New research published today (Wednesday 18 July 2018), involving researchers in our Department of Psychology, shows the significant role that drinking venues and alcohol brands play in marketing alcohol products to young people on social media.
The report highlights how the regulatory system for alcohol marketing (under the UK advertising Codes of Practice regulated by the Advertising Standards Authority) is struggling to keep up with the pace and nature of technological change and needs to be strengthened – taking particular account of marketing by venues as well as brands – to reflect the central role of social media activity in young people’s drinking occasions.
Social media alcohol marketing
The report, 'All night long: Social media marketing to young people by alcohol brands and venues’, from Bath psychologists with colleagues at the University of Birmingham and funded by the charity formed by the merger of Alcohol Research UK and Alcohol Concern, is the first piece of research to analyse online alcohol marketing aimed at young people in the UK by bars and clubs as well as by alcohol brands.
The recent expansion of social media use among under-25s has created unprecedented opportunities for the marketing of alcohol products, especially with the emergence of more interactive platforms.
The report finds that:
Alcohol brands were more popular on social media among younger (including those under the legal drinking age) participants, and less popular among older participants. A majority of under-18s followed social media marketing by alcohol brands, and a minority also followed bars and clubs despite being too young to enter such premises legally.
Respondents aged 18-25 were more likely to follow local venues on social media than major alcohol brands. They did so not only to plan drinking occasions but, in some cases, to document them. Images associating alcohol with social success, sexual attractiveness and intoxication were found to be more common in marketing by venues than brands.
Responsible drinking messages were completely absent from marketing by venues, and were only included in a tiny proportion (2%) of posts by brands.
All stages of a night out
Senior Lecturer from the Department of Psychology who authored the study, Dr Jeff Gavin, explained: "Social media marketing to young people is less visible than traditional offline promotions via print or broadcast media. It tends to be fleeting, temporary and ephemeral, yet it plays an important role in young people’s drinking nights out. It is involved at all stages of a night out, from the planning stage, to the night of the event itself, and then the period subsequent to the event.
"That social media marketing includes venues - especially events, as well as brands needs to be considered in any comprehensive review of existing regulations on digital marketing relating to alcohol in the UK."
Professor Isabelle Szmigin, from the University of Birmingham and co-author of the study, added: “We need to recognise that social media is markedly different to other forms of advertising, it is more focused in its targeting and more transient. The traditional form of reactive complaint process is no longer sufficient.”
Protecting young people
Dr Richard Piper, Chief Executive of the new charity formed by the merger of Alcohol Research UK and Alcohol Concern, said: “Social media marketing plays a significant role in reinforcing our problematic drinking culture. We need a more responsive and more effective regulatory system, that protects young people.
“The current regulatory system is not fit for purpose and we need a comprehensive review that fully addresses the significant challenges that digital marketing brings. In particular, the regulation of alcohol marketing must have statutory accountability.
“Alcohol marketing regulation should form part of the Government’s new national alcohol strategy, which we hope will reduce the significant harm caused by alcohol in the UK. We need a fully joined up approach to alcohol that’s fit for the digital age.”