## PH40086: Photonics

[Page last updated: 20 April 2021]

Owning Department/School: Department of Physics
Credits: 6      [equivalent to 12 CATS credits]
Notional Study Hours: 120
Level: Masters UG & PG (FHEQ level 7)
Period:
Semester 2
Assessment Summary: EX 100%
Supplementary Assessment:
Like-for-like reassessment (where allowed by programme regulations)
Requisites: Before or while taking this module you must ( take PH20017 OR take PH20063 ) AND ( take PH30030 OR take PH30043 ) AND ( take PH30077 OR take PH30043 )
Description: Aims:
The aim of this unit is to develop students' understanding of the fundamental physics underlying both linear and nonlinear interactions of light with matter. A further aim is to describe how these interactions may be manipulated and enhanced by means of periodically patterned and microstructured optical waveguides.

Learning Outcomes:
After taking this unit the student should be able to:
* discuss the properties of waveguide modes as solutions to the scalar wave equation;
* describe in detail the properties of coupled waveguides, multicore fibres and waveguide transitions;
* explain the physical origins and implications of loss and dispersion in practical waveguides;
* describe the unique properties of photonic crystal fibres;
* give a detailed explanation of the basic properties of photonic bandgaps and defects in 2-D photonic crystals;
* demonstrate an understanding of the applications of the Lorentz oscillator model to describe nonlinear optical phenomena;
* demonstrate an understanding of the physical manifestations of the nonlinear refractive index on beam propagation;
* discuss the meaning and applications of the phase matching conditions in frequency conversion;
* discuss and mathematically describe nonlinear effects in optical fibres.

Skills:
Numeracy T/F A, Problem Solving T/F A.

Content:
Optical waveguides (11 hours): Waveguide modes; scalar wave equation, mode excitation and propagation, transitions, chromatic dispersion. Coupled modes; directional coupling, multicore fibres, supermodes, phase-matching, leakage and bending loss. Photonic crystal fibres; index guiding fibres, endlessly single mode fibres, solid- and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres.
Nonlinear optics (11 hours): Linear and nonlinear susceptibilities, saturation effects. Nonlinear refractive index; focusing and defocusing nonlinearities. Nonlinear beam propagation, filamentation, Lorentz oscillator model and nonlinear wave mixing. Nonlinear resonators. Second harmonic generation; parametric frequency conversion, phase-matching. Nonlinear optics in fibres; group velocity dispersion, nonlinear Schrödinger equation, four-wave mixing, Raman and Brillouin effects, nonlinear phase modulation. Short pulses and solitons in optical fibres. Optical supercontinuum.

Programme availability:

#### PH40086 is Compulsory on the following programmes:

Programmes in Natural Sciences
• UXXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) (Year 4)
• UXXX-AAM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) with Study year abroad (Year 5)
• UXXX-AKM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Biology with Physics stream) with Professional Placement (Year 5)

#### PH40086 is Optional on the following programmes:

Department of Physics
• USPH-AFM02 : MPhys(Hons) Physics (Year 4)
• USPH-AFM04 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Research placement (Year 4)
• USPH-AAM03 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Study year abroad (Year 4)
• USPH-AAM12 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Study year abroad (Year 5)
• USPH-AKM03 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Professional Placement (Year 5)
• USPH-AKM04 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Professional and Research Placements (Year 5)
• USPH-AFM10 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Astrophysics (Year 4)
• USPH-AFM11 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Astrophysics with Research placement (Year 4)
• USPH-AAM10 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Astrophysics with Study year abroad (Year 4)
• USPH-AAM14 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Astrophysics with Study year abroad (Year 5)
• USPH-AKM10 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Astrophysics with Professional Placement (Year 5)
• USPH-AKM11 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Astrophysics with Professional and Research Placements (Year 5)
• USPH-AAM15 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Astrophysics with Study year abroad and Research Placement (Year 5)
• USPH-AAM13 : MPhys(Hons) Physics with Study year abroad and Research Placement (Year 5)
• USXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Mathematics and Physics (Year 4)
• USXX-AAM01 : MSci(Hons) Mathematics and Physics with Study year abroad (Year 5)
• USXX-AKM01 : MSci(Hons) Mathematics and Physics with Year long work placement (Year 5)
Programmes in Natural Sciences
• UXXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) (Year 4)
• UXXX-AAM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) with Study year abroad (Year 5)
• UXXX-AKM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Chemistry with Physics stream) with Professional Placement (Year 5)
• UXXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) (Year 4)
• UXXX-AAM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) with Study year abroad (Year 5)
• UXXX-AKM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Biology stream) with Professional Placement (Year 5)
• UXXX-AFM01 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) (Year 4)
• UXXX-AAM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) with Study year abroad (Year 5)
• UXXX-AKM02 : MSci(Hons) Natural Sciences (Physics with Chemistry stream) with Professional Placement (Year 5)

 Notes: This unit catalogue is applicable for the 2021/22 academic year only. Students continuing their studies into 2022/23 and beyond should not assume that this unit will be available in future years in the format displayed here for 2021/22. Programmes and units are subject to change in accordance with normal University procedures. Availability of units will be subject to constraints such as staff availability, minimum and maximum group sizes, and timetabling factors as well as a student's ability to meet any pre-requisite rules.Find out more about these and other important University terms and conditions here.