Dr Darrell Alec Patterson
Room: 9 West 2.07
Tel: +44 (0) 1225 386088
Research groups and Centres
Interested in supervising students studying;
- Membrane enhanced systems: tuneable membrane reactors and membrane fractionation cascades for product synthesis and isolation.
- Thin film catalytic reaction and reactor engineering: thin film spinning disc and heterogeneous mesh photoreactors.
- Enhanced advanced oxidation of biorecalcitrant wastewaters (esp. photocatalysis)
- Immobilized enzyme reaction and reactor systems: spinning cloth reactors for enhanced enzymatic biodiesel synthesis.
BE(C&M) Hons, Postgrad(ACADPRAC), DIC, PhD, AMIChemE
Dr Darrell Alec Patterson is a Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) and the Director of Research in Chemical Engineering. Darrell leads the Bath Process Intensification Laboratory and the University of Bath Membrane Science and Engineering Research Cluster, Membranes@Bath. He is also a member of the Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies.
Darrell's research is in the area of Sustainable Chemical Technologies, with a focus on Process Intensification in Separation and Reaction Engineering. His expertise is in three main areas:
- Membrane Science and Engineering.
- Wastewater Treatment Technologies.
- Catalysis and Reactor Engineering.
Darrell completed his Bachelor of Engineering with First Class Honours (UK first class MEng equivalent) in Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Auckland. He received his PhD in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at Imperial College London, in 2001. He completed a Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice from the University of Auckland in 2009.
He worked as a Technology Development Consultant for Atkins Water between 2001 until 2003. He then went on to Imperial College as a postdoctoral research associate developing novel methods of enhancing solvent based pharmaceutical reactions through integration with solvent resistant membranes.
He returned to the University of Auckland in 2005 where he worked as a Lecturer and then Senior Lecturer in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, before joining the University of Bath in 2011.
Within the three main research areas above, Darrell’s main focus is on the synthesis, fundamental characterization and application of membranes and catalysts (in particular the use of nanostructured and tuneable materials for these) and their combination in novel reactor and membrane separation technologies for environment and sustainable applications.
Expertise and projects include:
1. Membrane Science and Engineering:
- Tuneable membranes and membrane reactors: primarily focused on applications of conducting polymers as the next generation of membrane materials.
- Polymer nanofiltration and mixed matrix membranes: for currently unachievable and unconventional separations (e.g. in organic solvent and acidic or basic environments; protein isolation; wine fining).
- Membrane fractionation cascades: for product synthesis and isolation (focussing on pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds from plants).
- New membrane characterizations: Wet and in-use imaging of membranes using DIC microscopy, nanoindentation and ESEM.
2. Wastewater treatment technologies:
- Photocatalysis: nanostructured thin film ZnO and TiO2 photocatalysts.
- Photocatalytic process intensification: Spinning disc and mesh photoreactors for enhanced reaction rate.
- Wastewater treatment: pharmaceutical and endocrine disrupting pollutants.
- Recycle and reuse of wastes into value-added products: sea shell waste conversion into value-added biomedical, catalytic and adsorbent materials.
3. Catalysis and Reactor Engineering:
- Process intensification: spinning disc, spinning cloth disc and spinning mesh reactors for thin film and enzyme reaction enhancement.
- Homogeneous catalytic reactors: membrane reactors for pharma and fine chemical applications.
- Heterogeneous catalytic reactors: Nanostructured catalyst synthesis, characterisation and application, thin film catalytic reaction and reactor engineering.
- Flow Biocatalysis: Immobilized enzyme reaction and reactor systems.
Darrell has supervised research students from around the world, including students from: Malaysia (Ministry of Higher Education [MOHE] and Majlis Amanah Rakyat [MARA] funded), the People's Republic of China (CSC Scholarship funded), Pakistan (Higher Education Commission [HEC] funded), India, France, Germany, New Zealand and the UK. Master and PhD applications from students with a first or high second class degrees are always welcome – please email me.
Darrell has also worked with a number of different companies, advising on or applying his research and research expertise. New collaborations and partnerships are always welcome. Companies include:
- Lanzatech New Zealand Ltd.
- Pernod Ricard New Zealand Ltd on the ‘Mixed matrix membranes for wine fining’.
- AgResearch, New Zealand (formerly Canesis Network), on ‘Development and optimisation of techniques for the immobilisation of enzymes on wool’.
- B.W. Murdoch Limited, New Zealand, on ‘Electrochemically Enhanced Cleaning-In-Place of Milk Fouling in Plate Heat Exchangers’.
Darrell has good links with a number of Universities around the world, including: The University of Auckland (New Zealand), Imperial College London (UK), University of Leuven (Belgium), RWTH Aachen (Germany) and Monash University (Australia). New collaborations and partnerships are again always welcome.
2011: Highly Commended awarding in the IChemE Sir Frederick Warner Prize
2009: Early Career Research Excellence Award (University of Auckland)
2008: Early Career Excellence in Teaching Award (Faculty of Engineering, University of Auckland).
CE10078: Physical Chemistry (Unit Manager)
CE10167: Chemical Engineering Principles
CE20089: Transport Phenomena 2
CE20094: Management 1
CE30123: Intermediate Design Project
CE30122: MEng Research Projects
CE30115: Industrial Placement
Patterson, D. and Scott, J. L., 2014. General concepts in sustainable chemical processes. In: Patterson, D., Scott, J. and Letcher, T., eds. Chemical Processes for a Sustainable Future. London, U. K.: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Leak, D., Davey, C. and Patterson, D., 2016. Hybrid and mixed matrix membranes for separations from fermentations. Membranes, 6 (1), 17.
Nunes-Pereira, J., Ribeiro, S., Ribeiro, C., Gombek, C. J., Gama, F.M., Gomes, A.C., Patterson, D. and Lanceros-Méndez, S., 2015. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) and copolymers as porous membranes for tissue engineering applications. Polymer Testing, 44, pp. 234-241.
Feng, X., Patterson, D.A., Balaban, M. and Emanuelsson, E., 2014. Increasing reaction rate and conversion in the spinning cloth disc reactor:Investigating the effect of using multiple enzyme immobilized cloths. Chemical Engineering Journal, 255, pp. 356-364.
An, J. D., Patterson, D. A., McNeil, S. and Hossain, M. M., 2014. Immobilization of lipase on woolen fabrics:enhanced effectiveness in stain removal. Biotechnology Progress, 30 (4), pp. 806-817.
Feng, X., Patterson, D. A., Balaban, M. and Emanuelsson, E. A. C., 2014. Characterization of liquid flow in the spinning cloth disc reactor:residence time distribution, visual study and modeling. Chemical Engineering Journal, 235, pp. 356-367.
Feng, X., Patterson, D.A., Balaban, M. and Emanuelsson, E. A. C., 2013. Characterization of tributyrin hydrolysis by immobilized lipase on woolen cloth using conventional batch and novel spinning cloth disc reactors. Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 91 (9), pp. 1684-1692.
Shariffuddin, J. H., Jones, M. I. and Patterson, D. A., 2013. Greener photocatalysts:Hydroxyapatite derived from waste mussel shells for the photocatalytic degradation of a model azo dye wastewater. Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 91 (9), pp. 1693-1704.
Boiarkina, I., Norris, S. and Patterson, D., 2013. The case for the photocatalytic spinning disc reactor as a process intensification technology:Comparison to an annular reactor for the degradation of methylene blue. Chemical Engineering Journal, 225, pp. 752-765.
Boiarkine, I., Norris, S. and Patterson, D., 2013. Investigation of the effect of flow structure on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and dehydroabietic acid in a spinning disc reactor. Chemical Engineering Journal, 222, pp. 159-171.
Feng, X., Patterson, D.A., Balaban, M. and Emanuelsson, E. A. C., 2013. Enabling the utilization of wool as an enzyme support:Enhancing the activity and stability of lipase immobilized onto woolen cloth. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 102, pp. 526-533.
Feng, X., Patterson, D. A., Balaban, M., Fauconnier, G. and Emanuelsson, E. A. C., 2013. The spinning cloth disc reactor for immobilized enzymes:A new process intensification technology for enzymatic reactions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 221, pp. 407-417.
Tran, A. T. T., Patterson, D. A. and James, B. J., 2012. Investigating the feasibility of using polysulfone-montmorillonite composite membranes for protein adsorption. Journal of Food Engineering, 112 (1-2), pp. 38-49.
Qaiser, A. A., Hyland, M. M. and Patterson, D. A., 2012. Effects of various polymerization techniques on PANI deposition at the surface of cellulose ester microporous membranes: XPS and electrical conductivity studies. Synthetic Metals, 162 (11-12), pp. 958-967.
Patterson, D. and Krohn, K., 2012. Determining wetted membrane microstructures using ESEM and DIC microscopy and their implications to membrane performance. Procedia Engineering, 44, pp. 1491-1493.
Patterson, D., Bowstead, M., Tran, A. and James, B. J., 2012. Towards continuous wine making:The optimization of mixed matrix membranes for wine fining. Procedia Engineering, 44, pp. 131-132.
Qaiser, A. A., Hyland, M. M. and Patterson, D. A., 2011. Membrane potential and impedance studies of polyaniline composite membranes: effects of membrane morphology. Journal of Membrane Science, 385-386, pp. 67-75.
Boiarkina, I., Pedron, S. and Patterson, D. A., 2011. An experimental and modelling investigation of the effect of the flow regime on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on a thin film coated ultraviolet irradiated spinning disc reactor. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 110 (2), pp. 14-24.
Rohani, R., Hyland, M. and Patterson, D. A., 2011. A refined one-filtration method for aqueous based nanofiltration and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off determination using polyethylene glycols. Journal of Membrane Science, 382 (1-2), pp. 278-290.
Ali, A. M., Emanuelsson, E. A. C. and Patterson, D. A., 2011. Conventional versus lattice photocatalysed reactions: Implications of the lattice oxygen participation in the liquid phase photocatalytic oxidation with nanostructured ZnO thin films on reaction products and mechanism at both 254nm and 340nm. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 106 (3-4), pp. 323-336.
Patterson, D. A., 2011. Impact of a multimedia laboratory manual: Investigating the influence of student learning styles on laboratory preparation and performance over one semester. Education for Chemical Engineers, 6 (1), e10-e30.
Jones, M. I., Barakat, H. and Patterson, D. A., 2011. Production of hydroxyapatite from waste mussel shells. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 18 (19), 192002.
Abeynaike, A., Wang, L., Jones, M. I. and Patterson, D. A., 2011. Pyrolysed powdered mussel shells for eutrophication control: effect of particle size and powder concentration on the mechanism and extent of phosphate removal. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering, 6 (2), pp. 231-243.
Qaiser, A. A., Hyland, M. M. and Patterson, D. A., 2011. Surface and Charge Transport Characterization of Polyaniline−Cellulose Acetate Composite Membranes. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 115 (7), pp. 1652-1661.
Jones, M. I., Wang, L. Y., Abeynaike, A. and Patterson, D. A., 2011. Utilisation of waste material for environmental applications: calcination of mussel shells for waste water treatment. Advances in Applied Ceramics, 110 (5), pp. 280-286.
Ali, A. M., Emanuelsson, E. A. C. and Patterson, D. A., 2010. Photocatalysis with nanostructured zinc oxide thin films: the relationship between morphology and photocatalytic activity under oxygen limited and oxygen rich conditions and evidence for a Mars Van Krevelen mechanism. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 97 (1-2), pp. 168-181.
Zou, C. W., Rao, Y. F., Alyamani, A., Chu, W., Chen, M. J., Patterson, D. A., Emanuelsson, E. A. C. and Gao, W., 2010. Heterogeneous lollipop-like V2O5/ZnO array: A promising composite nanostructure for visible light photocatalysis. Langmuir, 26 (14), pp. 11615-11620.
Zou, C. W., Yan, X. D., Patterson, D. A., Emanuelsson, E. A. C., Bian, J. M. and Gao, W., 2010. Temperature sensitive crystallization of V2O5: from amorphous film to β-V2O5nanorods. CrystEngComm, 12 (3), pp. 691-693.
McFarlane, C. J., Emanuelsson, E. A. C., Ali, A. M., Gao, W. and Patterson, D. A., 2010. Understanding the rate, mechanism and reuseability of zinc oxide nanostructured films as photocatalysts for industrial tastewater treatment. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2 (2), pp. 63-79.
Patterson, D. A., Havill, A., Costello, S., See-Toh, Y. H., Livingston, A. G. and Turner, A., 2009. Membrane characterisation by SEM, TEM and ESEM: the implications of dry and wetted microstructure on mass transfer through integrally skinned polyimide nanofiltration membranes. Separation and Purification Technology, 66 (1), pp. 90-97.
Qaiser, A. A., Hyland, M. M. and Patterson, D. A., 2009. Control of polyaniline deposition on microporous cellulose ester membranes by in situ chemical polymerization. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 113 (45), pp. 14986-14993.
Qaiser, A. A., Hyland, M. M. and Patterson, D. A., 2009. Polyaniline deposition site control on microporous mixed cellulose ester membranes:Surface and in-pore polymerization. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 4, 012009.
Patterson, D., Yenlau, L., Roengpithya, C., Gibbins, E. and Livingston, A., 2008. Membrane selectivity in the organic solvent nanofiltration of trialkylamine bases. Desalination, 218 (1-3), pp. 248-256.
Emanuelsson, E. A. C., Emanuelsson, M. A. E., Patterson, D. A., Castro, P. M. L. and Livingston, A. G., 2007. Microbiology for chemical engineers: from macro to micro scale. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2 (5), pp. 448-454.
Roengpithya, C., Patterson, D. A., Livingston, A. G., Taylor, P. C., Irwin, J. L. and Parrett, M. R., 2007. Towards a continuous dynamic kinetic resolution of 1-phenylethylamine using a membrane assisted, two vessel process. Chemical Communications, 33, pp. 3462-3463.
Roengpithya, C., Patterson, D. A., Taylor, P. C. and Livingston, A. G., 2006. Development of stable organic solvent nanofiltration membranes for membrane enhanced dynamic kinetic resolution. Desalination, 199 (1-3), pp. 195-197.
Roengpithya, C., Patterson, D. A., Gibbins, E. J., Taylor, P. C. and Livingston, A. G., 2006. Investigation of the Compatibility of Racemization and Kinetic Resolution for the Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of an Allylic Alcohol. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 45 (21), pp. 7101-7109.
Taylor, P. C., Livingston, A. G., Gibbins, E. J., Irwin, J. L., Muir, J. C., Patterson, D. A. and Roengpithya, C., 2005. An Improved Protocol for the Synthesis and Nanofiltration of Kim and Park’s Aminocyclopentadienyl Ruthenium Chloride Racemisation Catalyst. Synlett, 2005 (19), pp. 2993-2995.
Gibbons, E., Irwin, J., Livingston, A. G., Muir, J. C., Patterson, D., Roengpithya, C. and Taylor, P. C., 2005. Dynamic kinetic resolution of racemates using membrane-separated catalysts. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 229, U550.
Ghazali, N. F., Patterson, D. A. and Livingston, A. G., 2004. Elucidation of the mechanism of chiral selectivity in diastereomeric salt formation using organic solvent nanofiltration. Chemical Communications, 2004 (8), pp. 962-963.
Patterson, D., 2003. Determination of best available techniques:methods and case examples. Filtration, 3 (1), pp. 12-17.
Patterson, D. A., Metcalfe, I. S., Xiong, F. and Livingston, A. G., 2002. Biodegradability of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates subjected to wet air oxidation. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 77 (9), pp. 1039-1049.
Patterson, D. A., Metcalfe, I. S., Xiong, F. and Livingston, A. G., 2001. Wet Air Oxidation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate 1. Effect of Temperature and Pressure. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 40 (23), pp. 5507-5516.
Patterson, D. A., Metcalfe, I. S., Xiong, F. and Livingston, A. G., 2001. Wet Air Oxidation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate 2. Effect of pH. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 40 (23), pp. 5517-5525.
Conference or Workshop Items
Patterson, D., Davey, C. and Rohani, R., 2014. Membrane separations:from purifications, minimisation, reuse and recycling to process intensification. Cambridge, U. K.: Royal Society of Chemistry, pp. 467-497.