist with expertise in blindness, neural plasticity, cognition, interactive technology, and comparative cognition


Reader in PsychologyBSc, MA, PhD

10W 2.27
Tel: +44 (0) 1225 385963

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How Blind People See the World

Michael Proulx has been researching new technology that will help blind and visually impaired people participate more fully in the visual world.


Michael J Proulx is a Reader in the Department of Psychology at the University of Bath, and a Fellow of the American Psychological Association. He leads the Crossmodal Cognition Laboratory, and is a member of the Engaging with Interactive Technology group and also affiliated with the Cognition, Affective Science and Technology Labs (CASTL) and the CREATE group. Michael is the lead psychological investigator on an EPSRC-funded project, Design Patterns for Inclusive Collaboration (DePIC).

Michael investigates fundamental issues in cognition (attention, perception, learning and memory) through the study of multiple sensory modalities. He takes a converging methods approach to best understand the psychological and neural underpinnings of cognition in humans, the impact of visual impairment, and, with interdisciplinary collaborative comparative studies, in zebrafish, bees, and non-human primates.

He also collaborates extensively with electronic engineers and computer scientists to develop applications of his basic research.


Book Sections

Scheller, M., Petrini, K. and Proulx, M., 2017. Forthcoming. Perception and Interactive Technology. In: The Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. .

Proulx, M., 2013. Visual Search. In: Pashler, H., ed. Encyclopedia of the Mind.Vol. 2. Thousand Oaks, U. S. A.: Sage, pp. 762-765.

Mirza, S.N.H., Izquierdo, E. and Proulx, M., 2011. Gaze movement inference for user adapted image annotation and retrieval. In: MM'11 - Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Multimedia Conference and Co-Located Workshops - ACM Workshop on Social Behavioural Networked Media Access 2011, SBNMA'11. , pp. 27-32.


Jonas, C., Spiller, M. J., Hibbard, P. B. and Proulx, M., 2017. Introduction to the Special Issue on Individual Differences in Multisensory Perception: An Overview. Multisensory Research, 30 (6), pp. 461-466.

Karim, A. K. M. R., Proulx, M. J., de Sousa, A. A., Karmaker, C., Rahman, A., Karim, F. and Nigar, N., 2017. The right way to kiss:directionality bias in head-turning during kissing. Scientific Reports, 7, 5398.

Esenkaya, T. and Proulx, M. J., 2017. Crossmodal processing and sensory substitution:is “seeing” with sound and touch a form of perception or cognition? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, e241.

Karim, A. K. M. R., Proulx, M. J. and Likova, L. T., 2016. Anticlockwise or clockwise?:a dynamic perception-action-laterality model for directionality bias in visuospatial functioning. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 68.

Brown, D. J. and Proulx, M. J., 2016. Audio-vision substitution for blind individuals:Addressing Human Information Processing Capacity Limitations. IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 10 (5), 7445819.

Proulx, M. J., Todorov, O. S., Taylor Aiken, A. and de Sousa, A. A., 2016. Where am I? Who am I? The Relation Between Spatial Cognition, Social Cognition and Individual Differences in the Built Environment. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, p. 64.

Proulx, M. J., Gwinnutt, J., Dell'Erba, S., Levy-Tzedek, S., de Sousa, A. A. and Brown, D. J., 2015. Other ways of seeing:from behavior to neural mechanisms in the online "visual" control of action with sensory substitution. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 34 (1), pp. 29-44.

Brown, D. J., Simpson, A. J. R. and Proulx, M. J., 2015. Auditory scene analysis and sonified visual images. Does consonance negatively impact on object formation when using complex sonified stimuli? Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1522.

Pasqualotto, A., Kobanbay, B. and Proulx, M. J., 2015. Neural Stimulation Has a Long-Term Effect on Foreign Vocabulary Acquisition. Neural Plasticity, 2015, p. 671705.

Proulx, M. J. and Elmasry, H.-M., 2015. Stroop interference in adults with dyslexia. Neurocase : The Neural Basis of Cognition, 21 (4), pp. 413-417.

Pasqualotto, A. and Proulx, M. J., 2015. Two-dimensional rubber-hand illusion:The Dorian Gray hand illusion. Multisensory Research, 28 (1-2), pp. 101-110.

de Sousa, A. A. and Proulx, M. J., 2014. What can volumes reveal about human brain evolution?:A framework for bridging behavioral, histometric, and volumetric perspectives. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 8, p. 51.

Proulx, M. J., 2014. The perception of shape from shading in a new light. PeerJ, 2, e363.

Proulx, M. J., Ptito, M. and Amedi, A., 2014. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 41, pp. 1-2.

Proulx, M. J., Brown, D. J., Pasqualotto, A. and Meijer, P., 2014. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 41, pp. 16-25.

Pasqualotto, A., Taya, S. and Proulx, M. J., 2014. Sensory deprivation:Visual experience alters the mental number line. Behavioural Brain Research, 261, pp. 110-113.

Pasqualotto, A. and Proulx, M. J., 2014. Mechanisms of short-term false memory formation. The Journal of Neurobehavioral Sciences, 1 (1), pp. 3-8.

Brown, D., Simpson, A. J. R. and Proulx, M. J., 2014. Visual objects in the auditory system in sensory substitution:How much information do we need? Multisensory Research, 27 (5-6), pp. 337-357.

Proulx, M. J., Parker, M. O., Tahir, Y. and Brennan, C. H., 2014. Parallel mechanisms for visual search in zebrafish. PLoS ONE, 9 (10), e111540.

Wang, M.-Y., Ings, T. C., Proulx, M. J. and Chittka, L., 2013. Can bees simultaneously engage in adaptive foraging behaviour and attend to cryptic predators? Animal Behaviour, 86 (4), pp. 859-866.

Pasqualotto, A. and Proulx, M. J., 2013. The study of blindness and technology can reveal the mechanisms of three-dimensional navigation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36 (5), pp. 559-560.

Haigh, A., Brown, D. J., Meijer, P. and Proulx, M. J., 2013. How well do you see what you hear?:The acuity of visual-to-auditory sensory substitution. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 330.

Proulx, M., 2013. Introducing the process and content of research into lectures, the laboratory, and study time. College Teaching, 61 (3), pp. 85-87.

Pasqualotto, A., Lam, J. S. Y. and Proulx, M. J., 2013. Congenital blindness improves semantic and episodic memory. Behavioural Brain Research, 244, pp. 162-165.

Pasqualotto, A., Spiller, M. J., Jansari, A. S. and Proulx, M. J., 2013. Visual experience facilitates allocentric spatial representation. Behavioural Brain Research, 236, pp. 175-179.

Proulx, M., 2013. Blindness:Remapping the brain and the restoration of vision. The Psychological Science

Brown, D. J. and Proulx, M. J., 2013. Increased signal complexity improves the breadth of generalization in auditory perceptual learning. Neural Plasticity, 2013, 879047.

Hajimirza, S. N., Proulx, M. J. and Izquierdo, E., 2012. Reading users' minds from their eyes: a method for implicit image annotation. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 14 (3), pp. 805-815.

Pasqualotto, A. and Proulx, M. J., 2012. The role of visual experience for the neural basis of spatial cognition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36 (4), pp. 1179-1187.

Proulx, M. J. and Green, M., 2011. Does apparent size capture attention in visual search? Evidence from the Müller-Lyer illusion. Journal of Vision, 11 (13), 21.

Proulx, M. J., 2011. Individual differences and metacognitive knowledge of visual search strategy. PLoS ONE, 6 (10), e27043.

Proulx, M. J., 2011. Consciousness:What, how, and why. Science, 332 (6033), pp. 1034-1035.

Proulx, M. J., 2010. Size matters:large objects capture attention in visual search. PLoS ONE, 5 (12), e15293.

Proulx, M. J., 2010. Synthetic synaesthesia and sensory substitution. Consciousness and Cognition, 19 (1), pp. 501-503.

Zehetleitner, M., Proulx, M. J. and Muller, H. J., 2009. Additional-singleton interference in efficient visual search: a common salience route for detection and compound tasks. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71 (8), pp. 1760-1770.

Liang, M., Van Leeuwen, T. M. and Proulx, M. J., 2008. Propagation of brain activity during audiovisual integration. Journal of Neuroscience, 28 (36), pp. 8861-8862.

Proulx, M. J., Stoerig, P., Ludowig, E. and Knoll, I., 2008. Seeing ‘where’ through the ears:effects of learning-by-doing and long-term sensory deprivation on localization based on image-to-sound substitution. PLoS ONE, 3 (3), e1840.

Homa, D., Proulx, M. J. and Blair, M., 2008. The modulating influence of category size on the classification of exception patterns. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61 (3), pp. 425-443.

Proulx, M. J. and Egeth, H. E., 2008. Biased competition and visual search: the role of luminance and size contrast. Psychological Research, 72 (1), pp. 106-113.

Proulx, M. J. and Harder, A., 2008. Sensory substitution:Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution devices for the blind. Tijdschrift voor Ergonomie, 33, pp. 20-22.

Proulx, M. J., 2007. Turning on the spotlight:do attention and luminance contrast affect neuronal responses in the same way? Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (48), pp. 13043-13044.

Proulx, M. J., 2007. Bottom-up guidance in visual search for conjunctions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33 (1), pp. 48-56.

Proulx, M. J. and Serences, J. T., 2006. Searching for an oddball:neural correlates of singleton detection mode in parietal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 26 (49), pp. 12631-12632.

Proulx, M. J. and Egeth, H. E., 2006. Target-nontarget similarity modulates stimulus-driven control in visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13 (3), pp. 524-529.

Proulx, M. J. and Stoerig, P., 2006. Seeing sounds and tingling tongues:qualia in synaesthesia and sensory substitution. Anthropology & Philosophy: International Multidisciplinary Journal

Conference or Workshop Items

Finnegan, D., O'Neill, E. and Proulx, M., 2017. An Approach to Reducing Distance Compression in Audiovisual Virtual Environments. IEEE.

Scheller, M., Proulx, M. and Petrini, K., 2017. Forthcoming. Development of non-visual multisensory integration in sighted and non-sighted individuals. In: European Conference on Visual Perception, 2017, 2017-08-27.

Jicol, C., Esenkaya, T., Proulx, M., O'Neill, E. and Petrini, K., 2017. Forthcoming. Multisensory Integration of object sonification and self-motion cues for navigation in darkness. In: European Conference on Visual Perception, 2017, 2017-08-27.

Finnegan, D., O'Neill, E. and Proulx, M., 2016. Compensating for Distance Compression in Audiovisual Virtual Environments Using Incongruence. In: SIGCHI Conference in Human Factors in Computing Systems 2016, 2016-05-07.

Jicol, C., Proulx, M., Pollick, F. and Petrini, K., 2016. Musical training modulates brain recalibration of audiovisual simultaneity. In: 9th European Conference on Visual Perception (ECVP), 2016, 2016-08-28 - 2016-09-01.

Non-academic press

Brown, D. and Proulx, M., 2015. Camera, mobile, headphones:the low-cost set up that can help blind people ‘see’. The Conversation

This list was generated on Wed Oct 18 12:31:18 2017 IST.

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