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## PH20061: Electromagnetism 1 [WL]

Owning Department/School: Department of Physics
Credits: 6
Level: Intermediate (FHEQ level 5)
Period: Semester 2
Assessment: EX 85%, PR 15%
Supplementary Assessment: PH20061 - Mandatory Extra Work (where allowed by programme regulations)
Requisites: Before taking this unit you must take PH10051 and take PH10053 and take PH20019
Description: Aims:
The aims of this unit are to develop a vectorial description of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in infinite materials and at boundaries between materials, to derive some individual solutions and to make use of them in a few important applications. A further aim is to provide an introduction to the operation of lasers.

Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit the student should be able to:
* derive and interpret Maxwell's equations and their solution in vacuum;
* list the distinguishing features of electromagnetic plane waves and write down a mathematical expression for a linearly or circularly polarised light wave;
* analyse in detail the propagation of vectorial plane waves in vacuum and in various materials;
* describe the origins of polarisation and magnetisation in materials;
* match electric and magnetic fields at boundaries between materials and explain the origins of Brewster's angle and total internal reflection;
* describe how lasing action is obtained and maintained and outline the main properties of laser light;
* conduct short experiments on various topics, record details of experimental method and results to an appropriate standard, and write a scientific report displaying an appropriate standard of presentation, style, structure, attention to detail and analysis.

Skills:
Written Communication T/F A, Numeracy T/F A, Data Acquisition, Handling, and Analysis T/F A, Information Technology T/F A, Problem Solving T/F A, Working as part of a group T/F, Practical laboratory skills T/F A.

Content:
Introduction to Maxwell's equations (7 hours): Derivation of integral and differential forms of Maxwell's equations and continuity equation. The wave equation in source-free vacuum. Plane wave solutions.
Electromagnetic plane waves (3 hours): 3D plane waves, vector nature of electromagnetic waves; relationships between E, B and k. Impedance. Electromagnetic energy and the Poynting vector. Radiation pressure. Polarisation; Law of Malus, circular and elliptical polarisation. Birefringence, wave plates.
Maxwell's equations in infinite materials (6 hours): Concepts of linearity, isotropy and homogeneity. Characterisation of materials in terms of macroscopic parameters. Dipoles, susceptibility and polarisation / magnetisation. The modified wave equation; solution in conductors, dielectrics, lossy media and plasmas.
Boundaries between media (4 hours): The general electromagnetic boundary conditions. Plane waves at a planar boundary, general angle of incidence (Fresnel equations). Total internal reflection and evanescent waves. Coefficients of transmission and reflection. Brewster and critical angles.
Lasers (2 hours): Interaction between light and matter. The Einstein relations. Obtaining and maintaining lasing action. Cavity modes. The properties of laser light.
Laboratory: Performance of experiments designed further to develop practical skills and support lecture material.
Programme availability:

#### PH20061 is Optional on the following programmes:

Programmes in Natural Sciences
• UXXX-AFB01 : BSc (hons) Natural Sciences (Full-time) - Year 2
• UXXX-AKB02 : BSc (hons) Natural Sciences with Industrial Placement (Full-time with Thick Sandwich Placement) - Year 2
• UXXX-AAB02 : BSc (hons) Natural Sciences with Study Year Abroad (Full-time with Study Year Abroad) - Year 2
• UXXX-AFM01 : MSci (hons) Natural Sciences (Full-time) - Year 2
• UXXX-AKM02 : MSci (hons) Natural Sciences with Professional Placement (Full-time with Thick Sandwich Placement) - Year 2
• UXXX-AAM02 : MSci (hons) Natural Sciences with Study Year Abroad (Full-time with Study Year Abroad) - Year 2
Department of Physics
• USXX-AFB03 : BSc (hons) Mathematics and Physics (Full-time) - Year 2
• USXX-AKB04 : BSc (hons) Mathematics and Physics with Placement (Full-time with Thick Sandwich Placement) - Year 2
• USXX-AAB04 : BSc (hons) Mathematics and Physics with Study Year Abroad (Full-time with Study Year Abroad) - Year 2
• USXX-AFM01 : MSci (hons) Mathematics and Physics (Full-time) - Year 2

Notes:
* This unit catalogue is applicable for the 2013/4 academic year only. Students continuing their studies into 2014/15 and beyond should not assume that this unit will be available in future years in the format displayed here for 2013/14.
* Programmes and units are subject to change at any time, in accordance with normal University procedures.
* Availability of units will be subject to constraints such as staff availability, minimum and maximum group sizes, and timetabling factors as well as a student's ability to meet any pre-requisite rules.