
Academic Year:  2012/3 
Owning Department/School:  Department of Physics 
Credits:  6 
Level:  Masters UG & PG (FHEQ level 7) 
Period: 
Semester 2 
Assessment:  EX 100% 
Supplementary Assessment:  Reassessment not allowed 
Requisites:  Before taking this unit you must (take PH20017 or take PH20063) and take PH30030 and take PH30077 
Description:  Aims: The aim of this unit is to develop students' understanding of the fundamental physics underlying both linear and nonlinear interactions of light with matter. A further aim is to describe how these interactions may be manipulated and enhanced by means of periodically patterned and microstructured optical waveguides. Learning Outcomes: After taking this unit the student should be able to: * discuss the properties of waveguide modes as solutions to the scalar wave equation; * describe in detail the properties of coupled waveguides and waveguide transitions; * explain the physical origins and implications of loss and dispersion in practical waveguides; * describe the unique properties of photonic crystal fibres; * give a detailed explanation of the basic properties of photonic bandgaps and defects in 2 D and 3 D photonic crystals; * demonstrate an understanding of the quantum mechanical origin of optical nonlinearities; * discuss the meaning and applications of the phase matching conditions in frequency conversion; * discuss and mathematically describe nonlinear effects in optical fibres. Skills: Numeracy T/F A, Problem Solving T/F A. Content: Optical waveguides (6 hours): Waveguide modes; scalar wave equation, mode excitation and propagation, transitions, chromatic dispersion. Coupled modes; directional coupling, supermodes, phasematching, leakage and bending loss. Transmission and reflection characteristics of periodic optical waveguides. Photonic crystals (5 hours): Photonic crystal fibres; Index guiding fibres, endlessly single mode fibres, solid and hollowcore photonic bandgap fibres. Onedimensional photonic crystals. Two and threedimensional photonic crystals; Bloch theorem, photonic band gap, photonic crystal band structure, defects in photonic crystals. Nonlinear optics (11 hours): Twolevel atom in an electromagnetic field; linear and nonlinear susceptibilities, saturation effects; MaxwellBloch equations; optical bistability. Nonlinear refractive index; focusing and defocusing nonlinearities. Nonlinear beam propagation, filamentation, Lorentz oscillator model and nonlinear wave mixing. Second harmonic generation; parametric frequency conversion, phasematching. Nonlinear optics in fibres; group velocity dispersion, nonlinear Schrödinger equation, fourwave mixing, Raman and Brillouin effects, nonlinear phase modulation. Short pulses and solitons in optical fibres. Optical supercontinuum. 
Programme availability: 
PH40086 is Compulsory on the following programmes:Department of Physics
PH40086 is Optional on the following programmes:Programmes in Natural Sciences
