Mapping Groundwater Vulnerability and Hydrocarbon Contamination in a Semi-Arid of Northern Nigeria
This project aims to develop a conceptual framework to model groundwater vulnerability for semi-arid regions.
Groundwater Sustainable Management will be described by use of significant parameters from conceptual groundwater vulnerability models, components of DRASTIC Index model and GOD Index Model will be used to develop a new model for semi -arid. A new data for hydrogeological properties and sources of contamination within the kano region will be complied. The research aim and objectives are:
I. map the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater within Northern Nigeria.
II. An inventory of potential groundwater contaminants (hazards)sources in the areas,and assess their risk of groundwater contamination.
III. To assess the risk of groundwater contamination from selected hydrocarbon sources (petrol stations, pipeline and automobile [mechanic] garages)in the areas.
Hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater is great concern in the African such as Nigeria cities, little has been achieved in terms of scientific study in most parts of this semi-arid region sub-Saharan countries. This research project on mapping groundwater contamination in semi-arid regions will address the gaps within the literature and existing research base. Building on results and recommendations from the literature and known environmental problems (Ministry of the Environment Nigeria; personal communication), the following research questions will be addressed by this research: What are the spatial variations of intrinsic (natural) groundwater vulnerability in most urban parts of Nigeria?
i. What are the sources and nature of groundwater contamination within the study area?
ii. What are the physical and chemical environmental parameters that are significant as variables for a vulnerability assessment within the semi-arid region of Kano, Nigeria?
iii. What is the likelihood of groundwater contamination from selected hydrocarbons sources (petrol stations, automobile shops and depot storage tanks) in Kano?
Groundwater vulnerability assessment tools have been developed for use in Europe and North America under generally humid conditions, whereas the vulnerability of groundwater in arid and semi-arid remains is much less developed. With this research, the ability of existing commonly used frameworks such as DRASTIC and GOD are assessed, to model groundwater vulnerability within the semi–arid region of Kano Nigeria. Combined analysis of large-scale existing data sources on hydro-meteorological, environmental and anthropogenic factors will be used to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater resources in the city.
In particular, the capability of groundwater vulnerability models of DRASTIC and GOD Index models to evaluate the contributions of various environmental parameters (depth of water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, Topography, impact of vadose zone, hydraulic conductivity, and ground water conferment, overlying lithology, depth of water) to the protection of groundwater against contamination. The mapping was conducted within the framework of Geographical information systems. (Arc GIS 10.2).
Following a sequential exploratory mixed method approach, the research has two elements of collection, quantitative and qualitative data identifying Groundwater models from the literature. The ultimate aim of the two phases of the research is to develop a conceptual framework of Groundwater Vulnerability models with for semi-arid region. There is a close relationship between that areas with vulnerability and water quality. In order to check the reliability of the models creates water quality will be carried out to validate the results obtained.